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New Series, Vol. II. 









Journal, pp. 



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19 >» 


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337* 382 

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Proceeding?, pp 

1-1 v 




26th March 
6th April 

17th „ 
18th May 
14th June 
9th July 
4th August 
15th September 
22nd November 
28th December 





Page 111 line 3 










delete the number 1 after Polyzoa. (The footnote re- 
fers to Opercularia nutans only.) 
foot note, line 3 : for " shrimps' nets " read il shrimps' nests/' 
22 : for Hamilton read Buchanan. 

line 32, 369 line 7 from the bottom; 370 line 20; 872 
lines 2 and 14 from the bottom ; 378 line 22 and 3 and 4 
from the bottom : for griesbaehiana read grisebachiana. 

for Maxim, read Maxim- 

and 8 from the bottom should each be indented to 

contrast with * Inflorescence dense " above. 
373 line 9 from the bottom : for nomem read nomen ; for mudom 

read nudum 






12 from bottom : for wall, read Wall. 
2 from bottom : for Kiangtsi read Kiang-si 
5 from bottom : for 222 read 322. 

20 and 23 : for India read Indiae. 

28 : for Honenacker read Hohenacker. 

12 : supply " it " after M collected." 

19 from bottom . for Marselia Quadrifoliata 


read Marsilea 


The pages of the Journal should be bound first : they are 

numbered in arabic numerals. The pages of the Proceedings 

should follow : they are paged consecutively in roman numerals. 

Those who wish may bind the list of members and the accounts 

thereafter. The Index is paged in continuation of the Proceedings. 

The lists of books added to the Library are not intended for 

Plate i. to face page 196. 

Plate ii. to face page 206. 

Plate iii. to face the blank page 272. 

Plates iv. and v. to follow the blank page 282. 

Plate vi. to face the blank page 526. 

or all to be placed at the end of the volume. 



AlYAR, T. V. K. 

Notes on some Sea snakes caught at Madras ... ... f5!> 

Annandale, Nelson, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

A New Gecko from the Eastern Himalayas ... ... 287 

Contributions to Oriental Herpetology. No. IV. — Notes on the 

Indian Tortoises ... ... ... »•* 203 

Note on a rare Indo-Pacific Barnacle ... ... ... 207 

Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. — A variety of Spongilla 

lacustris from Brackish water in Bengal ... ... 55 

Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. II. — The Affinities 

• • • ■ • ■ 0<7 

• » • 

• • • 

of Hislopia 
Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. III. — An Indian 

Aquatic Cockroach and Beetle Larva ... ... ... 105 

Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. IV. — Hydra oriental's 

and its bionomical relations with other Invertebrates ... 10* * 

Notes the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. V.— Some animals 

found associated with Spongilla earteii in Calcutta ... 187 

Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No VI.- — The Life 

History of an Aquatic Weevil (with C. A. Paiva) ... 197 

Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. VII. — A new 

Goby from Fresh and Brackish water in Lower Bengal ... 201 
Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. VIII. — Sonn- 

Himalayan Tadpoles ... ... ... ... 289 

Notes on the Habits of the Earwig, Labidura lividipes, Dufour. 

An addendum to Mr. Burr's paper entitled ' A further note 

on Earwigs in the Indian Museum." ... ... 391 


• • • • •♦ 

• • • • • • * • • 

Testudo baluchiorum, a new species 

The Meaning and Origin of the phrase " Nun Mohammad" 

among the Malays of the Patani States ... ... 334 

Azoo, R. F. 

Some Arab Folktales from Huzramaut (with Lieut.-Col. D. C. 

jl HIIjIjOTTI ••• «»• ••• ••• ••• 

Bevkridge, H., I.C.S. 

An old reference to the Bhotias 
Sail ma Sultan Begam 

Boulenger, G.A., F.R.S. 

• # • 

• ft * *•• **• 

Description of two Indian Frogs 

ft t 9 

• * 

3i »y 



Bramley, R. C. 

The Rawats and Merits of Rajputana ... ... 209 

Burkill, I. H., M.A. 

A Parasite upon a Parasite — a Viscuni apparently V. articulatnm, 

Burm., on Loranthus vestitus, Wall., on Quercns incana, Roxb. 291 
Gentianacearum species Asiaticas novas descripsit ... ... 309 



Not«s on the Pollination of Flowera in India. No. 1. — The Polli- 
nation of Thnnbergia grandiflora, Roxb. ... ... 511 

Notes on the Pollination of Flowers in India. No. 2. — The Polli- 
nation of Corchorns in Bengal and Assam ... ... 515 

Notes on the Pollination of Flowers in India. No. 3. — The 

Mechanism of six flowers of the North West Himalaya ... 521 

On Swertia angustifolia, Ham., and its Allies ... ... 363 

Swertiam novam Japonicam ex affinitate Swertiae tetrapterae, 

Maxim,, descripserunt S. Moore et — ... ... 329 

Burr, Malcolm, B.A., F.E.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

A further note on Earwigs (Dermaptera) in the Indian Museum, 

with the description of a New species ... ... 391 

Francke, A. H.,Rev. 

The Paladins of the Kesar Saga. A collection of Sagas from Lower 
Ladakh. Tale No. 1. 

• ■ • • . ■ 

Gage, A. T. 

Gurnet, Robert. 

On some Freshwater Eutomostraca in the collection of the Indian 

Museum, Calcutta ... 

7 • ■ • • • • ... 

Hooper, David. 

Some Instances of Vegetable Pottery 

Hossack, William C, M.D. 

Humphries, E. de M. 

Notes on < : Pachesi" and similar games, as played in the Karwi 
Sub-division, United Provinces 

••• ••• ... 

Jogksh Chandra Ray, M.A. 

On the Hindu method of manufacturing Spirit from Rice, and its 
scientific explanation 

• •• ■ .. ... 

The Proportion between the Sexes in Helopelti B theivora, Water 


Buldophyllum Barkilli ; a hitherto undescribed species from 

Burma ... ... ... ... ... 34; < 

Wormia Mansoni ; a hitherto undescribed species from Burma ... 73 

27 a 


Preliminary Note on the Rats of Calcutta ... ... 183 



Jadunath Sarkar, M.A. 

Shaista Khan in Bengal (1664-66) ... 257 

The Revenue Regulations of Aurangzib (with the Persian texts 

of two unique farmans from a Berlin Manuscript) 255 

Linstow, Dr. von 

Parasities from the Gharial (Gavialis gaugeticus, Geoff.) ... 269 

Mann, H. H., D.Sc. 


• • - 


• • 



Moberly, A. N., I.C.S. 

Miniature Tank worship in Bengal 

Monmohan Chakravarti, M.A., B.L., M.R.A.S. 

- • ' 


Sena kings 

Moore, Spencer Le M. 

Swertiam novam Japonicam ex affinitate Swertia? tetrapterra, 
Maxim., descripserunt— (et T. H. Burkill) 

• • • • • 

Muhammad Kazim Shirazi. 

Notes on certain Shi'ah Tilisms, (with Lieut. -Col. D. C. 


> ♦, • •« ••• • • • ••• 

Parameshwar Dayal. 

Paiva, C. A. 

Phanindralal Gangdli. M.A. 

Notes on the Latitude of the Presidency College Astronomical 


• ■ • ■ ♦ 

. . . ••• ••• 

• » • • ■ i - • ■ 

tat • t • 

• •• - • • 

Some Street Cries collected in Persia 

Two Persian equivalents for Peter Piper ... 

Rakhal Das Banerjee. 

An account of the Gnrpa Hill in the District of Gaya, the probable 
site of the Kukkntapardagiri 

• * % t»« ••• 

Regan, C. Tate, B.A 


Sanskrit Literature in Bengal during the Sena rule ... ... 157 

Supplementary Notes on the Bengal poet Dhoyika and on the 




The Umga Hill Inscriptions in the District of Gaya ... ... S3 

Notes on some Rare and Interesting Insects added to the Indian 

Museum collection during the year 1905-1906. ... ... 345 

Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, No. VI. The Life 

History of an Aquatic Weevil (with Dr. N. Annandale) ... 197 



Phillott, D. C, Lieut. -Col. 

A Muslim charm (Arabic) suspended over the outer door of a 

dwelling to ward off Plague and other sicknesses ... 531 

A Note on the Mercantile sign Language of India ... ... 333 

A Persian Nonsense Rhyme ... 

Bibliomancy, Divination, Superstition, amongst the Persians ... 331* 

Notes on certain Shi'ah Tilisms (with Muhammad Kazim Shirazi) 534 

Note on the Common Kestril (Tinnunculus alaudarius) ... 527 

Notes on the Huma or Lammergeyer 

Note on the Jargon of Indian Horse Dealers ... ... 530 

Notes on the Houbara or Bastard Bustard (Houbara Macqueenii) 449 

Note on a Quatrain of 'Umar-i-Khayyara ... ... ... 331 

Note on the Sikandar Naraa of NizamI ... ... ... 155 

Some Arab Folk Tales from Hazramaut (with R. F. Azoo) ... 399 

Some Lullabies and Topical Songs collected in Persia ... 32 

Some Persian Riddles collected from Dervishes in South Persia 86 





Two new Cyprinoid Fishes from the Helmaud Basin ... ... 8 



Rogers, Leonard, I.M.S. 

A Short Historical note on Medical Societies and Medical Jonrnals 

in Calcatta 

• ii 

• • t 

• • • 

- • • 


Sarat Chandra Das, CLE., Rai Bahadur. 


The Origin of Mankind (according to the Lamaic Mythology) 

• ■ • 


Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A., MahAmahopadhyaya. 

• • • 

• € • 

A Tibetan Almanac for 1906-07 

Gyantse Rock Inscription of Chos-rgyal-gfiis-pa, a ruler under the 

Sakyapa Hierarch in the fourteenth century A.D. 
Romaka, or the City of Rome as mentioned in the Ancient Pali 

and Sanskrit works 






Satyaranjan Ray, M.A. 

Hap and his grandson (a leaf from the History of ancient 

Kamrupa) ... ... ... — ... 359 

• f • 

Shepherd, C.E., Col. 

Proposed corrections with regard to the reading of an inscription 
on some of the Snri dynasty coins 


Stapf, Otto, Ph.D. 

Gentiana Hugelii, Griseb.. redeseribed 

. • • 

• * • 


Venis, Arthur. 

Some Notes on the so-called MahTpala Inscription of Sarnfith 

• • • 


Walsh, E.H. 

An old form of Elective Government in the Chnmbi valley 

c CO 


Watson, E.R., M.A., B.Sc. 

Preliminary Note on the Chemical examination of the Milk and 
Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo 

Silver Dioxide and Silver Peroxynitrate 

• • • 

• t 

• • • 







Vol. II, No. 1. 






Issued 26th March, 1906. 







List of Officers and Members of Council 




For the year 1906. 


Pn ndent : 

His Honour Sir A. H. L. Eraser, M.A., LL.D., K.G.S.I. 

I 'Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Ju e Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

T. H, Holland, Esq., ¥Ar.^,, F.R.S. 

A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

&e< try and Treasurer: 


Honorary General Secretary: Lieub.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 23rd 

Cavalry, F.F. 
Treasurer: The Hou'ble Mr, Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 

M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

Natural History Secretary: L H. Burkili, Esq., M.A. 

Anthropological Se< etary: BT. Annandale, Esq., D.Sc. 


Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Harapra id 
Shastri, M.A. 

Numismatic Secretary: IT. N« Wright, E [., I.C.S. 

Oth Members of Council ; 
W. K. Dods, Esq. 
H. H. Harden. Esc... B A: F.G.S. 




€. Little, Esq., M.A, 
Hari Nath De, Esq., MA. 
Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S. 
J. A. Cunningham, Esq., B.A. 
Major W. J. Bucl nan, I.M.S. 
J. Macfarlane, 1 j. 
J. A. Chapman, Esq. 

JANUARY 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 3rd January, 1906, at 6-30 p.m. 

The Hon. Mr, Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present: 



Regan, 0. Taw-Two New Cyprinoid Fishes from the Helmand 
Basin. Journ. and Proc. As Soe. Beng., VoL II., Mo. 1, 

1906, pp. 8-9. 

1. Scaphiodon Macmahonl sp. nov, by Regan, C. Tate, p. 8. 

2. Nemachilns rhadiruew sp. nov., by Regan. C. Tate. 

pp. 8-9. 

The publications of this Society more nearly represent Dr. Blan- 
tord's scientific activity in India than those of the Department of 
Government of which he was such a distinguished member. Al- 
though officially a geologist, his researches extended over much of 
the related sciences of geography and zoology, and his work in 
either branch would have been sufficient to mark his name as a 
prominent worker in Natural History. 

Dr. Blanford joined the Asiatic Society in 1859, as an Ordi- 
nary Member, and was elected an Honorary Member in 1883, the 
year after his retirement from the Indian service. Although 
he was one of the most prolific contributors to the Journal during 
his 27 years' service in India, his continual absence from Calcutta 
prevented his acceptance of office until 1877, when, having re- 
turned to Calcutta to revise the Manual of Indian Geology, he was 
elected Vice-President of the Society, and during the following 
two years, 1878 and 1879, tilled the office of President. His death 
on the 23rd June 1905, at the age of 73, removed one of the most 
distinguished of our members. 

JANUARY 1906. 


Meeting of the Society was held on 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A.,' D.L., 

Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present :- 

Dr N. Annandale, Mr. L. L. Fermor, Babu Arnulya Charan 
Ghosh Vidyabhusana, Babu Hemendra Prasad Grhose, Mr. H. H. 
Hayden, Mr T. H. Holland, Mr. J. Macfarlane, Major D. C. Phil- 
lott, 23rd Cav. F.P., Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., Pandit Yogesa 

Chandra S'as tree. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Thirty-five presentations were announced. 

It was announced that Mr. R. 0, Lees, Mr. P. J. Ede, Mr. 
W. S. Meyer, Mr. J. Bathgate, and Mr. J. Nicoll had expressed a 
wish to withdraw from the Society. 

Mr. T. H. Holland contributed an obituary notice of the late 
Dr. \V. 1\ Blanford, and announced the steps already taken to put 
up a bust in his memory. 

W. T. Blanford, A.R.S.M., LL.D., CLE., F.R.S. 

The publications of this Society more nearly represent Dr. Blan- 
ford 's scientific activity in India than those of the Department of 
Government of which he was such a distinguished member. Al- 
though officially a geologist, his researches extended over much of 
the related sciences of geography and zoology, and his work in 
either branch would have been sufficient to mark his name as a 
prominent worker in Natural History. 

Dr. Blanford joined the Asiatic Society in 1859, as an Ordi- 
nary Member, and was elected an Honorary Member in 1883, the 
year after his retirement from the Indian service. Although 
he w r as one of the most prolific contributors to the Journal during 
his 27 years' service in India, his continual absence from Calcutta 
prevented his acceptance of office until 1877, when, having re- 
turned to Calcutta to revise the Manual of Indian Geology, he 
elected Vice-President of the Society, and during the following 
two years, 1878 and 1879, filled the office of President. His death 
on the 23rd June 1905, at the age of 73, removed one of the most 
distinguished of our members. 

ii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, 

Dr. Stanford's first formal contribution to the Society was 
a paper in conjunction with his brother, forming No. 1 of a series 
on Indian Malacology read at the general meeting on the 7th 
March 1860, and published in volume XXIX of the Journal* 
From that time till the Society celebrated its centenary in 1883, 
nearly every volume of the Journal included one or more papers 
from Blanford, describing observations made in every province of 
India, and from beyond the frontier in Persia and Turkistan as 
well as Abyssinia — a record of 74 papers dealing purely with ori- 
ginal work. The Journal of this Society includes but a fraction of 
Blanford's work in India. His chief work was geological and 
palaeontological, the results being published either in the Records and 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, or in the journals of 
European scientific societies. Altogether, whilst still in the Indian 
service, he published just 150 scientific papers, many of which 
were comprehensive memoirs, not merely details of observation, 
but contributions to the philosophical aspects of geology and 
zoology which have made some of his memoirs classical works in 
the history of science. 

After his retirement in 1882, most of the papers he wrote 
summed up the observations made during his service of 27 years in 
India; and, with his summaries, he indicated the philosophical 
bearing of the accumulated mass of data on current scientific doc- 
trines. Amongst publications of this kind, it is only necessary to 
refer, firstly, to his address to the British Association at Montreal in 
1884, when he demonstrated the truth of Huxley's theory of homo- 
taxis in the descent of isolated faunas and floras, bringing to a close, 
at the same time, the disputed question as to the age of the coal- 
bearing Gondwana system of Indian rocks ; and secondly to his 
address to the Geological Society of London in 1889, when, with 
reference to the much-debated question of the permanence of oceanic 
depressions and continental plateaux, he brought together in his 
inimitable way a mass of isolated and apparently unrelated data to 
show that, " not only is there clear proof that some land areas lying 
within continental limits have, at a comparatively recent date, been 

submerged over 1,000 fathoms, whilst sea- bottoms now over 1,000 
fathoms deep must have been land in part of the Tertiary era, but 
there are amass of facts, both geological and biological, in favour 
of land-connection having formerly existed in certain cases across 
what are now broad and deep oceans." 

Possibly the most conspicuous amongst the productions of his 
scientific activity was his last— his memoir on " The Distribution of 
Vertebrate Animals in India, Ceylon and Burma/' for which he 
was awarded one of the two Royal medals granted by the Royal 
Society in 1901. A considerable section of his time during retire- 
ment was occupied by the editorship of the official " Fauna of 
British India," of which he edited 18 volumes, — one on Mam- 
mals and two on Birds being entirely his own work. 

Those who were favoured by the inestimable privilege of his 
friendship will readily agree thai Blanford's enormous record of 

1906.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society <>f Bengal. iii 

published work was not greater than that which he freely con- 
tributed to friends in private correspondence. Amidst his many 
duties at home, as a prominent official of several scientific societies, 
he never failed to respond to a question or difficulty presented by 
the most junior of his successors in the Indian field ; no subject 
appeared to be too small or local to be considered worthy of his 
earnest attention, and times without number, within the recollec- 
tion of the writer, by private correspondence he has shown his 
juniors new lines for profitable research, has pointed out by his 
unique knowledge of literature and width of experience, the signifi- 
cance of new observations, and has frequently saved his less 
experienced followers from the pitfalls of hasty deductions drawn 
from imperfect data in this country, where "a little learning" in 
Natural History is as dangerous as it is in political and socio- 
logical matters. 

No reference to Blanford's scientific work would be complete 
without an allusion to one amongst the many ways in which it 
has been of economic value to the country to which he devoted his 
best energies. His geological maps of the coalfields have been, and 

still are, the guide of colliery managers in Bengal : to their remark- 
able accuracy has been due the successful opening up of new 
ground, and the economical planning of works for the development 
of known deposits in a way which has saved the country many 
times the cost of his service, and possibly even of the whole 
Department of Government to which he belonged. And yet there 
is no prospect of reaching the end of his usefulness : scarcely a 
month passes without some new illustration of the accuracy of an 
apparently unimportant line on one of his maps, or of the signifi- 
cance of a seemingly passing thought in his reports on Indian 

Blanford's services to science were naturally recognised in 
Europe : in 1874 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society ; 
in 1881, whilst representing India at the International Geological 
Congress at Bologna, he was elected a Vice-President of the Con- 
gress, and was decorated by the King of Italy with the order of 
St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. He was also Vice-President of the 
Congress on three subsequent occasions — Berlin 1885, London 
1888, and Paris 1900, On his retirement from the Indian service 
in 1882, the Geological Society of London conferred on him the 
highest distinction at their disposal, the Wollaston medal. In 
1884 he was elected President of the Geological Section of the 
British Association at Montreal, and at the same time the McGill 
University conferred on him the honorary degree of LL.D. He 
was elected President of the Geological Society of London in 1888, 
served three times as Vice-President of the Royal Society, and on 
other occasions as Vice-President of the Zoological and the Royal 
Geographical Societies. In 1904 the King honoured the Most 
Eminent Order of the Indian Empire by including Dr. Blanford's 
name amongst the roll of Companions, 

T. H. H. 

iv Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [January, 1906.] 

The General Secretary reported that the Council had made the 

following appointments : 

1. Pandit Kunja Behari Nyavabhushaii, as the Pandit for the 
Oriental Library of the Society vice Pan. lit M^hendra Nath 

Mukerjee, resigned. 

2. Pandit Asutosh Tarkatirtha, as one of the travelling 
Pandits, and in his place Pandit Mathura Nath Mazundar Kavya- 
tirtha, as the Resident Pandit, attached to the search for Sanskrit 

Mr. J. A. Chapman, proposed by Dr. E. I). Ross, seconded by 
Mr. J. Macfarlane, was ballotted for and elected an Ordinary 

The Adjourned Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 10th January, 1906, at 9-15 P.M. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asotosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

^ice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Syed Abul A&s, Mr. C. G. H. Allen, Dr. N. Annandale, Major 
W. J. Buchanan, I.M.S,, Mr. 1. H. Burkill, Mr L. L. Farmer, Babu 

Amulya Charan Ghosh Vidyabhusana, Mr. W. A Lee, Dr. M. M. 
Masoom, Mohamed Hossain Khan Midhut, Major F. P. Maynard, 
I.M.S., Major D. C. Phillott, 23rd Cav. F F., Mr. G. E. Pilgrim, 
Pandit Yogesa Chandra S'as tree, Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 


Shastri, Mr. E. P. Stebbmg, Pandit 1 
Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra 


Visitors :— Dr. C. Banks, Syed Chirag Ali, Mr. A. M. Mahfuz, 
Babu Dwijendra Nath Maitra, Mrs. Maynard, Mr. A. N. Price. 
Captain Riddick, Mr. W. Withall, and others 

Major L. Rogers gave a lecture on types of fever in Calcutta 
(lantern demonstration). 

The following papers were read : 

1. Romaka, or the City of Rome, as mentioned in the Ancient Pah 

and Sanskrit works. — By Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vii>ya- 

Helmand Basin, — By C. 

I t.-Col. A. W. Alcock, 

bhushan, M.A. 

2. Tivo New Gyprinoid Fishes from the 
Tate Rkgan, B A. Communicated by Ln 

G.I.E., 1 .R.S. 

3. The Origin of Mankind {according to the Lamaic Myth' 

ology). — By Rai Sakat Chandra Das, Bahadur, CLE. 

4. Optimism in Ancient Nyaya.—By Pandit Vanamali Vedanta- 

This paper has been published in the Journal ainl Proceeding*. 

N.S., Vol. I, No. 10, 1905. 

5. Prrsian Folk Songs. — By Major D. C. Phillott, 23rd Cav., 

F. F. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings. 


The following new books have been added to the Library 

during January 1906 : 

Abdel Aziz Nazmi. La Medeeine au temps des Pharaons. 

These, etc., Montpellier, 1903. 8°. 

Assam District Gazetteers. Calcutta, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Presd. by the Govt, of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

Baldaeus, Philip. A Description of y e East India Coasts of 

Malabar and Coromandel, with their adjacent kingdoms and 
provinces ; and of the Empire of Ceylon and of the Idolatry of 
the Pagans in the East Indies. [With plates.] 

London, 1703. fol. 

Balfour, Edward. The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern 
and Southern Asia... Third edition. 3 vols. 

London, 1885. 8°. 

Calcutta. — Calcutta Madrasah. Catalogue of the Arabic and 
Persian Manuscripts... by Kamallu'd-Din Ahmad and 4 Abdu 
'1-Muqtadir, with an introduction by E. Denison Ross. 

Calcutta, 1905. 8". 

Presd. by the Govt, of Bengal. 

Carnahan, David Hobart. The Prologue in the old French and 

Provenyal Mystery. ...A thesis, etc. Neio Haven, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by Yale University. 

CirkeL Fritz. Asbestos: its occurrence, exploitation and uses. 

Ottawa, 1905. 8°. 

Mica : its occurrence, exploitation and 

Ottawa, 1905. 8°. 

P>-< /. by the Dept. of the Interior. Mines Branch, Canada. 

Dutt, Rom* h. India in the Victorian age : an economic history 
of the people. London. 1904. 8°. 

Francke, Eev. A. H. First Collection of Tibetan Historical In- 
scriptions on rock and stone from West Tibet. [In Tibetan. J 

1906. 8°. 


Francke, Rev. A. H. Log-dag-kaye-Ag-bar. Tibetan Paper. Vol. 

III. [In Tibetan.] [1906.] 4°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Frey, H. Les EJgyptiens prehistoriques identifies avec esl 
Annamites d'apres les inscriptions hieroglyphiques. 
Paris, 1905. 8°. 

Ghamat, K. E. The Present State of India. An appeal to 

Anglo-Indians. Bambay, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Giridharajee Maharaj, Goswami Sri. Suddhadvaitamiu*tanda 

...With a commentary called Prakasa. By Sri Rama Krishna 
Bhatta. And Prameyaiatnarnava. By Sri Balakrishna 
Bhatta. Edited by Ratna Gopal Bhatta. Benares, 1905. 8°. 

Ghoivkhamba Sanskrit Series, No. 97. 

Gonnaud, Pierre. La Colonisation hollandaise a Java, ses ante- 
cedents, ses caracteres distinctifs. Paris, 1905. 8°. 

Herzog, Maximilian. Further observations on Fibrin Thrombosis 
in the glomerular and other renal vessels in Bubonic Plague. 
Manila, 1 ( J05. 8°. 

Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 33. 

Presd. btf the Bureau. 

Hill, S. C. Bengal in 1756-1757. A Selection of public and 
private papers dealing with the affairs of the British in Bengal 
during the reign of Siraj-uddaula. Edited. S. C. Hill. 


3 vols. London, 1905. 8 . 

Part of the Indian Records Series. 

Presd. by the Govt, of India, Home Dept. 

HISTORICAL view of plans for the Government of British India, 
and i( illations of trade to the East Indies and outlines of a 
plan of Foreign Government, of commercial economy, and of 

domestic administration, for the Asiatic interests of Great 
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Irvine, William. The Array of the Indian Moghtils s itsorgani 

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Kunik, ( ). Analyse d'un ouvrage mannscrit intitule 

die Ssabier und der Ssabismus oder die syrischen Heiden und 
das syiisehe Heidenthum in Harran und andern Gegenden 
Mesopotamiens zur zeit des chalifats. Ein Beitrag zur Ges- 
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handschriftlichen Qnelen ausgearbeitet von Dr. Joseph 

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de V Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg. 
Tome I. 

Macaulay, Lord. The Works of Lord Macaulay. (History of 

England. Essays and Biographies. Speeches, poems and mis- 
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Vol. II, No. 1.] Romaka, or the Gity of Rome. 1 

1. Rom aha, or the City of Rome, as mentioned in the Ancient Pali 

and Sanskrit works. — By Mahamahopaphyaya Satis Chandra 


• • 7 

The intercourse between Rome and India, from the 1st cen- 
tury B.C. to the 5th century A.D., lias been a favourite subject of 
investigation to several scholars of eminence during the last few 
years. Mr. Robert Sewell, 1 on an examination of a la _ 
of " Roman coins found in India," has concluded that the trade 
between Rome and India began in the reign of Augustus about 
29 B.C., and remained in full force up to the time of Nero, A.D. 68. 
Then it slightly declined, but revived under the Byzantine em- 
perors, and did not finally disappear until the Goths and Vandals 
attacked Rome about A.D. 450. 

There seems to have been very little trade between Rome and 
India in the years preceding the reign of Augustus. Although 
several Roman coins of the Consulate period have been discovered 
in the Manikyala stupas and in the Hazara district of the Punjab, 
but these old coins were very probably brought to India by 
traders several years after they had been prepared in Rome, for 
it is almost certain that Rome did not attempt to spread eastwards 
till the later years of the Consulate. It was in the reign of 
Augustus that the conquest of Asia by Rome began. The Im- 
perial supremacy of Rome aroused on the part of her wealthy 
citizens an unrestrained indulgence in eastern luxuries, such as 
in perfumes, ivory, precious stones, silks, fine muslins, pepper, 
spices, etc. 

These were largely supplied by the western and south-western 
parts of India, the chief centre of trade having been Barygaza or 
Bharoach, near Guzerat. About A.D. 47 the regularity of mon- 
soons in the Indian Ocean was discovered, and the Roman ships 
began to sail direct to the Malabar coast, and thereby a great 
impetus was given to Indian commerce. Numerous coins of the 
time of Augustus and his successors were brought to India from 
Rome by traders. These coins have been recovered from various 
places, especially from the western districts of the Deccan. In 
the districts of Madura and Coimbatore alone, 55 separate dis- 
coveries have been made, and 612 gold coins and 1,187 silver coins, 
besides heaps consisting of five cooly-loads of gold coins and 
several thousands of silver coins, have been found out. Even in 
Bengal, at a place called Bamanaghati in the district of Singbhum, 
there^ have been found coins of the times of Gordian and Con- 
stantine. Near Jelalabad there have been found Roman coins of 
as late a period as the time of Theodosius about A.D. 450. It was 
about this time that the Goths and Vandals attacked Rome, whose 
trade with India consequently ceased altogether. 

From the numismatic evidences given above, as well as from 

I Robert Sewell's article on " Roman Coins found in India," published 
in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

October 1904. 

2 Journal of the Asiatic Society o) B u/<tl. [January, 1 9< •« >. 

the artistic and other evidences, and nlso from the writings of 
Strabo, Pliny and others, it is clear that there were intimate 
relations between Home and India for nearly five hundred years, 
i.e., between 29 B.C. and A.D. 450. The art, religion, mythology, 
philosophy, science, etc., of India during this period were more or 
less influenced by the culture of Home. 1 The elements in the art 
of the Gandhara or Peshwar School have been examined in detail, 
and the general aspect of the figure sculptures and architectural 
decorations of that school has been perceived to be distinctly 
Roman. The designs of the sculptures at Amaravati in Southern 
India have also been considered of Roman origin. It lias even been 
affirmed that the Kusana copper coins and the Indian coins of the 
Gupta period were direct imitations of the Roman coins called 
Aurei. The Roman word denarius in its Sanskrit form dinara, 
signifying a coin, occurs not only in the Indian inscriptions of 
the early Gupta kings, but also in such classical Sanskrit works 
as the Rajatarangini of Kalhana and Dasa-Kumara-Carita of 
Dandi, and even in the earliest known Sanskrit lexicon called 
Amarakosa, 2 compiled by Amarasimha, who \v one of the nine 
gems of the court of Vikramaditya at U j jaini. 

Evidences might be multiplied to illustrate the manifold 
influence exercised by Rome on the ancient civilization of India. 
Seeing that the Roman influence was once so keenly felt by India, 
it is no matter of surprise that the name Rome should hare been 
known to the Hindus in the ancient days. In fact, it occurs in 
several of the very important Sanskrit and Pali works. The 
name by which Rome has been designated in ancient Sanskrit and 
Pali works is Romaka, which is identical with lloma or Rome, the 
suffix ha having been euphoniously added to it. The latest authori- 
tative mention of Romaka is to be found in the Siddhanta- 
siromoni of the great Hindu astronomer Bhaskaracaryya, 8 who 

1 Vincent A. Smith'* article on H Gneco- Roman Influence OTl the Civili- 
zation of India." in the Journal of the Asiatic Society {Bengal, Part T., 
No. 3, 1889. 

3 ^faTTSfq" ^ f^SefiTS^tft I (Amarakosa, Nfinfirthavnr I ) 


Vol. II, No. 1.] Romaka, or the City of Rome. 3 


flourished in Southern India early in the 12th century -A.D. 
Another celebrated astronomer named Varahamihira, who was a 
brilliant gem in the court of Vikramaditya at Ujjaini in A.D. 505, 
and whose works are specially valuable as they contain a very 
larere number of Greek and Latin astronomical terms, mentions 
Romaka in his well-known works l on astronomy and astrology 
named respectively Paiica-siddhantika and Vrhat-saiphita. Ro- 
maka is also mentioned in the five famous astronomical works 2 
named Paitamaha, Vasistha, Suryya, Paulisa and Romaka sid- 
dantas, all of which have been reviewed by Varahamihira in his 
Panca-siddantika, and some of which were compiled in the 3rd 
or 2nd century A.D. Brahma- (spbuta)-siddhanta, Kasyapa-sam- 
hita, etc., also refer to Romaka. Thus examining the astronomical 
works we can trace the name Romaka as far back as the 2nd 
century A.D, 


3^ *ft HfW! 


■ m 

(Pancasiddantika, p. 45, edited by Dr. Thibaut and Sudhakara 

*nrrot **rcfNit ^ fa^s^i ^ *to% ii ^* ii 

*^fa[^ cT^f^TT^f^Tff^ ?T1T I 

K M -qft f d afNyi T^T^T* f^ff^^TT? ^TTTc[ I 8 II p. H. 

(Vasistha-siddhanta, edited by Vindhyesvari Prasada Dube, Benares.) 

*mtt ^iwt(\^t^\tm[ ii ^= a 


*TTOTCi *rrc<r 3*r ^ft 



*rf^*t %3*n*n*§ *faron^r ir^ffcrT ii ^c. i 

SW f*TgT WTfWWl" fr^fsff HcT^^T: || 8 <> || . . 

(Suryya-siddhanta, Bhugoladhyaya, pp. 285-86, edited by Hati Sankar, 


(Brabma-siddhanta, Chapter I J 

4 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, l!>06. 


Not only in the astronomical works, but also in such other 
works as the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata and the Jataka 
section of the Pali Pitakas we meet with a prominent mention of 
Romaka. It is not exactly known when the Mahabharata and the 
Jataka were respectively compiled. The orthodox Hindus look 
upon the Mahabharata as a very ancient work, though some 
scholars have brought down the date of composition of some por- 
tions of it to the 1st century A.D. when Romaka or Romans were 
well known in India. The Pali Jataka is stated to have existed 
at the time of Asoka, and the Pitakas of which it forms a part 
are said to have been rehearsed in the 1st Buddhist Council in 
India in 543 B.C. According to this statement, it would appear 
that Romaka or Rome was known in India in the 6th century 
B.C. But this conclusion would appear to some as improbable as 
there is no other strong evidence to show that Rome was known 
to the people of India at so early a date. So we may suppose 
that the Romaka Jataka in which the name Romaka occurs might 
have been compiled at a considerably late date. In the Maha- 
vamsa, Chapter XXXIII., we find that the Pali Pitakas which had 
been learnt by Prince Mahinda, son of Emperor Asoka, for three 
years, were carried to Ceylon where they were orally perpetuated 
by priests, and were not reduced to writing until in the reign of 
Vattagamam about 88 B.C. It is probable that the Romaka 
Jataka was interpolated in the Pali Pitakas in Ceylon nearly one 
hundred years after the the time of Vattagamani, i.e., in the 1st 
century A.D. This supposition would be supported by the ac- 
count of Pliny, according to whom the communication of Rome 
with Ceylon (Taprobane) began in the reign of Emperor Claudius 
about A.D. 41. Hence we can fairly presume that the name 
Romaka was introduced in the Pali Pitakas and the Sanskrit 
Mahabharata in the 1st century A.D., though it is not altogether 
improbable that the name had been introduced even much earlier. 

I shall now briefly refer to the connection in which the name 
Romaka occurs in the Sanskrit and Pali works mentioned above. 
In the Pali Pitaka, Romaka is mentioned, as I have already said, in 
the Romaka Jataka l which describes a sham ascetic who, while 
living in a hut near a frontier village, was taken with the flavour 
of pigeon's flesh, and tried, contrary to the practice of the Bud- 
dhist ascetic whose place he occupied, to kill a certain pigeon for 
the purpose of eating it. This story was evidently intended to 
indicate the contrast of a Buddhist ascetic from a Roman ascetic, 
inasmuch as the former would under no circumstances kill any 
living creature. 

The Mahabharata 2 mentions the Romaka or Romans in 



ir^ri w^tt^ ^raiTsr^r iTTTfnr^n *wntctt*t i 


1.1 liomaka, or the City of Rome. & 

connection with the Rajasuya Yajiia or coronation ceremony of 
Maharaja Yudhisthira at Indraprastha or Delhi. The Romans 
are described there as having come with precious presents to offer 
to Yudhisthira, and as waiting at the gate of his palace before 
getting admittance into the same. 

I have already stated that Vrhatsaiphita is a very learned 
work on astrology, compiled by the distinguished astronomer 
Varahamihira about A.J). 505. In the 16th chapter of the work l 
the eminent author divides the people of India and outside into 
various well-defined groups to each of w r hich he assigns the in- 
fluence of particular planets and stars. In ascertaining the ab- 
solute or relative strength of a certain nation at a certain time, 
one has simply to examine the strength of the planet or star 
presiding over that nation at that time. It is very curious that 
according to Varahamihira the Romaka or Romans stand under the 
influence of Candra or moon while the Cina or Chinese live under 
the influence of BhSskara or the sun, and the Sveta-Huna or the 
White Huns, Avagana (probably the Afghans) and the Maru- 
Cina or the desert-living Chinese, i.e., the Mongolians, imbibe the 

influence of Ketu or Dragon's Tail, and so on. 

The Romaka-siddhanta * already referred to is a Sanskrit 

work on astronomy based probably on the Roman original of the 
astronomer Hipparchus. This work is said to have been dated 
the second century A.D., as it has been reviewed in most other 
Indian astronomical works, and is stated by Varahamihira to have 
been explained by Lata Deva [perhaps of Gujrata]. In the 
Brahma-siddhanta and' other works there is a controversy 3 as 
to whether the authority of Romaka-siddhanta is to be accepted 
by Hindus. Some declare it to have stood outside the realm of 
Smrtis or the Hindu Socio-religious institutes, while others 
establish its authority on the ground that it came forth, like all 

^sfRTCre ^i^wqis ^if* 3lfWJ I 

(Mababharata, Sabhaparva, Chapter 51). 

(Vrhatsaiphita, Chapter XVI., edited by Dr. Kern, Calcutta, 1865.) 

2 Vide Shankara Bnlkrishna Dikshit'a article on Romaka-siddhanta in the 
dian Antiquary /' May 1890. 

3 Brahma-siddhanta, chapter I, verse 13. Compare also 

(Paflcasiddhantika, Sudhakara's note, p. 2.) 

6 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, 1906. 

other Hindu astronomical works, from the mouth of Sun-god 
himself, while that deity under the curse of Brahma was born in 
the race of Yavana in the country of Romaka and told it to a 
Romaka or Roman by whose agency it was spread abroad. The 
anecdote here related points to the Roman origin of the Romaka 

In the Vasistha-siddhanta, Suryya-Siddhanta, and other 
astronomical works already referred to, Romaka is mentioned as a 
Mahapurt, Pattana or Visaya, i.e., a great city, state or dominion. 
Romaka is stated there to be the westernmost point of the horizon, 
while Siddhapura, Yamakoti and Larika (Ceylon) are respectively 
the northern, eastern and southernmost points. By way of 
further explanation, it is affirmed that while there is sunrise at 
Lanka or Ceylon, there is midday at Yamakoti, sunset at Sid- 
dhapura, and midnight at Romaka or Rome ; or in other words, 
Rome is supposed to be 90 degrees west of the meridian of Ceylon. 
But as a matter of fact Rome is only 69J degrees west of Ceylon. 
How are we then to justify the statement of ancient Indian 
astronomers with regard to the actual distance of Rome from 
Ceylon ? I explain the statement by supposing that Lanka sig- 
nifies not only Ceylon but includes islands situated 8 or 10 degrees 
east of its meridian, while Romaka includes the Roman depen- 
dencies situated 10 or 12 degrees west of its own meridian. 
Albiruni,* who flourished at the close of the 10th century A.D., in 
his " India " notices the Hindu astronomical works, including the 
Romaka-siddhanta, and supports the statement of Hindu astrono- 
mers by supposing that Romaka stands for the Roman Empire 
as far west as the northern part of Africa [extending perhaps 
to Morocco]. On either of the explanations given above Romaka 
or the westernmost part of the Roman Empire would be exactly 
90 degrees west of the meridian of Lanka or the eastern part of 
the Ceylonese islands. 

Some may say that Romaka of ancient Sanskrit and Pali 
woiks does not signify Rome of Italy but denotes Rfima, that is, 
Byzantia or Constantinople. But this theory would be utterly 
groundless, for Constantinople is only 52 degrees west of the 
meridian of Ceylon, and under no circumstances can there be sun- 
rise at Ceylon while there is midnight at Constantinople. 

That Romaka is not Constantinople can be easily proved 
from a statement of Varahamihira 2 who says, that while there is 

1 Albiruni'a India, p. 303, Volume I., edited by E. C. Sachau. 


^jranf^KTfff sfaiiffafxT fr ^sw^sra*ncr 


(Dr. Thibaut's edition of Paiieasiddhantika, p. 45.) 

Vol. II, No. 1. j Romaka, or the City of Borne. 7 



Lanka there is midnight at Romaka, and 2 o'clock 
after midnight at Yavanapura or Alexandria ; or, in other words, 
Yavanapura or Alexandria is 60 degrees west of the meridian 
of Lanka and 30 degrees east of the meridian of Romaka. 
We know that Alexandria and Constantinople are situated almost 
on the same longitude. So the statement of Varaliamihira 
would be utterly incorrect if we suppose Romaka to be Constanti- 
nople, but it would be fairly correct if Romaka is identified with 


Further, the name Ruma as signifying Byzantia or Constanti- 
nople, did not come into existence before the occupation of the 
place by the Roman emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD., 
while w r e have seen that the name Romaka was used in Pali and 
Sanskrit works at least as early as in the 1st century A.D. In fact, 
the name Ruma as signifying Byzantia or Constantinople was 
made known in India by the Arabic writers in and after the 7th 

century A.D. 

The Sanskrit Jyotirvidabharana l which mentions Ruma is 
a very modern work which did not exist before the time of 
Timurlane. This Ruma, as signifying Constantinople, is to be 
clearly distinguished from Romaka as signifying Rome. Dr. 
Kern 8 who did not distinguish between Ruma and Romaka 
observes that the name Ruma mentioned in Jyotirvidabharna 
stands for the more regular Sanskrit name Romaka. But this 
observation is, in my humble opinion, an oversight on the part of 
that eminent scholar. Indeed, there is not the slightest doubt that 
Romaka stands for Rome of Italy, for Varaliamihira distinctly 
mentions Bhraukaccha and Samudra nlong with Romaka* as if to 

indicate that the Romaka or Roman used to come to India over 
the Samudra or sea, and landed at the port of Baruhaccha or 
Bharoach, near Guzrat. The route incidentally indicated here in 
the Vjrhatsamhita of Varahamihira exactly coincides with that 
by which the Roman traders actually used to come to India, as is 
evident from the writings of Pliny and others. 


^fonrofr ^WTO^fWOT-' II (Jyotirvidabharana). 

2 Vide Dr. Kern's edition Vrhatsaiphiti, Preface, p. 13, 

3 Vrhatsaiphita, chapter XVI., verse 6. 

8 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, 1906. 

2. Two New Gyprinoid Fishes from the Helmand Basin. — By 

C. Tate Regan, B.A. Communicated by Lieut.-Colonel A. W. 

Alcock, CLE., F.R.S. 

[The Fishes collected in the affluents of the Helmand by Colonel Sir A. H. 
McMahon, K.C.LE , C.S.I., and the officers of the Seistan Arbitration 
Commission, have, by the kindness of Messrs. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., and 
C. Tate Regan, of the British Museum, been identified as follows : 

Discognathus variabilis, Heckel ; Scaphiodon macmahoni, n. sp. ; Schizo- 
pygopsis stoliczJae, Stdr. ; Nemachilus stenurus, Herz. ; and Nemachilus 
rhadinxuS) n. sp. — A. W. A.]. 

Scaphiodon macmahoni, sp. nov. 

Depth of body 3| to 3f in the length, length of head 
4^ to 4|. Snout obtuse, shorter than the postorbital part of head. 
Diameter of eye 4 to 4£ in the length of head, interorbital width 
2| to 2f. Mouth inferior; lower jaw with nearly straight 
transverse anterior edge ; barbel originating directly below the 
nostrils, shorter than the eye. Seal 



the two rows above the lateral line the largest ; scales of the 

lower part of the abdomen small or rudimentary. Dorsal III 

10, its origin equidistant from tip of snout and base of caudal ; 

third simple ray moderately strong, serrated in its basal* half, 

f to £ the length of head and 1\ as long as the last branched 

ray ; free edge of the fin straight. Anal III 6-7, the second 

branched ray a little longer than the first or the third and twice 

as long as the last, as long as or a little longer than the longest 

dorsal ray. Pectoral a little shorter than the head, extending 

1 or { of the distance from its base to the base of ventral. 

Ventrals originating below the first branched ray of the dorsal, 

extending nearly to the origin of anal. Caudal forked. Caudal 

peduncle 1*- to If as long as deep, its least depth not more than 

£ the length of head. Grayish above, silvery below ; fins pale or 
somewhat dusky. 

Two specimens, 70 and 110 mm. in total length. The 
larger with tubercles on the snout and on the rays of the anal 

Gyprinion kirmanense Nikolski, 1899, appears to be allied 
to this species, but differs at least in the larger eye, the thick and 
strongly serrated last simple dorsal ray, the form of the dorsal 
fin and the coloration. 

Nemachilus rhadin^us, sp. nov. 


Depth of head f to £ its breadth, which is 1| to If in its length. 
Diameter of eye 7|-8|- in the length of head and 1| to 2 in the 
interorbital width. Snout longer than postorbital part of head. 
Cleft of mouth extending to below the nostrils ; lips moderately 


Vol. II, No, 1.] Two New Cyprinoid Fishes. 9 


thick, smooth, the lower interrupted medianly ; six barbels ; outer 
rostral barbel as long as the maxillary barbel, extending to or 
beyond the nostrils. Scales entirely wanting. Dorsal III 7, its 
origin nearer to tip of snout than to base of caudal; free edge 
of the fin convex. Anal JI— III 5. Pectoral extending about -J- ot 
the distance from its base to the base of ventral. Ventrals 
8-rayed, originating below the anterior branched rays of the 
dorsal, extending |~-§ of the distance from their base to the origin 
of anal. Caudal slightly emnrginate. Caudal peduncle 2 to 2-J 
as long as deep, its length 5 to 5J in the length of the fish. 
Large oblong or rounded dark spots on the back and sides ; dorsal 
and caudal with some small dark spots ; lower fins pale, immacu- 

Three specimens, 165 to 260 mm. in total length. 

Perhaps allied to Nemach litis sargadensis Nikolski, 1899, 
the description of which is somewhat deficient in structural 
details, but the coloration appears to be too different to justify 

10 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, 1906. 

3. The Origin of Mankind (according to the Lamaic Mythology). 

By Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, c.i.e. 

In the beginning of the present Kalpa l when all living beings, 
with the exception of man, had sprung up in the regions of the 

t^_' v / ci \ j___*_ *j_ j___i _l ir . *J ^.C i/U^ -fsxii -vi 

IKfca Pa/a 

Maharaja Kayika 2 ), 

two Deva-putra (angels) came down to this earth from heaven, 
on account of their merits having diminished and miraculously 8 
became transformed into a shape which was the prototype of 
humanity. One of them was ffcma* Rab-nang (refulgent sun), 
and the other was Datva b Di-meh (stainless moon). These were 
followed by other angels whose term of residence in heaven had 
expired at the exhaustion of the merit they had acquired before. 
[It should be remembered that the paradise, where gods live, is a 
place of harmless enjoyments. There neither virtue nor vice is 
acquired. A god only enjoys the fruit of his good karma. When 
the moral merit that is to his credit becomes exhausted he 
cannot recoup it by fresh acts as long as he remains in heaven. 
He then returns to this world where there are opportunities to do 
both good and bad works.] In heaven there is no opportunity to ac- 
quire moral merit. Thus humanity, evolving from heavenly origin 

of time, multiplied on earth. These transformed and 
fallen divinities lived to immeasurably long age, and are said to 
have been of a very tall stature, something like thirty-two cubits in 
height. In that early age they subsisted on contemplation's food. 6 
Then there was no sun nor moon, nor day nor night ; they moved 
in the light that emanated from their own bodies. 7 They could 
walk in space and perform all their works miraculously in the 


1 Rr^ *l great period of time ; age. « jS^T^"^ ] 

3 5,^1 j m^ miraculous birth. 

4 7*1 ^^ S^ 1 the luminosity of this angel resembled that of the sun 

It is probable that this individual, after acquiring immense moral merit, 
returned to heaven and there became the sun. 

6 (9 ^ 1 The Vl % ht that came out of the body of this angel was 

mild and cool like that of the moon. He too, like Nima Eabnnng, eventually 
returned to heaven and became the moon. 

• ^Ifo W^'g W§^£* |p | Pag-sam jonzan, p. 10. 

1 ^"^T^^'S'S^ 1 Pag-sam jonzaA, p. 10. 

Vol. II, No. 1.] The Origin of Mankind. 11 

manner of the gods of the Dhyani-loka ' heaven. When with the 
further exhaustion of their moral merits their longevity decreased, 
there grew in their minds desire for tasting. 

Sheebu a was the first of the human race who had tasted of the 

nectar. Those who came after him, being also gr< > vra by miracu- 
lous transformation, were called 8l*eebu-kyeh* and began to subsist 
on that ambrosial drink. Accordingly, their stomachs being stuffed 
with food, they began to feel the necessity of evacuations, which 

brought on uneasiness in their minds Their body being thus 
tainted by impurities, its resplendence— glorious colours— gradu- 
ally began to fade. When the luminosity of their person was 
lost, they became very unhappy. At this stage, while deploring 
the loss and downfall from a happier state they had sustained, 
they thought intently on the necessity of external light, without 
which they were no longer able to work for their existence. By 
the force of this concentrated wish of all humanity, and also on 
account of there still existing to their credit some moral merits, 
there appeared in heaven the sun, moon, constellations, and 

other numberless luminous bodies. Then there arose the division 
of time, day and night. With the appearing of light, the 
distinction of colour, the sense of beauty and ugliness, the dis- 
crimination of good from bad complexion, also pride, envy, etc., 
arose. These demerits caused the food of nectar to vanish from this 

earth. In consequence of this fresh and greater misfortune, hu- 
manity now concentrated its desire for subsisting on something that 

was next in quality to the ambrosial food. By this combined will- 
power nature was forced to yield a condensed milky fluid which was 
formed on the surface of the earth when the gods had taken awa\ 
the little nectar that had remained in the ocean by churning it. This 

was (^V(^|) the earth -cream which contained nutrition similar 

but inferior to that which was in the food of the gods. Mankind 
enjoyed this delicious article for a great length of time. Increase 
of their demerit caused a corresponding decrease in the supply of 
earth-cream, in consequence of which mankind had to think of 

some other food to subsist upon. Vegetable shoots (3 ^p\*^) 

now sprang forth everywhere, and furnished an inexhaustible supply 
of food. They now sought variety, and accordingly, got the wildly 

grown (uncultivated) 3^ # ^^r^^^fJ^^&J M i{ r j ce ^ w hj c li 

grew in the morning and matured at noon, find became fit for 
harvesting in the evening. Such were the blessings which people 

in the Krita yuga ( ^^^T^ ) *•* , the age o: 
The duration of that age was 1,728,000 years. 



12 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, 1906. 

At the end of the Krita ynga, there grew in the human kind a 
tendency for eating animal food. Indulgence in this brought out 
the development of the distinction of sex Sexual attachment and 
union became necessary for the multiplication of the race. I Hence- 
forward further addition by the miraculous transformation of fallen 
angels to humanity stopped. Out of the four fundamental vices, that 
of the sexual abuse, i.e., adultery, for instance, prevailed in this 
age. Modesty and shame now came into prominence in the human 
conduct, which created the necessity of residence in houses. 
People learnt the art of house-building. Birth from the womb 
became the necessary result of procreation. On account of the free- 
dom from the three principal root- vices which this age enjoyed, it 
came to be known by the name Treta ynga or Sumdan % Its dura- 
tion was 1,296,000 years. At the approach of a more degenerate 

age, humanity having erewhile not much to do for earning food, 
gradually turned idle. Lazy people, at each time, reaped more 
corn than was necessary for the day's consumption, and stored 
it up for use during the time they intended not to do any reap- 

ing work. In some houses there were provisions stored up for four 

or five days' use; in others, food for even seven days was kept. This 
storing up of corn produced the necessity for its protection by 
husk. 3 At this stage, nature refused to supply a ready harvest for 
the subsistence of idle humanity. It now became necessary for 
people to betake themselves to the labours of the field for grow- 
ing corn. When one party prepared a field for cultivation another 
party came and forestalled them in sowing corn which they had kept 
in store. When the time for harvesting came, a third party, who had 
neither tilled the soil nor sown grain, came and reaped the corn. 
There grew much confusion in the division of the produce which 

all the three parties claimed as their own. Tin's brought in the 

®^ <* j Pug-sam jonzan, p. 10. 

, n|3*r$v 

3 ^l^^^^°^i^'^^^'qe^-<^|^^r 


Vol. II, No. 1.] < The Origin of Mankind. 13 


question of right and possession. Honest men endeavoured to keep 
to themselves the fruit of their toil ; idle and dishonest folks tried 
to subsist on the labours of others. This again raised the question 
of might and protection of property. It was now found that the 
age of commonwealth had passed away, and people now required 
a king to keep peace and to make property secure They, there- 
fore, agreed to choose a king from among themselves whom they 
all should respect and obey. Accordingly, they elected Maha 8am- 
mata l as t heir first king, who was so named on account of hisbeini: 
selected by the common consent and also for having been respected 
by all. This was the origin of royalty. His descendants came 
to be known as the Royal race, or Gyal-ri.* As it was not expected 
of the monarch to earn his own food by personal labour, his time 



sixth share 3 of the produce of the field From this originated the 
payment of revenue to the slate. It was, at about this stage of civi- 
lization, that one party removed another's property without leave or 
consent. Hence originated theft, one party stealing another's pro- 
perty and thereby living at ease at other people's cost. This wae 
recognized by the king as the crime of theft, which caused worldly 
enjoinments to degenerate. As two of the four vices, i.e., adultery 
and theft, now prevailed in this world, this age became known by 
the name Dwapar, i.e., after " two," or in Tibetan Xi-dan,* the age 
in which two of the root-vices prevailed. Its duration wa esti- 
mated at 8,640,000 years. 

Thereafter began the present age, with the institution of farm- 
ing lords b (in Kurope, fuedal-lords). When peaceful measures failed 
to govern the people, the necessity of inflicting corporeal punish- 

ment, and death -sentence for heinous crimes, arose. The fear of 

_ - * mi 

punishment now brought lying and perjury into existence. The 
four fundamental vices, viz., adultery, theft, murder, and lying, 
were now recognized a- great crimes, in consequence of which thi* 
age was called Kali ynga, or the age of strife and feuds. 6 Its 
duration was 432,000 years. 

yf tfr five great races of 


The origin of the royal race has been described above. Such 
people as being averse to work and householders life retired to 

^ — — — — — — T*^^+**^^^^^^^^^^mm^m^n 

3 ^•§j^^^-g^q^'^-q'S;-^^| Bfepr3f^ 

1 This piper embodies the translations of a few paragraphs from Pa 
BamjonzaA ^^Wf^3C' pp . 16 and 17. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, 1906.] 

.solitude for contemplation and for spiritual culture, were called 
~" " % Those who betook themselves to worldly life and resided in 

villages, and places remote from towns, for leading a 

ffm. 1 




nans. 8 Those who, without committing 
theft, i.e., by trading honestly in other people's articles acquired 



races, by the labours of the field, and also by doing some work of 
mischief to others, were called the (*WWT^p|) Mang-rig, i.e., 

the common people. Such people who possessed little sense of mo- 
desty and shame, committed theft, murder, etc., and earned their 
subsistence chiefly by doing menial service and mean works, were 
called the Sudra or Dol-wairig. 5 


5F*ic | 

*W I 




or Vaicya. 

f q^q-qq^qpi | 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. J— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865 — 1904. (now amalgamated with Journal). 
Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc. 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, IE .— 1904. 

Journal md Proceedings, [N. £.] Vol. 1, ( h\, 1 05, i tc. 
Centenary Review, 1784—1?- I. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publics mn sold by the Society an be 
obtained by application to theHonoi ry Secretary, 57, Park Street 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meeting-, which 

are held on the first W< dnesday in each month except 

in, September i October. 


(6) To propose and se td candidates for ( 


(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary Gener 

and the grounds and public rooms of 
during the hours they are open to members 

(d) To have personal access to the Libr ry 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(<?) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive grat copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 



• « t . * • . « 

Proceedi g$ for Jan y, 1906 

Eon ilea, or the City of Rome, nt n th A\ 



Pali and Sanshr u k<.—By MahImahopAdhtIya 

Satis ChandRa VinYiBHffSANA,' M.A „. ... 1 

New < p> id F > from the // ; Bonn.— By 

C. Tat Regan, .B.A. mmun r by Ln -Cot#. 

A. W\ Am hk. n.r.R F K « 


Th* •■ (frig. ofMank rding th I in 1/ ). 


By Ra* Sakat Chas I; B id» CJ.K. 10 





Vol. II, No. 2. 

FEBRUARY, 1906. 




Issued 6th April, 1906. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1906* 

President : 

His Honour Sir A. E. L. Frasar, M.A., LL.U., K.C.S.I 

Vice-Pr* sidents: 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 
F.R.S.E. » 

T. H. Holland, Eaq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 

A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer: 

Honorary General Secretary : Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 23rd 

Cavalry, F.F. 
Treasurer: The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 

M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 


Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 
Natural History Secretory: I. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 
Anthropological Secretary: N". Annandale, Esq., D.Sc, 

Joint Philological S< retaiy : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
Shastri, M.A. 

Numismatic Secret ry : H. X. Wright, Esq., I.C.S. 

Members of 

W. K. Dods. 
H. H. Hayd. 
E. Thornton 

g. Little, Esq., M.A. 
HariN; h De, Esq., M.A. 
Major F. P. M aynard, I.M 

Chandra Vidvabhusana. M.A. 


Major W. J. Buehan; 
J. Macfarlane, I q. 
J. A. C apman, Esq. 

FEBRUARY, 1906. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 7th February, 1906, "at 9-15 P.M. 

The Hon. Mb. Justice Asutosh Mckhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 


Foreign Societies who favour the Asiatic Society of Bengal with 
their publications are informed that they may be sent either to the 
address of the Society at Calcutta, or to the Agents of the Society in 
London, Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15 Piccadilly. 


Les Societes £trangeres qui honorent la Societe Asintique de Bengale 

de ses 
de la 

publications, sont prices de les envoyer ou directement a 1'adresse 
Societe, 57, Park Street, Calcutta, ou a r agent de la Societe a 
js, Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15 Piccadilly. 


Auslandische Gesellschaften welclie die Asiatische Gesellschaft 
vonBengalen mit ihren Publicationen beehren, werden hierdurch ersucht 
dieselben entvveder direkt an die Adresse der Gesellschaft, 57, Park 

7 / 

15 Piccadilly, zu senden. 



J> ^ ***- 


Malm Cbaru Chandra Mitra, Babu Byomakesh Mustapln, Mr. A. 
J. Oliver, Babu Radha Kishna Pall, Mr. Perkins, Rev. Fr. James 
Power, S.J., Mr. D. N. Ray, Babu Haradban Ray, Babu Sasbee 
Bhusb'an Ray, Mr. C. K. P. Roberts, Babu Hitavrata Samakantba, 
Mr. J. C. Samajpati, Babu R, L. Seal, Babu Satyendra Nath Sen, 

FEBRUARY, 1906. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 7th February, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hox. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mxkfiopadhvaya, M.A., D.L., 

F.R.S.B., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : 

Dr. N. Annan dale, Babu Muralidhar Banerjee, Babu Amrita- 
lal Bose, Major W. J. Buchanan, I.M.S., Babu Kobin Chand 
Baral, Babu Damodar Das Barman, Babu Monmohan Chakravarti, 
Mr. J. A. Chapman, Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Mr. J. A. Cunningham, 
Mr. J. N. Das-Gupta, Mr. Hari Nath De, B»bu Mucksoodan Dass, 
Mr. F. Doxey, Rev. Father E. Francotte, S.J., Babu Amulya Cha- 
ran Ghosli Vidyabhushana, Babu Hemendra Prasad Ghose, Mr. 
H. G. Graves, Mr. T. H. Holland, Mr. I). Hooper, Dr. W 



M. M 


mad Hossain Klinn, Babu Panchanan Mukhopadhyava. Hon. Mr. 
J. D. Nimmo, Mr. W. Parsons. Lieut-Col. D. C. Phillott, 23rd 
Cavalry, F.F., Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., RaiRam Brahma Sanyal 
Bahadur, Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastri-Samkhyaratna-Vedatirtlia, 

Dp. C. Schulten, Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, Babu 

Chandra Kara in Singh, Dr. Amrita Lal Sircar, Pandit Promatha 
Nath Tarkablmshan,^I;ihaii;ahopadliyayaChandraKantaTarkalan- 

kara, Babu Nagendra Nath Vasu, Pandit Jogindra Nath Vidja- 
bhushan, Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Cliandra Vidyabhushan, 
Mr. E. H. C. Walsh, Mr. E. R. Watson. 

Visitors: — Babu Devendra Nath Banerjee, Babu Gopal Das 
Banerjee, Babu Manindra Nath Banerjee, Babu Rakhal Das Baner- 
jee, Babu K. C. Baral, Mr. J. W. A. Bell, Babu Kali Krishna 
Bhattacharjee, Babu Sasi Bhushan Bhattacharjee, Babu Tara 
Sunder Bhattacharjee, Sri Padmanande Bheksha, Mr. J. C. Brown, 
Babu Purshottam Das Burman, Babu Kali Chandra Chakravarti, 
Babu Sivavrata Chattopadhyaya, Dr. J. K Cook,JBabu Asutosh 
Dey, Mrs. F. Doxey, Mr. 


M. Hanifuddiqnl, Mr 


M. Mai if uz, Babu Birajmohan Mazumdar, Mr. and .Mrs. Meares, 
Babu Charu Chandra Mitra, Babu Byomakesh Mustaphi, Mr. A. 
•I . Oliver, Babu Radha Kishna Pall, Mr. Perkins, Rev. Fr. James 
Power, S.J., Mr. D. N. Ray, Babu Haradhan Ray, Babu Sashee 
Bhushan Ray, Mr. C. K. P. Roberts, Babu Hitavrata Samakantha, 
Mr. J. C. Samaimti. Babu R. L. Seal, Babu Satyendra Nath Sen, 

vi Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

Mr. P. N. Singh, Mr. K. V. Smith, Rev. Fr. J. Vauckell, S.J., 

Mrs. A. W. Young. 


Fraser, President of the Society, expressing his great regret at 
being unable to be present at the Annual Meeting of the Society. 

According to the Rules of the Society, the Chairman ordered 
the voting papers to be distributed for the election of Officers and 
Members of Council for 1906, and appointed Major L. Rogers and 
Mr. L. L. Fermor to be scrutineers. 

The Chairman announced that the Elliott Prize for Scientific 
Research for the year 1905 would cot be awarded as none of the 
essays received in competition were of sufficient merit to justify 
the award of the Prize. 

The Chairman called upon the Secretary to read the Annual 

^Annual Report for 1905. 

The Council of the Society have the honour to submit th. 
following Report on the state of the Society's affairs during the 
year ending 31st December, 1905. 

Member List. 

There has been a steady increase in the list of Ordinary 

Daring the year under review, 43 Ordinary Members were 
elected, 18 withdrew, 3 died, and 8 were removed from the list, 
viz. : 3 under Rnle 38, as defaulters ; 3 under Rule 40, being more 
than 3 years absent from India ; and 2 under Rule 9, not havim 
paid their entrance fees. The election of one member was can- 
celled at his own request. The total number of members at the 
close of 1905 was thus 357 against 843 in the preceding year. Of 
these 144 were Resident, 133 Non-Resident, 12 Foreign, 20 Life 
and 47 absent from India, and one Special Non-Subscribincr Mem- 
ber, as will be seen from the following table, which also slmw- 

the fluctuations m the number of Ordinary Members during the 
past six years :— J 

February, 1906.] 

Annual Report. 







1900 ... 

» • 1 • 

1901 ... 

1 • » 1 

1902 ... 

• t • 

1903 ... 


1904 ... 

• * • 

1905 ... 

• • • 
























Z x 
















268 ! 21 



























The three Ordinary Members, whose loss by death during the 




Honorary Member, the Council has recommended Lord Curzon t 
fill this vacancy. 


ciate Members continued unaltered from last year, their number 
standing at 4 and 13 respectively. 

-No Members compounded for their subscription during tlie 

By the operation of Nos. 5 and 7 of the Society's Rules, some- 
times nearly two full months elapsed between the date of applica- 
tion of a candidate and the ballot for his election. To shorten this 
period, the Society has revised Rules 5 and 7, and at present a can- 
didate is ballotted for within one week after the submission of his 
name to the Council. 

Indian Museum. 


that caused by the retirement of Sir J. A. Bourdillon, K. C.S.I. , 
and the Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, D.L., WW 
appointed to fill the vacant place. The other Trustees who 
represent the Society have been : 

The Hon. Sir Alexander Pedler, Kt., F.R.S., CLE. 

G. W. Kuchler, Esq., M.A. 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 

J. Macfarlane, Esq. 

viii Annual Report. [February, 1906. 


The Accounts of the Society are shown in the Appendix 
under the usual heads. In this year's account there is an addi- 
tional statement under the head "Bardic Chronicle MSS." State- 
ment No. 10 contains the Balance Sheet of the Society and of the 
different funds administered through it. 

The credit balance of the Society at the close of the year 
was Rs. 1,93,143-1-9 against Rs. 1,92,939-7-5 in the preceding 

The Budget for 1905 was estimated at the following figures : 

Receipts Rs. 18,100, Expenditure Rs. 22,683 (ordinary Rs. 17,654, 
extraordinary Rs. 5,029). Taking into account only the ordinary 
items of receipts and expenditure for the year 1905, the actual 
results have been: — Receipts Rs. 20,689-2-11, Expenditure 
Rs. 15,521-14-1, showing a balance in favour of the Society 
on its ordinary working of Rs. 5,167-4-10. Against this balance 
there have been several extraordinary items of expenditure amount- 
ing to Rs. 6,452-12-6. The total expenditure of the year has. 
therefore, been a little more than the income. There is a Tempo- 
rary Investment of Rs. 45,100 at the close of the year, out of 
which Rs. 31,946-3-10 is in favour of the Society (besides 
Rs. 9,132-9-10 due to the Society from the Oriental Publication 

Fund, Members, etc.), Rs. 3,274-9-9 Oriental Publication Fund 
(after a loan of Rs. 2,000 from the Society's fund to pay off 
bills), Rs. 3,120-2-5 Sanskrit MSS. Fund (less Rs. 1,000 advanced 
to the Joint Philological Secretary for the purchase of Sanskrit 
MSS.), Rs. 4,459 Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund (li 9 Rs. 3,000 
advanced to the Officer in charge of the Arabic and Persian Search 

for the purchase of Arabic and Persian MSS.), and R^ 2,400 

Bardic Chronicle MSS. Fund. In addition to this, a sum of 
Rs. 1,200 has been added to the Reserve Fund from entrance fees 

received daring the year. 

The Ordinary expenditure was estimated at Rs. 17,654, but 
he amount paid out was onlv Us. 15,521-14-1. On the expendi- 
ture side, the items of "Salaries," "Pension," "Commission," 

•Postage," "Freight," "Meetings," "Contingencies," '• Hooks, 
"Binding," "Printing Circulars, etc.," all show a slight increase, 
excepting "Freight," "Books," "Binding," and "Printing Cir- 
culars, ete." Owing to several consignments of books received 
daring the year, "Freight" shows an increase of Rs. 60-0-6. 
lor the same reason, there is an increase of Rs 232-9-4 under 
" Books." This was expected, an extra gran* of Rs. 1,000 Inning 
been sanctioned. The estimate for " Binding " has been exceeded 
by Rs. 507-10. This is due to binding a large number of books in 
the Society's library, for which an extra grant of Rs. 1,000 was 
also sanctioned. As certain acknowledgn nt forms had to be 
printed, and a larger number of circulars than usual was required, 


culars, etc." The actual expenditure on the Journal and Proceed- 
ings and Memoirs was Rs. 5,732-1-3 against a budget provision 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. 


of Rs. 7,300, but all the bills for the publication 8 of the past 
year have not yet been paid. 

There was only one extraordinary item of expenditure during 

1905 under the head " Furniture " not provided for in the Budget 

Rs. 183-8 was paid for a book-case for the Society's library, and 
Rs. 136-3-6 was spent for new shelves and chairs. 

The expenditure on the Royal Society's Catalogue (including 
subscription sent to the Central Bureau) has been Rs 1,597-15, 

while the receipt* under this head from subscription received on 

behalf of tlie Central Bureau (including the grant of Rs 1,000 
from the Government of India) Rs. 1.481-5. A sum of Rs. 854-8 

has been remitted to tlie Central Bin i, and Els. i!:>6 is Mill due 

to them. 

Three Extraordinary items of expenditure were budgetted for. 

Out of the sum of Rs 1.000 for the Library Catal ie, only 
Rs. 177 has been spent on account of printing chargt . FN. 2,809 
was budgetted for picture-frame- but Rs. 3,313-2-6 has been 
spent, the excess being due for bucking the pictures with oil-cloth 
and other expenses incurred Rs. 1,265 were spent on the building, 
while a sum of Rs. 1,220 was budgetted for. Rs. 1.220 were paid 
for white-washing and colour-washing part of the Societ \ "s premis- 
es, and Rs. 45 for repairing the roof. 

The Budget estimate of Receipts and Disbursements for 1906 
has been tixed as follows :— Receipts Rs. 18,700, Expenditure 
Rs 18,683. The items " Salaries/' " Commission," "Pennon,* 

" Municipal Taxes," " Postage," and " Contingencies " have all been 
increased. '' Salaries'' have been incre; ed by Rs. 200, owing to 
certain increments sanctioned to the office staff. ''Commission," 
"Pension," and "Postage" are based upon the actuals of tlie last 
year. There is a heavy increase of Rs. 581 on account of Municipal 

Tax owing to a new assessment. "Contingencies" has been 

increased by Rs. 150. This is due to providing tlie menial servants 
with new clothing for the cold weather. 

Ten extraordinary items of expenditure have been budgetted 
for during the year 1906, namely, Rs. 1,000 for the new Library 
Catalogue, Rs. 330 for book racks for storing periodicals, Rs, 100 
for illuminating the Society's building on the night of the illumina- 
tion during tlie visit of T.R H. The Prince and Princess of Wales, 
Rs, 1,000 for new books, Rs. 500 for binding, Rs. 2,300 for printing 
the Journal and Proceedings and Memoirs published during 1905, 
Rs. 1,800 for printing the Persian translation of Morier's Haji 
Baba, Rs. 500 the cost of a complete lantern for the Society's Meet- 
ing, Rs. 155 for renewing the lights and fans in the room let to the 
Automobile Association of Bengal, and Rs 288 for picture rods. 
Besides these provisions, there will be a heavy expenditure on ac- 
count of repairs and certain structural improvements in the 
Society's building, the total cost of which is not yet settled. 

The Hon. Mr Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya continued 
Treasurer throughout the year. 

f # 


Annual Report. 

[February, 1906 






Estimate. Actuals. Estimate 


Sale of Publications 

Interest on Investments 

Rent of Room 
Government Allowances 


• • • 














18,100 20,689 18,700 








Lights and Fans 

Municipal Taxes 





Books ... 


Journal, Part I 

• • • 

• * 

• • • 

• ■ I 

t f • 

• * • 

I * * 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

* • • 

• • • 





• • • 

III ... 


• • • 

• • • 

• ♦ • 

• * 

• • • 

• • • 

• # • 

t t t 

• ♦ ♦ 

t • 

• • • 

• • « 

• • t 

• ft • 

» • » 

" Journal and Proceedings'* 
" Memoirs " 


• • * 

• • • 

Printing Circulars, etc. 
Auditor's Fee 
Petty Repairs 

• • • 

• • • 

3,800 3,810 




2,001 1 
2,100 1,792 

2,100 1,519 


ft ft ft 

• • • 





531 ' 

1 6( ) 



1 ,206 














I • • 

• • • 

• • • 



• • • 

17,654 15.521 18,683 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. xi 

Extraordinary Expenditure. 

1905. 1905. 1906. 
Estimate. Actuals. Estimate 

Rs. Rs. Rs. 

Library... ... ... 1,000 177 1,000 



Hooks ... 


"Journal and Proceedings" and 

M Memoirs " 
Printing Haji Baba 

• • • 

• • • . • • ••« - • • 

• t • ••• . - ■ 

31 J 330 



. • • • • • 

• • • • t • 

• t • • • • 

1,378 2,900 

... 1800 


Renewal of wiring for Klectric 
Lights and Fans for Automo- 
bile Association of Bengal ... ... ... 155 

Picture Rods ... ... ... ... 288 

Picture Frames ... ... 2,809 3,313 ... 

Building ... ... 1,220 1,265 ... 

Total ... 5,029 6,452 7,973 


The number of the copies of the Journal and Proceedings and 
of the Bibliotheca Indica sent to Mr. Bernard Qua ri ton, the 
Society's London Agent, during the year 1905, for sale, were 
respectively 540 and 639, valued at £75 and Rs. 331-12, of which 
£49-9 and Rs. 105-14 worth have been sold for us. 

Nine invoices of books purchased and of publications of 
various Societies sent in exchange were received during the year, 
the value of the books purchased amounting to £108-12-4. 

The number of copies of the Journal and Proceedings and of 
the Biblloth oa Indica sent to Mr. Otto Harrassowitz, the Society's 
Continental Agent, during 1905, for sale, were 417 and 516, valued 
at £43-16 and Rs. 256-lU The sale proceeds have been £19-13 
and Rs. 306-6, respectively. 


The total number of volumes or parts of volumes added to the 
Library during the year was 2,559, of which 653 were purchased 
and 1,906 presented or received in exchange for the Society's pub- 
lications. . 

The new edition of the Society's Library Catalogue is still 

in press, and a little over half the MS. has already been set up. 
The work of reading the proofs has been entrusted to Professor 
Hari Nath De under the supervision of the General Secretary. 

There were several Meetings of the Library Committee during 
the year, and it was resolved to remove all the periodicals to 
the ground floor of the building and to bind all the books and 

xii Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

periodicals in the Society which required it. For this purpose 
nearly two-thirds of the Library has been examined, and 22 book 
racks have been purchased for the accommodation of the periodicals. 

Owing to increase in the number of Sanskrit MSS., it has been 
found necessary to separate the Sanskrit MSS. from those in 
Arabic and Persian, aud the west room 1ms been set apart to 
accommodate the former. 

At the suggestion of Si j- Charles Lyall, the Hebrew MS. con- 
taining the translation of an early Italian work on the Koran in 
the Society's Library was presented to the British Museum. 

In modification of the order regarding the proposed rejection 
of certain books from the Society's Library, the General Meeting 
resolved that the Library Committee be empowered to settle the 
prices of books with authority to offer Government publications 
to Government. Only two such publications luive been accepted (by 
the Imperial Library), and other public bodies have written to Bay 
that the books offered for sale were not required by them. The 
books will now be stamped with a special stamp and put up to 
public auction. 

The question of the procedure to be followed in lendin out 
MSS., both in India and Europe, was referred to a Sub-Committee, 
which drew up the new rules published in the Proceeding for 

December 1905. 

In continuation of the Council order, the Imperial Library 

_ „ period from Septembei 

August 1905, forty-nine books and MSS. have been thus borrowed. 
Babu Mahendra Nath Mnkerjee resigned his appointment as 

the s Pandit for the Oriental Library in October, and Babu Kunja 

tJehan Nyaynbhnshana was appointed to fill the vacant post. 

The Library was in charge of Mr. J. H. Elliot i. the Assistant 
secretary and Librarian of the Society. 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. 

During the year the volumes on Chemistry, Meteorology. 
tJotany and Zoology of the second annual issne, and volumes on 

Mathematics, Mechanics, Physics, Astronomy, Physiology, and 

Bacteriology of the third annual issue were received and have 
been distributed to the subscribers. 

On completion of the 2nd Annual Issue of the International 
Catalogue bills have been made and submitted to subscribers for 
payment of the amount of subscription. A sum of Rs. 854-8 has 


part of the subscription to 1st and 2nd Annual Issues. 

The Director International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 
iniormed the Regional Bureau that a convention was to meet in 
Jjoiidon on 25th July, to consider the question of extending the 
issue of Scientific Catalogue beyond the first five annual issues, 
ana asked this Bureau to appoint one or two delegates to represent 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. xui 

the Regional Bureau for India and Ceylon. Dr W. T. Blanford 

and Lt.-Col. D. Prain, upon the invitation of the Council, 
agreed to perform this duty. The death of Dr. Blanfoid. shortly 
before the date fixed for the Convention, left no time to appoint a 
delegate in his place, and, accordingly, Lt.-Col. D. Prain attended 
the Convention alone and voted with the majority in favour of tin 
continuation of the publication of the International Catalogue to B 

further period of five years. 

The Government of India was pleased to sanction a grant oi 

Rs. 1,000 for the expenses of the Regional Bureau. During the 
year 786 Index slips were made, and after having been checked 
by the experts, were sent to the Central Bureau. London. 

Elliott Prize for Scientific Research. 

On the recommendation of the Director of Public Instruction. 

Bengal, a second medal was awarded to Balm Surendra Nath 
Maitra for his essay submitted in competition for the Elliott Prize 
for Scientific Research for 1004 under rule G ; and Babu Sarasilal 

Sarkar was paid Rs. 150, being part of the award for his essays 
ubmitted in competition for the Elliott gold medal during tin 
years 1897 and 1901. 

Barclay Memorial Medal. 

In connection Avith the Barclay Memorial Medal, the Conned 
awarded the medal for P'05 to Lieut-Col. I). D. Cunningham, 
F.R.S., in recognition of his biological researches. 

Society's Premises and Property. 

The proposed thorough repairs and structural improvements 
in the Society's buildings have not yet been completed, although 
Messrs. Mackintosh, Burn & Co. have substituted steel joists 
for all the wooden beams except in two rooms on the ground floor. 
Mr B. Thornton has promised a complete scheme for the restora- 
tion of the building, and the work will be taken in hand during the 

present year. , ., , 

All the pictures of the Society have been temporarily hung, 
and after the repairs to the Society's building are completed, they 
will be suspended on picture-rods, to be fitted up by Messrs. Leslu 
& Co. at a cost of Rs. 288 sanctioned by Council. 

Exchange of Publications. 

During 1905, the Council accepted seven applications for ex- 
change of publications, viz : (1) from the Victoria Lmver>,ty of 
Manchester, the Society's Journal and Proceedings and the 

Memoirs being exchanged for their publications: (2 from the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, the Society s Journal and JV- 
ceedings and the Memoirs being exchanged for the publica- 
tions of that Society ; (3) from the Bureau of Government 


Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

Laboratories, Manila, the Society's Journal and Proceedings and 
the scientific portion of the Memoirs for the publications of 
their Laboratory; (4) from Dr. P. Fedde, editor of the Botanis- 
cher Jahresbericht, the Society's Journal and Proceedings and 
the Memoirs containing: biological articles only for his " Lit- 

from the Colombo Museum, the Society's natural history publica- 
tions being exchanged for their " Spolia Zeylanica " ; (6) from 


ings and the scientific portion of the Memoirs for the Report 
of the Michigan Academy of Science; (7) from the Ethnological 
Survey of the Philippine Islands, Manila, the Society's Journal 
and Proceedings and the anthropological ami scientific portion of 
the Memoirs being exchanged for the publications of that Survey. 

The exchange of publications with the Royal Statistical So- 
ciety of London has been stopped. 

The revision of the Society's list of Exchanges and the distri- 
bution of the Memoirs to Societies, etc., are under considera- 
tion. The following gentlemen have been appointed to report on 

them : 

J. Macfjirlane, Esq. 
T. H. Holland, Esq. 
Dr. E. D. Ross. 
Dr. N. Annandale. 


The question of extending and improving the Society's publi- 
cations has occupied the attention of a special Sub- Committee, and, 
after due deliberation, the Council accepted their recommendations, 
namely : 

1. Publication of a quarto series styled M moire. 

2. Publication of a new series (8vo. ) containing the Journal 
d Proceedings combined. 

3. Paper and type selected for the purpose to be used. 

4 Insertion of advertisements relating to books and instru- 

5. Appointment of Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co. to secure 

6. Publication of such resolutions of Council as the Council 
may determine in the Proceedings. 

The arrangements for insertions of advertisements are not yet 
complete, and none have appeared. 

There were published during the year fourteen numbers of 
the Proceedings and Journal (Proceedings Nos. 9-11 of 1901 ; 
Journal Part I, Extra No. 1904; Journal Part II, Supplement 
1904, Journal Part III Extra No. 1904, and Journal and Pro- 




1-5 and 7) containing 118 pages and 7 plates. 

(Vol. I, Nos. 

February, 1906.] Annual Report *v 

The Numismatic Supplement Nos. 4 & 5 have been published 
in the Journal Part I, Extra No. of 1904, and Journal and 
Proceedings, N.S., Vol. I, No. 4 of 1905, under the editorship of 

W.. e 

There were also published the Indexes to Journal Parts II and 
III for 1904 and a Persian translation of Morier's Adventures of 
Ha ji Baba of Ispahan by Haji Sliaikh Ahmcd-i-Kirmani, edited 
with very valuable notes bearing on idiomatic peculiarities of 
modern Persian by Major D. C. Pliillott. 

Owing to the increased number of members, it was found 
necessary lo print 700 copies of each issue of the Journal and 
Proceedings and Memoirs, instead of 650. 

To facilitate the publishing of papers, and to avoid the delay 
often caused by reference to Council, that body has appointed a 
Standing Publication Committee composed of the Editors of the 
Journal and Proceedings, giving them power to sanction the 
the printing of papers within the amount of the sanctioned grant, 

but not to reject any paper. 

In order to secure a uniforcn and suitable system ot 
transliteration for all the publications of the Society, the Council 
has invited Lieut.-Col. Phillott and Dr. Ross to draw up a revised 
scheme for the transliteration of Persian, Urdu and Arabic 
Alphabets. For the Devanagari alphabet and for all the alphabets 
relatino- to it, the system in force seemed to call for no alteration. 

It is proposed to publish in the Society's Memoirs a series 
of photographic facsimiles of autographs and signatures of famous 
Eastern authors and monarchs at a cost of Rs. 250. 

The Proceedings were edited by the General Secretary, .Mr. 
J Alacfarlane. The Philological section of the Journal was edited 
1>V Dr E. D. Ross, the Philological Secretary. The coin cabinet 
was in charge of Mr. H. N. Wright, the Numismatic Secretary, who 
also reported on all treasure trove coins sent to the bociety. 
Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri was in charge of t he 
Bibliotheca Indicannd the work of collecting Sanskrit Mbb.l he 
Natural History section of the Jonma\ was edited by Major 
L. Rogers, I.M.S., and the Anthropological section by Dr_ N. 
Annandale, with the exception of two months when Mr. H. h. 
Stapleton officiated for him. 

Philology, etc. 

There were several pa pers of historical importance published 

in the Journal. __ _ , . « «-. . 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri gave a brief Hurtory 
of Nyayasastrafro.n Japanese Sources the logical system o L£k*a- which, though completely lost to India, rs .still Isto died and 
commented upon in China, Japan, Corea, and Mongolia. In 
TamT savs the writer, it has a rival in the European system, 
bXthis S airy halonly' strengthened the position of that ancient 

school of logic. . 



STSTEffS the life ef Sarvajiia-eutva, a Taatrika 

xvi Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

Buddhist author of Kasmira, in the eightli century A.D. The 
same scholar described Lankavatara Sutra, an ancient Buddhist 
Sanskrit work, which gives an account of an imaginary visit paid 
bj Buddha to Ravana, the king of Lanka, and contains a copious 
explanation of the Buddhistic metaphysical doctrines. In another 
number he gave an account of Anuruddha Thera, a learned Pali 
author of Southern India, in the twelfth century A.D. 

Babu Ganga Mohan Laskar, M.A., a research scholar, de- 
ciphered four new Copper-plate charters of the Somavamsi kings of 
Kosala and Kataka, sent sometime ago from the Patna State in 
the Central Provinces to the Society. They form an addition to 
the six charters of these kings edited by Mr. Fleet in the Ejn'gra- 
phia Indica (Vol. Ill, pp. 323-359). Of these new land-grant 
charters, one belongs to Maha-Bhavagupta 1. and the rest to 
Maha-S'ivagupta. The language and characters of both the old 
and new charters are the same. 

The identity of Halayudha, t he author of Brahmanasarbasva 
and Prime .Minister of Lakshmana Sena, son of Ballala Sena 
of Bengal, was discussed by Pundit Togesa Chandra S^astree, who 
came to the conclusion that ho was not the same personage as 
Halayudha of the Chatta family wh > was honoured by Ballala 
Sena, or Halayudha, the ancestor of the Tagore family of Calcutta. 
Babu Monmohan Chakravarti, M.A., described and edited the 
poem Pavana-dutam, or Wind-Messenger, by Dhovika, ;. court-poet 
of Laksmanasena of Bengal. The appendix on the Sena Kings of 
Bengal, which forms part of this paper, is a brief but useful con- 


inar archaeological 

etc. Then 



remains in Bishnath in the way of fort ifications, temples, 

are, he tells us, several inscriptions there which have not vet been 

a. •« •, J];lbu ? r& g endra ^ath Gupta wrote on the wi 

Maitnil poet VidySpati Tnakur, and Mr. Justice Sarada Char..., 

Mitra contributed a note on Candesvara Tlmkkura, the author of 

a recognized work on the Mitftk*»rfi system of Hind., Law. 

Only three contributions were madd to Mohammedan history 
during the period under review. Mr. William Irvine continued 

Ms most valuable monograph on the Later Mughal (1707-1S03) 

ana treated the subject with that thorou hness which characterises 
ail his contributions to the history of the Mahomedan period. 

F\\ lt ?> lg ' '' wrote some notes on the Bahmani Dynasty ; 
ana Mr M. Bevendge briefly told of some interesting facts relat- 

1U *a *°, 7® ^Peror Babar which are not mentioned in Brskine 
and Abul Fi.zl. 

Of papers of Linguistic interest there was one containing a 

collection of 100 Kolarian riddles current among the Mundaris in 
Cnota ISagpur by the Rev. Paul Wagner, and another on the 
fctmilarity of the Tibetan to the Kashgar-Brahmi Alphabet by the 

nev. a. H. Urancke, which was published in Vol. I.. No 3 of the 

wwo N ° les « tlmu halfa doze-, valuable papers on Tibetan subjects 
*eie contributed by Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, Q.I.B. 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. xvii 

All of these papers were at once important and interesting, and 
bore testimony to the knowledge and industry of the writer. 
The following were the more important ones : — (1) The Hierarchy 
of the Dalai Lama (1406-1745) ; (2) The Monasteries of Tibet ; and 
(3) Tibet under the Tartar Emperors of China in the 13th Century 
A.D. Miihamahopadhyaya Professor Satis Chandra Vidy abh ufana, 
M.A., also wrote a useful paper on certain Tibetan Scrolls 
and Images lately brought from Gyantse during the recent British 
Expedition to Tibet, in Vol. I., No. I., of the Memoir*. A very 

important paper on Arabic Alchemy was published by Ml 
Stapleton and Azoo, which, though properly belon ing to our 
scientific publication, has considerable philological importance. 

Natural History, etc. 

The activity of the Natural History Section of the Society has 
been "well maintained during the past year, during which a number 
of important papers have been published, extending over a wide 
range of subjects. Among the Zoological contributions are four 
p; i pers on Indian snakes and lizards by Dr. Annandale, describing 
the additions made to the collection of the Indian Museum for some 
years past, and includiug some new species, and on the lizards of the 
Andaman Islands. The same author also contributes some other 
papers including Studies of the Fauna of Indian tanks, about 
which very little is yet known, while the earwigs of the Indian 
Museum have been named by Mr, Burr. Botany is well repre- 
sented by further work on the Flora of the Malayan Peninsula 1 - 

Sir George King and Mr. Gamble, and by ;i paper on the varus by 

Colonel Prain and Mr. Burkill. Two papers on the chemistry of 

certain insects and plants have been contributed by Mr. Hill, while 
a notable one entitled "Sal Ammoniac*— a study in Primitive 

Chemistry," h\ Mr. "Stapleton, has appeared as a Memoir ; as has also 

>ne on the Chemistry of the Arabs by Messrs. Stapleton and Azoo. 
Among the Geological papers may be mentioned a valuable one on 
the chemical analysis of a clay found in Bundelkand by Mr Silber- 
rad, while at the December meeting a most interesting and instruc- 
tive lecture was delivered by Mr. Holland on the Kangra Valley 
earthquake, illustrated by a series of lantern slides. The great 
success of this meeting in attracting an unusually large attendance 
will encourage the Council to continue its recent efforts to make the 
meetings more interesting than they have been for some time past, 
by having purely technical papers taken as read, and, a far as 
possible, providing some subject of general interest for considera- 
tion of each meeting. 

Anthropology, etc. 

During the past year several short communications and one 
rather lengthy one (in continuation of a former paper) have been 
published in the Journal ^nd Proceedings, while three anthropological 

Also noticed under the heading Anthropology 

xviii Annual Export. [February, 1906. 

Memoirs have appeared and others are in the press. Of the 
published Memoirs one is of great general interest, illustrating the 
close relations between animism and the beginnings of physical 
science in the East, while the others are important contributions to 
local folklore and ethnology. It cannot be said, however, that the 
progress of the study of anthropology has been altogether satis- 
factory as regards the Society. Abundant material is received for 
publication ; but no discussion is aroused ah the meetings, and there 
seems to be a tendency to treat the different brandies into which 
the study of man may be divided as devoid of scientific dignity, to 
ignore all that has previously been written on the subjects treated, 
and to forget external relationships. Every branch of biology — 
anthropology as much as any other — may be legitimately treated 
in one of three ways: — (1) the investigator may content himself 
with compiling and abstracting in a detailed manner all that ha> 
already been published on any one subject; (2) he may record 
facts previously unknown or ignored ; or (3) he may aspire to the 
more ambitious task of treating his theme in a comparative manner, 
from the standpoint of a wide and deep study of allied and conflict- 
ing phenomena. In India the compiler (acknowledged as such) 
and the recorder can add very largely to the sum of human know- 
ledge, but if they mingle things new and old indiscriminately, they 
run the risk of having their work ignored by serious students of 
anthropology. The Anthropological Secretary must appeal to con- 
tributors not to cast on him the solo burden of discovering, in every 
case, whether a communication contains sufficient original matter, 
or forms a sufficiently " thorough " account, to merit publication. 
The bulk of anthropological literature is already so great, and 
increases so rapidly, that unnecessary repetition of details can 
only complicate the student's task. If anthropology is a science, 
it merits some preliminary study. 

A scheme is in hand for the publication in the Memoirs 

of figures and descriptions of interesting Asiatic implements, 
weapons, and the like; but as nothing lias yet been produced, 
details must be postponed until next year. 


t Thirteen gold, one hundred and forty-six silver and one copper 

-coins have been presented to the Society during the year 1905. 

■The coins are of the following periods : 

Mediaeval India ... Sassanian tvi>, > Jl ... 5 

Gadhaiya c< 

Independent Bengal ... Shamshudd 

JR . . . 3 

M ... 2 


• • • 

Husen Shah M 5 

Akbar N % M 1, M 1 ... 4 

Jahangir JR ... 2 

Shahjahan n ... 2 

Carried over ... 23 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. 


Brought forward ... 2:; 

Mughal— contd. Aurangzeb M ... i 

Farrukhsir M ... J 

Muliammad Shah „ ... 23 

Ahmad Shah „ ... 2 1 

AlamgirU. „ ... 25 

ShahAlamll. „ ... 20 

Assam ... ... Rudra Singh „ ... 2 

Shiva Singh and Pramatheswari 

• • • 


Begam ^ 

Shiva Singh and Phuleswari 

Begam „ ... 1 

Pram a th a Singh „ ... 5 

Rajeswara Singh „ ... 5 

Lakshmi Singh ,, ... 6 

Gauri Nath Singh „ ... 10 

■ • • ♦• ^ • • . 1 

South India ... Vijayanagar jf ... .5 

European ... Venetian ducats „ ... 2 

Ottoman Sultans ... ... ... M ... 4 


Of these twelve (nine gold and three silver) were presented 
by the Bombay Government, and one (a copper coin) by the 
United Provinces Government. 

During the year the Honorary Numismatist examined and 
reported on 8,548 coins forwarded as treasure trove from various 

districts in Bengal, Assam, the Central Provinces, and the Punjab. 

One find alone contained 4,500 copper coins, but of these only 
218 were recommended for acquisition. 

By order of the Government of India, the name of the Numis- 
matic Collection attached to the Public Library at Shillong was 
added to the list of institutions among which coins are distributed 
under the Indian Treasure Trove Act. 

Bibliotheca Indica. 

The publication of the Bibliotheca Indica series was supervised 
by the Joint Philological Secretary. The regular income of the 
Oriental Publication Fund can bear the cost of publishing twenty- 
four fasciculi. In 1903, however, thirty-six fasciculi were issued, 
and in 1904 forty-two, whereby the accumulated balance became 
exhausted. In September 1905, it was found that the number of 
fasciculi due to appeal' would cost much more than the regular 
income of the fund, and it was necessary to prevent the publica- 
tion of more than one fasciculus of each work in hand. In spite 
of this limitation, thirty-four fasciculi have been published in the 
year under review, and special measures bad to be taken to meet 
the cost of their publication. 

xx Annual Beport. [February, 1006. 

These thirty -four fasciculi were issued at a cost of Rs. 18,231, 
the average cost per fasciculus being Rs. 389. 

By a resolution of the Council, dated 30th September 1898, 
the annual statement of Bibliotheca Indica publications is limited 
to those works which were either commenced or which came to a 

close during the year. 

Among the works taken in hand during the course of the 
year may be mentioned Saddnrsana-Samuccaya, by Haribhadra, 
a great Jain writer who died in A.D. 479. He wrote a short work 
on the six Systems of Indian Philosophy, namely, Banddha, 
Xaiyayika, Jaina, Samkhya, Vaisesika and JMimamsaka. Those 
who consider NVava and VaiSesika to be one and the same 
system add Carvaka to the list. The text was published sometime 
ago in Italy. The present edition is accompanied by a commen- 
tary entitled Tarkarahasya, by Gunaratna, who flourished in the 
fourteenth century. The Commentary though modern gives copi- 
ous information about the schools, their works, their authors and 
their teachers. It furnishes ampler materials for a history ot 
Hindu philosophy than any other single book. The editor is Dr. 
Luigi Suali of Bologna, a distinguished pupil of Professor Hermann 


The other work taken in hand is the Lower Ladakhi Version 
of the Kesar Saga by the Rev. A. H. Francke, Moravian mission- 
ary. The version was dictated slowly to him by an inhabitant of 
Kholotse who was brought up in Lardo near Tagmacig, and is 
likely to clear up many obscure points in the Kesar epic. 

Of the works that came to an end the most important is an 

English translation of the Maikapdeya Purina by the Hon'ble 

Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter. The work was undertaken 20 yen is 
ago, and after many interruptions lias now come to an end. The 
conclusion of the editor is that the work was written at two differ- 
ent periods, one some centuries B.C., the other some centuries A D. 
The scene is laid in Central India amid the wilds of the 

Another is the Kala Viveka by Jimiita Vfthana, urnl-r the 

editorship of Pandita Pramatha Na'tha Tarkabhfisana, Professor 

of Smrti in the Sanskrit College, Calcutta. In the preface, the 
editor determines the long unsettled point of the author's era, 
which he believes to have been A.D. 1191. 

The Tattvarthadhigamasutra, by Umasvati Vacaka, was com- 
posed at Pataliputra early in the second c« utury A.D. It is a 
curious work giving the cosmogony, configuration of the earth and 
heavens and so on, of the Jains of his day. It was edited by Vakil 
Keshablal Premchand of Ahmedabad/under the supervision of 
Professor Hermann Jacobi. 

SiiddhiKaumudi by Govindannnda Kavi Kankanacarya. under 

the editorship of a young tol pandit of Bkitpada, named Kamala 

Kmm Smrtihhiisnna, has come to an end, practically completing 
the whole series of Govindananda's work. The series was written 
between A.D. 1478 and 1535. It was composed for the benefit of 
the Vaidika brahmanas professing principally the Rg Veda, and 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. 


preceded the code of Raghunandana, the standard work of the 
Bengal school, by at least half a century. 

Professor Dr. W. Caland of Utrecht, Holland, has been obliged 
to put a stop to his edition of the Srauta Sutra of Baudhayana 
after the ninth Frasna, for want of MS. materials. 

The Society's stock lias been arranged by the Assistant 
Secretary, and the Cashier is engaged in counting the books and 
writing up the stock- book. 

On an application from Prof. Louis de la Vallee Poussin 
his name was placed on the list of individuals in Europe receiving 
the Bibliotheca Indica gratis. 

The Council sanctioned the publication in the Bibliotheca 
Indica of an Index of Place names to the second volume of Col. 
Jarrett's translation of the Ain-i-Akbari, compiled by Mr. W. 

Owing to financial difficulties (see Appendix- Accounts) of the 
Oriental Publication Fund the Council sanctioned Rs. 2,000 from 
the fund of the Society as an advance to pay off the bills passed 
for payment and for work already done. 

Search for Sanskrit MSS. 

This department published the ; ' Catalogue of Palm leaf and 
selected paper MSS in the Durbar Library, Nepal," by Mahamaho- 
padhyaya HaraprasadShastri. It gives descriptions of 457 rare 
and valuable MSS*, some of them written in characters of the 7th 
and 8th centuries. It brings many tan trie works to light, and its 
post-colophon statements have enabled Professor C. Bendall to 
compile a chronological list of Nepal kings, fuller and more 
accurate than those hitherto published by him. This Catalogue 
has been published as an extra number of the " Notices of Sanskrit 

The third volume, in course of publication, will contain notices 
of 366 MSS. mostly seen in Benares. 

The year has been very fruitful in the collection of MSS., no 
less than 1.360 having been acquired. Of these about 1,100 are 
Jain MSS. This, with about 800 Jain MSS., already collected 
with great industry from various quarters, raises the Government 
Jain collection to 2,000. The Jaina works are in Sanskrit, Jaina 
Prakrit, Madwari, Guzerati, Hintfi and other languages, and con- 
tain works of all classes — stotras, biographies of saints, Angas, com- 
mentaries, and so on. The collection brings to light two facts — that 
the Jainas had tantras, and that they had smrtis of their own and 
were not dependent on brahmanical smjtis as hitherto supposed. 

At the request of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal, ten bound copies of the Notices of Sanskrit MSS., Extra No. 
of 1905, containing a Catalogue of Palm-leaf and selected paper 
MSS., belonging to the Durbar Library, Nepal, was presented to the 
Nepal Durbar, in return for their courtesy to Professor Bendall 
and Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, when on their visit 
to Nepal in 1898, for the purpose of compiling this work. 

xxii Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

In response to an application made by the Society, the 
Government of India sanctioned a special grant of Rs. 5,000 for 
the purchase, on behalf of Government, of a valuable collection of 
Jain MSS. 

Search for Arabic and Persian MSS. 

During the yefir, the search has been conducted by Dr. Ross 
with great success, and a considerable number of important MSS. 
acquired. The public have become acquainted with the existence 
of this search, and offers of valuable MSS. are being received 
from all parts of India. To meet these opportunities of acquiring 
really good MSS., the Council has applied to the Government of 
India for an extra grant of Rs. 5,000. The following first Annual 
Report for the official year 1904*1905, was submitted to Govern- 
ment by Dr. Ross : — 

Report on the Search for Arabic and Persian MSS. for the 

Official year 1904-1905. 

The work has been of two kinds: (1) Research in existing 

libraries; (2) Purchase of MSS. offered for sale. In this latter 
task I had in view the principle of purchasing only rare works and 
MSS. of ancient date. I have been fortunate enough to find some 
really good MSS. of early authors, copie- of which are not to be 
found in any of the European libraries, and these have been bought 
for the Society. I shall notice some of them in the course of my 
report. The field is still to a great extent unexplored, and we can 

only gradually discover the obscure corners in which these oriental 
treasures lie hidden and uncared for. Up till now the search for 
MSS. has been confined to the town of Lucknow, which was the 
centre of Muhammadan learning and literature in India after the 
decline of the Moghul Power. 

Lucknow abounds in libraries. Some of them are really first- 
class ones, and others, though small by comparison, contain very 

valuable books. I give below a short account of the libraries 
visited during the year. 

Maulavi Nasir Hosa 

Maulavi Nasir Hosain is a learned Mujtahed of the Shi'ab 

community, and his library is located in the Nasrim's garden at 
Lucknow. This library contains some very rare and valuable MSS., 


of Traditionists, and India should be proud to possess such a library. 

This library owes its origin to Maulavi Han id Hosain, the deceased 

father of Maulavi Nasir Hosain. This is the only library of its 

kind in Lucknow containing religious book- of both Sunnis and 
Shi'ahs. The books here are arranged in different groups accord- 
ing to the different branches of literature and science. ]n all 

there are 22 book-cases containing about 6,000 volumes. There 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. 

• • 


is unfortunately no proper catalogue of this library. This 
valuable collection of MSS. includes 20 works on the principles of 
Shi' ah religion known as the Usui, The four books on 1 Tadis, which 
are considered to be the great authorities of the Shfahs, and upon 
which the Shi'ah doctrine entirely depends, have, in fact, been ab- 
ridged from 400 books on Hadis, each of which is called Ask Thu i 
the sources of the four books: (a) Kafi ; (6) Man la Yahduruhu-al 
Faqih ; (c) Tahdib-ul-Ahkam, and (</) Istibsar, are 100 books. And 
of these 400 books about 92 Usids, 20 are in this library, 12 
are in the library of the late Syed Ta<|i in Lucknow. and 60 are in 
the library of the late Maulavi Gulshan Ali at Jonepore. 

There is a book here named Kitab-ul-Munammaq, by Abu 
Jafar Muhammad bin HabibJHashimi Baghdadi, died A.H. 245. 
It is a history of the tribe of Quraish. This unique copy belongs 
to the 13th century. 

II. Library of the late Maulavi Abdul Hai. 

This library was founded by the late Maulavi Abdul Hakim, 
father of Maulavi Abdul Hai. It is now in the possession of Mufti 
Muhammad Yusuff, the son-in-law of the late Maulavi Abdul Hai. 
There is a manuscript catalogue in this library in which the books 
arranged and classified according to the different subjects they 
treat of. The number of pamphlets on different subjects that are 
to be found here is very remarkable. I had a copy of this catalogue 
made for purposes of reference. This library contains some 4,00(' 
volumes of ancient and modern authors. 

III. Library of Matdavi Abdnr I !<C <<{. 

The real founder of the library is the late Maulavi Abdur- 
Razzaq, but it is now in the possession of his grandson Maulavi 
Abdur Ra'uf. The books are better arranged here than in the 
other two libraries. There is a manuscript catalogue in which 
books are arranged according to the different sul ects they treat 

This library contains about a thousand manuscripts, but a few 
of them only are the production of old authors, and even those are 
very commonly known and cannot claim to have any rarity. 

In this library, however, the works of modern authors, i.e., th< -e 
authors who flourished after the 8th century Hejira are more nu- 
merous than in the other libraries. 

The following are the more interesting small libraries of 
Lucknow : 

1 . Library of Nawab Mehdi Hasan. 

2. Library of Meer Agha. 

3. Library of Maulavi Luft-i-Hosain. 

As to the purchase of manuscripts, I beg to say that the total 
number of books bought for the Asiatic Society of Bengal is 113. 
This comprises books on almost all branches of literature and 

xxiv Annual Bepwt. [February, 1906. 

science. Below I give a list of some of these books with very short 
descriptions of each : 

1. Qurb-nl-Isnad ; a book on Imamite Tradition. 

Author — Abdullah bin Ja'far bin al Hosain bin Malik bin 
Jami'-al-Himyari. He was the disciple of Imam Abu Mahammad- 
i-'Askari, and died in A.H. 290. Neither the book nor its author is 
mentioned by either Brockelmann or Ahlwardt. Dated A.H. 1068, 

2. Jami'-ul Iskandarani, a collection of the works of Galen 
made by the Alexandrians, and translated by Hunain bin Ishaq ; for 
particulars and full information consult Ibn Oseiba, vol. I., pp. 
90-92. These interesting pamphlets by Galen deal with different 
branches of medical science, and in no European library is the 
complete collection to be found. 

3. Sharh Kashf-nl-Asrar ; a commentary by Na jmud-Diu al 
Katibi, died A.H. 675, on Kashf-ul-Asrar of Muhammad bin Khun ji. 
Only two copies of the text Kashf-ul-Asrar are known — one in the 
Escurial Library, and the other in Cairo ; but no copy of the com- 
mentary is mentioned by either Brockelmann or Ahlwardt. The 
manuscript bears two seals of the last two kings of Oudh and 
several other important personages. 

4. Kifayat-ul-Asar ; a Shi'ah work in praise of the twelve 
Imams. Dr. Ahlwardt (Berlin catalogue, vol. ix., No. 9675) men- 
tions Ibn-i-Tawus as the author of the book. But the genuine author 
of the book appears to be 'Ali bin Muhammad bin 'Alial-Qiimmi. 

5. Tafsir Zubdat-al Bayan ; a commentary on the Quran by 
Ahmad bin Muhammad Ardabili, died A.H. 993. (Nofc mentioned 
by Brockelmann or Ahlwardt. ) 

6. Kitab-al-Arba'in ; a collection of 40 Imamite Traditions by 
Shekih-ush-Shahid Muhammad bin Makki. 

7. Shawariq-al-Lamiah ; a book on the knowledge of God and 
his attributes, by Hosain bin Abdufl Sarnadal-lfarisi, died A J f. 904. 
(Not mentioned by Brockelmann or Ahlwardt.) 

8. Kitab al Qaza-wal-Qadr ; a book an God's Decree and 

Destiny, by Sudruddin Shirazi. (The work is not mentioned by 

Brockelmann. ) 

9. Rauzat-ul-'UIama ; a book on theology, by Abu 'All Hosain 

bin Yahya Zandubasti. (There is no mention of this work in 
Brockelmann ) 

The following three manuscripts are the most important of 

all collected in point of age, as the dates mentioned against them 
will show:— 

Date AH. 

1. As-Sihah of nl Jawhari (Circa) 450 

2. Sharh-i-Kashf ul Asrai 

• • • #•• i • * 


3. Tanqili-ul-Maknnn 

The dates of a large number of manuscripts range from 


Bardic Chronicles. 

At the request of the Government of India, rhe Society under- 
took a search for MSS. of Rajput and other bardic chronicles, 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. xxv 

similar to the work of Chand Bardai already published by the 

Society, and as a preliminary to make a inspection of libraries of 
Rajputana and Gujrat believed to contain such works. For this 
purpose the Government has sanctioned a grant of Rs. 2,400 to th< 
Society for expenditure during the yeav. The work will begin as 
soon as a suitable pundit can be found. 


The Report having been read and some copies having been dis- 
tributed, the Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya. Vic- 
President, addressed the meeting. 

Annual Address, 1905. 

During many years past, it has been the established practice 
for the President of our Society to deliver an address on the 

occasion of the Annual Meeting. Such addresses have varied 

widely in scope, but many of them have, from time t.. tune, re- 
viewed the work of the Society, and the progress of literary and 
scientific research in connection with questions which lmve engaged 
the attention of our members. On the present occasion, all o! 
us had hoped to listen to the eloquent words of His Honour the 
Lieutenant-Governor, and to benefit by his kindly a«Iv 1C e and 
encourao-ement. Put public busing of a pressing character has 
kept him away, and no one, I know, regrets Ins absence more 
keenly than His Honour himself does; our roles, however, are 
unfortunately so inelastic that the dates of our meetings cannot be 
altered so as to suit the convenience even of our President It 
is, therefore, by an accident thatl tind myself called upon to take 
the chair this evening, and the time at my disposal since 1 have 
had an intimation that I should have to do so, ha^ en so limited 
as to make it impossible for me to attempt an elaborate review o\ 
the work of the Society during the year 1905, and of the progn - 
of the researches in which the Society is interested. I must con- 
sequently crave your indulgence for confining my remarks to a tew 

points of special interest and importance. *«.«•-* 

During the last year, the material prosperity of the Society 
has been Satisfactory, and the number of members on our rolls 
now exceeds what it has been in recent years. Put we have lost, 
during the year, one of our most distinguished Past Presidents, 
Who was originally one of our life-members and subsequently an 
Honorary Member. A full account of the scientific work ol 
Dr. W. T. Planford, who passed away full of 'years and 
honours, on the 23rd June, 1005, is contained in the obituary notice 
contributed by Mr. Holland, which will be published in our Pro- 
ceedings ; but his services to the Society were so conspicuous that 
they demand more than a passing reference on the present occa- 
sion. He joined the Society in 1 s59, and the number of papers he 
bad contributed to our Journal and Proceedings between that date 
and 1883 exceeds seventy. I make a pointed reference to this fact, 

xxvi Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

because, if the Society is to nourish and maintain its reputation 
as a learned body, it can only be by the publication of original 
contributions of its members. The researches of Dr. Blanford 
related principally to Geology and the cognate branches of natural 
science, namely, Geography and Zoology, but it must not be sup- 
posed that they recorded merely details of observation, for many 
of them treated, of the fundamental principles of Geolouv and 
Zoology and are rigidly regarded as classical memoirs in the 
history of those sciences. Reference may specially l>e made to 
his remarkable address to the British Association at Montreal 
in 1884, delivered as President of the Geological section ; find his 
equally important address to the Geological Society of London 
when he was its President five years later. In the firsl of these 
addresses, he demonstrated the truth of Hu.\ ley's Theory of 
Homotaxis, in the descent of isolated faunas and floras, and i'n the 
second, he strengthened the theory of land connection in former 
times in certain cases across what are now broad and deep oceans. 

These generalisations were the resnll of inferences drawn from a 

mass of details indicating the accuracy which always characterized 

his work. No better illustration of this remarkable accuracy 
can be mentioned than his Geological maps of the coal-field, 
which, as Mr. Holland observes, have always been and still are 
the guide of colliery managers. It is impossible, I think, to 

estimate too highly the practical utility of these maps in i tplor- 

mg the mineral resources of the country. T do not use, therefore, 

the language of mere platitude when 1 say that, by the death of Dr 
Blanford, we have lost from our ranks a man remarkable for his 

scientific attainments and for his contributions to the advance- 
ment of sc.euce, and that the members of this Society will fail 
in their duty if they do not raise in his memory a suitable memo- 
rial m this hall. 

I shall turn now to the work of the members of the Society 

during the last year, but before I deal with it. some reference i> 

necessary to what appears to me to be tin- must important event 

ot the year from the point of new of oriental research and 

scholarship. Members of the Society are no doubt aware that a 

large number of valuable manuscripts ami books were brought 
!f ou L V'"-? J? t,,e late Tibet Mi, .ion, which are uow desposited to 
the British Museum in London. If I am not very much mistaken, 

toe materials thus placed at the disposal of scholar^ are calculated 
to throw light upon some of the darkest corners of Indian history 
and antiquities. That siich a result is more than likely will be 
obvious, if we remember what intimate relation subsisted at one 
time between Tibet and India, t h e birt 1 . place of Buddhism, and 
to what extent the lit rature of Tibet has been influenced by the 
literature of India. It is well known that the two chief periods 
m the history of the literature of Tibet are the period of transla- 
tions extending roughly from the seventh to the twelfth century 
of the Christian era. and the period of original composition e 
tending from the thirteenth century to tin resent tin.-. In the 

princ i p; i 1 ly engaged 



February, 1906.] Annual Report. xxvii 

in enriching their literature by faithful versions of many of the 
-Treat books of Sanskrit literature. The course which the seclu- 
ded monks of Tibet pursued was somewhat similar to what was 
followed in Rome, when Greek authors were freely copied by the 
dramatists of the Republic jand in England, when the great trans- 
lations which form a remarkable monument of English literature 
were made during the Tudor period Now it baa bo happened in 
the case of Tibetan literature, that although the Sanskrit origi- 
nals have been, in many instances, lost, in course of time in this 

country, the translation and i?i some cases the original itself lias 
survived in Tibet. As one illustration, mention may be made of 
the Avadana Kalpalata of Kshemendra, no manuscript of which 
could be traced in this country; indeed, it was supposed to have 
been lost, but was recovered in Tibet, in original, with a Tibetan 

version. The publication of tin's work was undertaken some yean 
ago by our Society, and although some progress has been made, it 
has remained in abeyance by reason of the death of one of the 

editors. If one wishes to find a parallel to an incident of this 
description in the history of modern literary research, one must 
travel to Egypt, which has given back to Europe some of the most 

exquisite products of the Greek intellect, the fragments of Bac- 
chvlides, the Mimes of Herondas, and the long-lost work of 
Aristotle on the Constitution of Athens. It is obvious, therefore, 
that a wider knowledge of Tibetan literature, specially of such 

portions of it as are translated or mainly founded on Sanskrit 

literature, must throw considerable light on the latl r. either by 
giving us back books which hare been lost in this country or by 

enabling us to determine with some approach to certainty, the 

original forms of works which, as they now stand, are believed on 

.food grounds to be full of later interpolations. It has been 
generally supposed that the literature of Tibet tfl mainly, if not 

mtirely, Buddhistic ; this, however, is erroneous because the 

Tibetans possess translation- of Kalidas's Meghduta, Vararuchi 

Satagatha, Rabigupta's Aryakosh, Valmiki's Ramayana, Vyasa's 
Mahabharat, Chanakya's Nitisastra, Dandi's Kavyadarsha, 

Panini's Yyakarana, Chandra Vyakarana, Pramanasamucca\ a of 
Dignaga, and various other works including several, the originals 
of which cannot be traced in this country. It looks, therefore, as 
if the most profitable coarse which a serious student of Indian 
antiquities may pursue is to take himself to the study of Tibetan, 
and a minute examination of the manuscripts at our disposal, 

beginning with those which were bron ht nearly eighty years agQ 

by Mr. Hodgson while Resident at Nepal and ending with those 
brought last year by the Tibet Mission. Of the manuscript- 
brought by Mr. Hodgson, those known as the Kaniryur. consisting 
of a hundred volumes, are deposited in our library, while those 
known as the Tangyur, consisting mainly of non-Buddhistic 
Sanskrit works and extending over two hundred and twenty -five 
volumes, were deposited in the India Office, London. Only a small 
fragment of these has, up to the present moment, been worked 
through by scholars, and as regards those brought by the Tibet 

xxviii Annual Eejport. [February, 1906. 


, they have not yet been completely ex; 
But an inkling of -what rich harvest is i 

examined and cata- 
in store for us may 

be obtained from one or two recent instances. Thus the Tibetan 

in the front r 




which is not available in this country, enables us to trace the 
history of the rise and development of this branch of Hindu 
Philosophy. I need only refer to the scholarly paper on the sub- 
ject by Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, pub- 
lished in the November number of our Journal. Another valu- 
able paper from the same learned member which opens the first 
volume of our new series of Memoirs indicates how additional 
light may be thrown on the somewhat obscure problem of t lie 
progress of Tantricism by an intelligent study of Tibetan scrolls 
and images. The existence of the Tantra Sastras may thus 
apparently be traced at least as far back as the 6th century A. I)., 
and the question may ultimately arise whether the credit or dis- 
credit of founding that system and its attendant practices may not 

have to be shared by the Buddhists along with the Brahmins. It 

would be a mistake, however, to suppose that the only department 

of knowledge which is likely to be benefited by an examination of 
Tibetan books and manuscripts is the domain of Sanskrit litera- 
ture ; if from Tibetan sources we are likely to be in position to 
determine with some precision the early form of hooks like tin 
Ramayana and the Mahabharata, there can be no reasonable 
doubt that a somewhat similar result must follow in the case of 

i as well. It has been usually supposed hitherto 
that no Pah books were ever translated into Tibetan, and that tl.« 
Tibetan monks confined their attention to versions of Buddhistic 
works written in Sanskrit. It now turns out. however, that almost 
the entire Pali Tripitakas are preserved in Tibetan in translation. 

It is difficult to say whether the translations were made direct 

from Pah into Tibetan, or, as seems not unlikely, were Brsl trans- 
lated into Sanskrit and then into Tibetan. The Sanskrit versions, 
however, are extremely rare. Scholars interested in Pali litera- 
ture must consequently turn to Tibetan sources to determine to 
what extent interpolations have been introduced by the Buddhists 
of Leylon and Burma into their religious books] Under these 
circumstances, I trust the case is not put too high in favour of 
libetan studies, when it is maintained that they are likely to open 
up sources from which considerable light may be expected noon 
the history of Sanskrit as well as Pali literature. 

Amongst the papers published in our Journal and Proceed- 
ings and m the new series of Memoirs, there have been several 
contributed during the last year which may be ret -ded as of 
more than average interest and importance. Babu Ganga .Mohan 
l^askar, a young epigraphist of talent who made a special study of 
the epigraphy ami palaeography of Northern India as a research 
scholar under the Government of Bengal, and who has pre- 
pared a complete concordance to the Inscriptions of Asoka, 

contributed a note on four new copper-plate charters of 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. wi\ 

the Somavansi Kings of Kosala. These charters, written in 

characters of the lOth century, refer to a dynasty of four 
kings who reigned for over half a century. They were called 
Trikalinga Aclhipati and their dominions included Tosali, which 
the writer corrects into Kosala. I am not quite sure that tin's 
emendation is well founded; and it has been suggested on good 
grounds that the place may be Dhauli, near which there is an 

inscription of Asoka addressed to the officers of Tosali. liabu 
Monmohan Chakravarti furnished an edition of the Pabanaduta. 
which was first brought to the notice of the Society in 1898 by 
Mahamahopadhyaya Haxaprasad Sastri. The work a])pears to 
have been written by Dhoyika, one of the court poets of Laksli- 
man Sen, the last Hindu King of BengaL Pandit Yogesa 
Chandra Sastree discussed the question of the identity of the 
Prime Minister of the same king, Halavudha, the author of 

Brahmana Sarvasa. Mahamahopadhyay a Haraprasad Sastri con- 
tributed a paper on the history and development of the Nyaya 
Philosophy, which must be regarded as one of a highly controver- 
sial character. It is well known that the Nyaya Sutras, attribut- 
ed to Gautama or Akshapada, have been studied in this country 
with the aid of the Vashya, the Vartik and other commentaries 

by eminent Sankrit writers. Hindu Logic, however, has travelled 
to China and Japan, and there it lias been studied for centuries on 

somewhat different lines, as the students there start with Dignaga 
as the last of the great writers on Logic in India, The work of 

translated into Chinese about the middle of the 7th 

century by Hiouentsiang ; ami two of his disciples, one a Chinese 

and the other a Japanese, wrote great commentaries on it. The 

history of the introduction of Hindu Logic into China and Japan i 
a subject of abiding interest, and was examined recently by a dis- 
tinguished Japanese scholar, Mr. Sugiura, in a thesis presented to 
the University of Pennsylvania, We have, therefore, from Chinese 
and Japanese sources, Hindu Lo.u c as it existed in the beginning 
of the 7th century, and on that foundation Pandit Haraprasad 
Sastri has set himself to investigate the original form of the 
Nyaya Sutras. His conclusion is that the work is not homogeneous 
but consists of three independent treatises on Logic and three 
independent treatises on Philosophy. He maintains that the 
system was originally Hindu, dating back to pre-Buddhistic times, 
that it was modified by an infusion of Buddhistic ideas and 
subsequently altered again by the Saivas. The question, as I 
have already indicated, is one of great difficulty, and inferences 
when they are drawn largely from internal evidence, have always 
to be accepted with caution. I trust the problem will engage the 
attention of other members of the Society, but unfortunately 
we have none who is qualified to approach the subject with a first- 
hand knowledge of Chinese, Japanese, and Sanscrit. 

Tibetan and Pali Scholarship are well represented in the 
contributions of Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, and Mahamho- 
padhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana. The papers contributed 
by the former cover several centuries of the history of Tibet, and 

xxx Annual Report, [February, J 906 

in addition to an account of the various monasteries in Tibet and 
the rise of different sects of Buddhism in that country, throw con- 
siderable light upon the external history of Tibet in its relations 
with Mongolia and China. Professor Satis Chandra's papers, to 
two of which I have already referred, bear testimony to his 
acquaintance with Pali and Tibetan. His paper on Anurudha 
Thera, who was horn at Kanchi and whose chief work was done 
at Tan j ore and Tinnevelly, shows that Buddhism lingered in the 
great cities of Southern India as late as the 12th century A. I )., and 
that Pali used to he studied even up to thai time. His other 
paper on Dignaga, to which I have previously referred, enables us 
to fix the end of the 4th century as the time when that great 
authority on Indian Logic flourished, and this conclusion agrees 
substantially with that of Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad H stri, 
who placed him [in the 5th century and varies slightly from the 
result obtained by the Japanese scholar Takakusu , who, in a power- 
ful article on Vasubandhu, contributed to the Royal Asiatic 
Society of London last year, fixed the period in the sixth century. 

Apart from these papers, which are more or less of a philo- 
logical character, the lumber of papers dealing with historical 
problems has been unusually limited. Mir. Irvine tfave us a further 
instalment of his exhaustive monograph on the Later Moghuls, 

while Mr. Beveridge brought to Light some interesting foots about 

the Emperor Bahar, not mentioned in Alml Kazland overlooked 

by Erskine. It must be conceded, however, that the history of 

the Mahomedan period deserves greater attention at the hands of 
our members. 

In the department of the physical and natural sciences, we 

have had ample indication of activity on the part of our members. 

Botany is represented by further work on the Flora of the Malayan 
Peninsula by Sir George King and .Mi*. Gamble. Dr. Ajinandale 

Zoological contributions include papers on Indian snakes describ- 
ing- the additions made to the collection in the b m Museum, 
and on the lizards of the Andaman Islands. Chemistry is repre- 
sented in two Interesting papers, one on Sal Ammoniac by 

Mr. Stapleton. and the other on Alchemical Equipment in the Llth 
century by Mr. Stapleton and Mr, A/.oo. In the first of these 
papers an attempt is nude to carry hack the historj of Sal Am- 
moniac through Mahommedan times and to tin light on the 

primitive conceptions of nature which led to it^- introduction as an 

alchemical drug. The paper is of value as illustrating the close 

relation between animistic theories and the first germ of physical 
science in the Bast. The second paper is mainly historical in 
character and embodies an analysis of an Arabic treatise on 

Alchemy mposed towards the beginning of the llth century A.P., 

which shows the great importance attached to weights in chemical 

operations, seven centuries before the- age of Black md Lavoisier. 
In Geology, we had a valuable note from Mr. Silherrad on the 

chemical anal 3 of clay found in liundeikhand, and an extremely 
instructive lecture by Mr. Holland on the K;»ngra Yallev earth- 
quake illustrated by a series of hint rn slides. Finally, we had 

February, 1906. j Annual Report. xxxi 

from Major Rogers an important paper on fevers in Dinagepore, 
followed by a very suggestive lecture on Calcutta fevers. 

In the department of Anthropology, although we have had 
important contributions to local folklore and ethnology, I am 

afraid it would be difficult to say that it has aroused as much in- 
terest as its nature and importance would justify. In connection 

with this subject, our Anthropological Secretary, Dr. Annandale, has 

made an important suggestion which, when it is carried ovA with 
the co-operation of our members, will, I trust, promote and popu- 
larise its study. The proposal is to publish in our Memoirs a 
series of papers entitled "Miscellanea Ethnographies " giving illus- 
trations and descriptions of implements, utensils, apparatus, weapons 
and the like from different parts of India and the neighbouring 

countries. The scheme is one of great practical importance, 

because, if realized, it will help to bring together and preserve a 

mass of scattered knowledge which would otherwise be probablj 
lost. Very little information is available regarding the distribu- 
tion, uses, and manufacture of the common implements of the 
people, specially the apparatus used by different tribes and castes 
in agriculture, hunting and other pursuits of daily life. It is a 
great mistake to suppose that specimens of these are of value only 
if they are objects of ra rity or artistic* workmanship- It is equally 
erroneous to hold that such specimens are of value only if they 
are habitually used by primitive races in the lowe-t scale of civili- 
zation. The truth is that these implements of daily life, if proper- 
ly studied, furnish an excellent guide in the examination of the 
growth of human intelligence. It is essential therefore that such 
specimens should be collected, classified and studied, before they dis- 
appear in the face of the European or semi-European methods and 

implements which are fast making their way in many directions. 
Dr. Annandale has recently given us illustrations of the work 
which may usefully be taken up in this direction by exhibiting to 
members of the Society the use of the Blow gun in Southern India 
and the Malayan Peninsula, and the use of pi uliar types of 
weighing beams in different parts of Asia, closely analogous to 
what prevails in Europe and is there traceable to Scandinavian 
influences. The subject is obviously one of great interest and 
importance, and I trust it may engage the attention of some of our 

During the last year, the publication of Oriental works and 
their translations in the series known as the " Bibliotheea Indies w 
has been carried on with more than usual zeal and activity. As a 
result, not only has the surplus in this fund been exhausted, 
but the Society has found it necessary to contribute 

temporarily a sum of Ks. 2,000 to meet the expenses for 

work already done. There will consequently be a reduction in 
the number of works to be published in the course of the present 
year, and the Council have decided that, in future, a complete list 
of the works which may be undertaken in the course of any one 
session, must be definitely settled a nd budgetted for in advance. 
Of the works which have been published during the year in the 


Annual Report. [February, 1006. 

" Bibliotlieca Indica " an account has been given in the report sub- 
mitted to you this evening. I would only invite attention to the 
completion of the English version of the " Markandeya Purana" by 
Mr. Justice Pargiter. The learned translator has furnished an 
elaborate introduction in which he shows that the work was 
composed at two widely distant periods, one probably some cen- 
turies before the beginning of the Christian era, and the other some 
centuries after it. The approaching retirement of Mr. Justice 
Pargiter cannot fail to be a source of sincere regret to every mem- 
ber of this Society, and the regret is deepened by the fact that 
there are few, if any, amongst the junior members of the dis- 
tinguished service to which he belongs, who are qualified to take 
his place in the field of Oriental scholarship. Another work which 
was completed during the year and which deserves special men- 
tion is the Persian version of Morier's Haji Baba by Shaik Ahmad 
of Kirman, upon which Major Phillott had been engaged for some 
time past. It may no doubt be said that in undertaking the publi- 

cation of this work, the Society has departed from its hitherto 

invariable practice of publishing only classical Arabic and Persian 

works. The work, however, furnishes so good an example of 

modern Persian, and is so truthful a picture of the manners and 

customs of the people, that its inclusion in our list of publications 

is amply justified. The value of the edition has been greatly 

enhanced by the notes of the editor, in which all tin slang term 

and colloquialisms not found in the dictionaries are lucidly ex- 

There are two other topics to which I shall like to invite your 
attention before I bring my address to a close. During the year 
which has just ended, considerable progress has been made in the 
search for Sanskrit manuscripts, an alan in tho »omr"h far 



and Persian manuscripts. So far as the search of 
scripts is concerned, which was conducted under the supervision 
of Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sastri, the progress of the 
operations during the year is marked by three important events. 
The first is the publication of the Catalogue of Palm-leaf and 

selected paper manuscripts in the Durbar Library in Nepal. The 


the search during the last fi ve years The third is the acquisition 

of about twelve hundred Jain manuscripts far which the Govern- 
ment of India made a special grant of Rs. 5,000 to the Society. 
The Catalogue as also the Report contains valuable information 
upon Tantric literature, and they have been receive.! with consider- 
able interest by European scholars. The Jain collection has only 
been recently acquired and has not been vet completely catalogued, 

but so far as can be judged from the materials at our disposal, 

even these works may throw some light upon Tantric lore." We 
have thus accumulated a mass of material which is of the highest 


, . , - ... .•.uu,,,,^ UW cimuuuu Of the 

doctrines which lie at the foundation of our Tantras. 

n«*ve inus accumulated a mass of material which is of the big 

value in examining the political and literary condition of Eat 

India for several centuries, as also in studying the evolution o 

A r:\hic 

February, 1906.] Annual Report* xxxiii 

which was conducted under the supervision of our Philological 
Secretary, Dr. Ross, the success has been still more renin rka hie. 
The total number of manuscripts purchased up to the middle of 
October last was about seven hundred, and you will he able to 
appreciate the value of the collection when I tell you that manu- 
scripts of great rarity have been acquired from different parts of 
India, such as Lucknow, Delhi and Hyderabad, as also from two 
valuable collections which were brought by two Arabian travellers. 
The books represent almost every branch of Oriental literature, and 
as many as eighty of these are unique, giving us works of ancient 
and modern authors which are not even mentioned in any of the 
European Catalogues, As regards the age of these manuscripts, a 
sufficient indication is afforded by the fact that at least a hundred 
of them range in date between the thirteenth and the fifteenth 
centuries. Dr. Ross has been able to secure autograph copies of 
the works of about sixteen authors, some of which bear the 
original corrections and marginal notes of the authors themselves, 
while the interest attaching to others is enhanced by the fact that 
they bear upon them lines from the pen of eminent scholar- who 
flourished during the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries. 
Amongst the most important of the additions made to the collec- 
tion during the year, I may mention specially a work written in 
the fourteenth century by the Spanish Vizir LisanuoMin, which 
gives biographical notices* of all the Moorish poets of the e _ 
century of the Mahomedan era. "We have also secured an impor- 
tant book on tradition written by Yusoof bin Abdur Rahaman in 
A.D. 1341, which enumerates all the traditions and sayings of the 
Arabian Prophet, arranged in such a manner as to indicate at a 
glance how many traditions have referred to each traditionist. 
In addition to these we have secured the manuscript of an impor- 
tant work called "Rubab Kama," by the son of Jelaluddin Rumi. 
the greatest Sufi poet of Persia, When we add to these the valu- 
able history of authors of the sixth century of the Mahomedan 
era compiled by Ispahani in the beginning of the thirteenth 
century A.D., we ought to be able to realize the value and the 
importance of the materials at our disposal. Our first duty is to 
undertake an examination of this collection and the preparation 
of proper catalogues. Our next duty would be the publication of 
some of these unique manuscripts- and make them available to 
scholars all over the world If we neglect the duty which has thus 
been cast upon us, we may rightly be likened to those unhappy 
beings who will hoard their wealth and neither use it themselves 
nor allow others to be benefited by it. From the generous aid 
which the Government of India has already given to us, we may 
legitimately expect that the Government will not be alow to render 
assistance if the work is undertaken and systematically carried on 
by competent scholars under the supervision of the Society. The 
past history of the Society, however, makes it painfull}' clear that, 
while the interests of Sanskrit learning have been carefully 
watched and nurtured, the interests of Arabic and Persian Litera- 
ture have, of late rears, been sadly neglected. In this department 

Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

at any rate we have distinctly lost ground since the days of 
Sprenger and Blochmann ; and I trust that under the guidance of 
Dr. Ross, whose devotion to these studies is well known, a serious 
effort will now be made to retrieve our reputation in this 


I have now given you a brief , and, I am afraid, a very 
imperfect account of the work done by the Society during the hist 
year, and I have ventured to indicate some of the directions in 
which research may be profitably carried on. Our illustrious 
founder defined the bounds of our investigation to be the geo- 
graphical limits of Asia, and he sought to include within the scope 
of our enquiries whatever is performed by man or produced by 
nature. It is manifest that although our Society lias been in 
existence for about a century and a quarter, the field of in- 
vestigation has been by no means exhausted. True it is that we 
are no longer in a position to repeat the triumphs of the early 
years of our existence when Sir William Jones discovered Sanskrit 
and James Prinsep deciphered the edict of Asoka. Yet th< 
problems in oriental scholarship, both lit. iaiy and scientific which 
still await solution, are so numerous and so fascinating, that I can- 
not conceive any adequate reason why our Society should ever 

The Chairman announced that the scrutineers reported the 
result of the election of Officers and Members of Council to be afi 

follows : 


His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.C.S.I 

Vice-Preside nts. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya. M.A., D.L.. 
F "R S F 

T. H. Holland, Esq., P.G.S., F R.S. 
A. Earle, Esq., I.C.8. 

Secretary and Treasurer. 


Honorary General Secretary .—J . Macfarhme, Esq. 
Treasurer.— The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 

M.A.. D.L., F.R.S.E. l " ' 

Additional Secretaries. 
Philological Secretary .— E. D. Ro.^ , Esq., Ph.D. 

Natural History Secretary .— I. II. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 
Anthropological Secretary .— N. Anuandal, Esq., D.Sc. 
C.M.Z.S. ' 

Joint PMohgical Secretary : — M aha mahopadh y ay a Har;<- 

prasad Shastri, M.A. 

February, 1906.] Annual Report. xxxv 

Other Members of Council. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyablmshan, 

Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 23rd Cavalry F.F. 

C. Little, Esq., M.A. 

Hari Nath De, Esq., M.A. 

Major F. P. Maynard, I. M.S. 

J. A. Cunningham, Esq., B.A. 

Major W. J. Buchanan, I.M.S. 

The Meeting: was then resolved into the Ordinary General 




F.R.S.E., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Fifty-five presentations were announced. 

It was announced that Mr. M. G. Simpson had expressed a 
-wish to withdraw from the Society. 

A vacancy having occurred owing to the death of Dr. W. T. 
Blanford, the Council recommended the Right Hon'ble Baron 
Curzon of Kedleston, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., for election as an 
Honorary Member at the next meeting. 

For many years before coming to India as Viceroy, Lord 
Curzon had devoted himself to a large section of the problems 
which form the special province of this Society. In 1895, he was 
awarded the Patron's gold medal of the Royal Geographical 
Society for his great work on the Geography, History, Archaeology 
and political questions of Persia ; for journeys of exploration in 
French Indo-China ; and for an expedition to the Hindu Kusli. 
the Pamirs and the Oxus. For many years, like the distinguished 
scientific man -whose lamented death has created a vacancy in oui 
list of Honorary Members, Lord Curzon -was a Member of 
Council and Vice-President of the Geographical Society of which 

he has been a Fellow since 1888. 

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1898 before 

his departure for India. 

Lord Curzon's personal interest in the welfare of this Society, 
shown on so many occasions, was an expression of his devotion 
to the questions which it is our main object to st udy. His add res 
to this Society, at the Annual Meeting in 1899, on the value of 
ancient historical monuments in the country, found practical 
expression in his resuscitation of the Archaeological Department 
for the restoration and study of historical marks that would other- 
wise have been lost. 

Of all the distinguished men who have accepted our Honorary 

Membership, there is none who has been more closely linked with 
the special problems that form the peculiar province of the 

xxxv i Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

original Asiatic Society, and none who would more thoroughly 
appreciate this opportunity of keeping in touch with the work 
which he commenced as an independent investigator and continued 
as Viceroy and Governor- General of India. Lord Curzon's emi- 
nence in the world of letters has been recognised by the Hony. 
Degree of D.C.L. conferred on him by the University in which 
he had had such a distinguished career before taking up political 

T. H. Holland. 

Mr. 0. Russell, Professor, Presidency College, proposed by 
Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, seconded by Mr. J. Mac- 
farlane; Babu Girindra Kumar Sen, proposed by Mr. Hari Kath 
De, seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane ; and The Hon. Mr. C. A. Logan, 
I.C.S., proposed by Mr. J. Macfarlane, seconded by the Hon. Mr. 
H. H. Risley, were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

Mr. H. H. Hayden gave a lecture on the scenery of Tibet, 
illustrated by lantern slides. 

The following papers were read : 

1. Supplementary note on the Bengal poet JDhoyika and th 
Sena Kings. —By Monmohax Chakravarti, M.A. 

2. A list of a small collection of Mammals from the plains of 
the Madura District. — By R. C. Wroughton, with notes by Dk. N. 


The paper will be published in the Memoir*. 







the 31ST December, *9 5. 




President : 

His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., 


Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mnkh opadhyaya, 

M.A., D.L., F.R.SJB. 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S. (retired.) 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

Honorary General Secretary : J. Macfarlane, sq. 
The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asntosh Mukhopadhyaya, 

M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 


. Additional Secretaries. 

Philological Secretary : B. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 
Natural History S< retary .» Major L. Rogers, M.D., 


Anthropological Secretary: N. Annaiukle, Esq., 

D.Sc, C.M.X.S. 
Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopldbyfiys 

Haraprasad Shastri, M.A. 

Other Member* of Council. 


Kumar Ramessur ]\ralinh. 

I. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 
H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 
A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Lieut.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, I.M.S. 

II. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 
E. Thornton, Esq., R.I.B.A. 
Mahamahopadhyaya, Sati> Cliandra V 




R . = Resident. N. R. = Non- Resident. 

L.M. = Life Member. 

A. = Absent. N.S. = Non-Subscribing 
F.if.« Foreign Member. 

N.B* — Members who have changed their residence since the list was drawn 
up are requested to give intimation of such a change to the Honorary General 
Secretary, in order that the necessary alteration may be made in the subse- 
quent edition. Errors or omissions in the following list should also be com- 
municated to the Honorary General Secretary. 

Members who are about to leave India and do not intend to return an 
particularly requested to notify to the Honorary General Secretary whether 
it is their desire to continue Members of the Society ; otherwise, in accord- 
ance with Rule 40 of the rules, their names will be removed from the list at 
the expiration of three years from the time of their leaving India. 

ate of Election. 

1903 Feb. 4. 

1894 Sept. 27. 

1895 May 1. 

1 903 April 1 . 

1901 Aug. 7. 

1904 Sept. 28. 
1888 April 4. 

1888 Feb. 1. 




Abdul Alim. Calcutta, 

Abdul Wali, Maulavie. lianehi. 

Alidus Salam, Maulavie, u..\. Cuttuck. 

Abul Aas, Maulavie Say id, Rais and Zemindar. 

Pat, hi. 

Adams, Margaret. Baptist Zenana Mission. 

X.R. Ahmad Hasain Khan, Mnnshi. Jhelum. 

W. Ahniml, Shams-ul-ulama Maulavie. 

C ■>- 


1885 Mar. 4. 

1899 Jan. 4 
1903 Oct. 28 

1900 Aug. 1 

1874 June i I 






c.i.i:.. k.i:.-. Calcutta. 


1893 Aug. 31 

1884 Sept. 3. 
1904 Sept. 28 
1904 Jan. 6. 
1904 July 6. 

1*70 Feb. 2. 








AH Bilgrami. Sayid, B.A., A.K.s.M., F.G.S. 

derail i id. 
AM Hussain Khan, Xawab. Lucknow. 

Allan, Dr. A. S., m.B. Calcutta. 

Allen. The Hon'ble Mr. C. G. H.. i.« .*. 


Ameer Ali, m.a., c.i.i:., Barrister-at-La\v. 


Anderson, Major A. R. S., b.a., M.B., i.m.s, 


Anderson, J. A. Europe. 

Annandale, Nelson, D.SC., r.M.z.S. Calcutta. 

Ashton, R. l\ ' alcutta. 
Aulad Hasan, Sayid. Dacca. 

Baden-Powell, Baden Henry, m.a., c.i.i 



Date of Election. 

1901~Jan. 2 
1898 Nov. 2 


1891 Mar. 4. 

1898 Aug. 3. 

. 1900 Aug. 29. 

1905 Mar. 1. 

1896 Mar. 4. 
1869 Dec. 1. 

Nov. 4. 
1877 Jan. 17. 

1898 Mar. 2. 
1902 Mav 7. 

1894 Sept. 27 

1895 July 3. 

1876 Nov. 15 

1897 Feb. 3. 
1893 Feb. 1. 
1885 Mar. 4. 


1895 July 3. 


Badshah, K. J., b.a., i.c.s. Europe. 

Bailey, The Revd. Thomas Grahame, m.a., b.d. 

Baillie, D. C, i.c.s. Ghazipur. 

N.R. Bain, Lieut.-Col. D. S. E., i.m.s. Mercara. 












Baker, The Hon. Mr. E. N\, c.s.i., i.c.s. 

Banei-jee, Muralidhar. Calcutta. 

Banerji, Satish Chandi*a, m.a. Allahabad. 

Barker, R. A., m.d. Europe. 

Barman, Damudar Das. Calcutta. 

Barman, H.H. The Maharaja Radha Kishor 



Barnes, Herbert Charles, i.c.s. Shillong. 

Bartlett, E. W.J. Calcutta. 

Basu, Nagendra Natha. Calcutta. 

Beatson-Bell, Nicholas Dodd, h.a., i.c.s 

Europe . 

d). Europe. 



1890 July 2. A. 

1897 June 2. 
1895 Mar. 6. 

1880 Nov. 3. 


1895 April 3. 

I860 Mar. 7. 

1905 Mar. 1 . 
1901 Sept. 25 



Bloeh, Theodor, rn.i.. Calcutta. 

Bodding, The Revd. P. O. liampore Haut. 

Bolton, Charles Walter, c.s.i., i.c.s. (retired). 

Bonham-Carter, Norman, 1.0.8. Saran. 

Bonnerjee, AVomes Chunder, Barri ter-at-Law, 

Middle Temple. 




Bose. Jag: n 1 i s Chandra, m.a., d.SC, C.i.k., 

Ilengal Education Service. 


I M . 


' 1887 May 4 r' 
1901 June 5. R. 

1896 Jan. 8. 
1900 May 2 
1904 Aug. 3. 

Bose, Piamatha Natli, B.8< ., p.o.s. Maurblainj. 

Bose, Sasi Bliusan. Qxridi. 

Bourdillon, Sir James Austin, K.C.8.I., C.S.I., 

i.c.s. (retired). Etm.pc. 

Branch's, Sir Dietrich, K.C.I.K., PH.D., K.L.S., f.B.8. 

town. W 

Cam ill all . 

Buchanan, Major W. .1., i.m.s. Calcutta, 
Bural, Nobin CI, ami. Solicitor. Calcutta. 
Burkill, I. Henry, m.a. Calcutta. 

1898 Sept. 30 
1901 Jan. 2. 
1901 Mar. 6. 
1895 July 3. 

1905 May 3. 

£.R. Burn, Richard, i.c.s. Simla. 
• K - L iut cher, Flora, m.d. Lndhiana. 






Bythell, Major, W. J., r.k. Calcutta. 


Cable, The Hontle Sir Ernest, Ki. Calcutta. 
Campbell, Duncan. Europe. 
Campbell, W. K. M M i.c.s. Allahabad. 
Carlyle, The Hon. Mi-. Robert Warrand, C.i.k.. 

( I.C.S. Calcutta. 

Chakravaiti. Dwarkanath. Calcutta. 


Date of Election 

1890 June 4. 

1905 July 5. 
1901 June 5. 
1904 July 6. 


Aug. 27 



1893 Sept. 28 
1902 April 2. 

lug 2. 


1880 Aug. 26. 

1903 Aug. 26. 

1898 June 1. 
1876 Mar. 1. 
1901 June 5. 
1887 Aug. 25. 

1905 July 7. 
1895 July 3. 

1873 Dec. 3. 








1905 Jan. 4. 


July 7. 
Feb. 4. 
1879 April 7. 

1900 July 4. 
1896 Mar. 4. 




1904 July 6. 
1904 Sept. 28 
1903 June 3. 
1895 Sept. 19 
1902 Mar. 5. 
1895 Dec. 4. 





1899 Aug. 30. N.R. 

1900 May 2. I N.R. 
1905 Aug. 2. 'N.R. 

1901 June 5. 

1902 Feb. 5. 
1898 Jan. 5. 
1902 July 2. 
1886 June 2. 

1902 Jan. 8. 





Chakravarti, Man Mohan, M.A., h.l. Deput] 

Magistrate. Howrah. 

Chaknivarti, Vanamali. Calcutta. 
Chapman, E. P., l.c.8. Europ< . 

A. Charles, A. P., T.c.s. Em-ope. 

R. Chaudliuri, A., Piinister-at-Law. Calcutta. 

R. Chaudhm-i, Ban&Wari Lain,, Bdin. Cal- 

R. I CJnmder, Raj Cliander, Attorney-:it-L w. 


R. [ Clemesha, Captain W. W., m.b., i.m.s. Calcutta. 
F.M. I Clerk, General Malcolm G. Europe. 

Copleston, The Right Revd. Dr. Reginald 

Stephen, D.D. herd Bishop of Calcutta. 
Coidier, Dr. Palmyr. Europe. 
Crawford, James, b.a., i.c.S. Europe. 
Crawfurd, Major D. G., i.m.s. Chinturah. 

Criper, William Risdon, r.C.S., P.I.C., a.R.s.m. 

Cunningham. J A. Calcutta. 
Cumming, John Ghest. i.C.S. Patna. 

Dames. Mansel Long worth, 1.0.8, Europe. 

Das, Govinda. Benarei. 
Dass, Mucksoodan. Calcutta, 

Das, J. N. Khduu. 

Das, Rai Bahadur BhaAvan, m.a. Ifosliia, f>»r. 
Das, Ram Saran, m.a., Secy., Oudli Commer- 
cial Bank. Limited. FyzabmL Oudh. 

Das, Syam Sunder, b.a. Benares. 

D as- Gupta, Jogendra Nath, b.a., Barrister-at- 

Law. ( Calcutta. 

De, Brajendra Nath, M.A., i.c.S. Ilooghhj. 

DeCourcy, W. B. Cachar. 

De, Hari Nath, r.A. (Cantab). Calcutta. 

De, Kiran Chandra. B.A., I.C.S, 




Deb, Ra jaBinoy Krishna, Bahadur. 

Delmerick, Charles Swift. Bareilly. 

Dev, Raj Kumar Satchidanand, Bahadur. 

Deoguih. Sambalpur, 
Dev, Raja Satindra, Rai Mahesaya. Bamberi*. 
Dev, Sri Kripamaya Ananga Bhimkishore (*a- 

japati Maharaj. Ganjam. 
Dey, Nuudolal. Bhagulpur. 
Dixon, F. P. i.e.- Chittagong. 

Dods, W. K. Calcutta. 

Doxey, P. Calcutta. 

Doyle, Patrick, C.E., F.R.A.S., F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Drummond, J. R., I.C.S. Europe. 


Date of Election. 

1892 Sept. 22. 
1889 Jan. 2. 

1905 April 5. 
1879 Feb. 5. 
1892 Jan. 6. 
1877 Aug. 30. 
1900 April 4. 



1900 July 4. 

1903 Oct. 28. 
1903 Mav 6. 

1900 Mar. 7. 

1900 Aug. 29. 

1905 Jan. 4. 







1901 Mar. 6. 
1904 Aug. 3. 

1894 Dec. 5. 
1898 Sept. 30 

1902 April 2. 







1903 Mar. 4. 

1893 Jan. 11. 
1899 Aug. 30 
1902 June 4. 
1889 Jan. 2. 
1905 July 7. 

1902 Feb. 5. 
1905 May 3. 
1889 Mar. 6. 
1869 Feb. 3. 
1861 Feb. 5. 

1905 July 7. 



R . 
N.R . 



Aug. 2. 

July 7. 



1905 May 3. 
1876 Nov. 15 

1900 Dec. 5. 

1901 April 3. 


X. R . 




N. R . 






Drury,Major Francis James, M.B., i.m.s. Europe. 

Dudgeon, Gerald Cecil, Holta Tea Co., Ld. 


Dunnett, J. M., r.c.8. LyaUpwr. 
Duthie, J. F., b.a., f.l.s. Europe. 

Dutt, Gerindra Nath. Huttoa. 

Dutt, Kedar Nath. Calcutta. 

Dyson, Major Herbert .lekvl, P.B.C.B., i.m.s. 




Earle. A., i.« .s. tirope. 

Edelston, T. I). Coin, t hi. 

Edwards. Walter Noel. Sootea, Assam. 
Fansliawe, Sir Arthur Upton, 0.8 1., k.c.ik., 

I.C.S. C'llriithi. 

Kanshawe, The Bon. Mi-. II. C, C.8.I., I.C.8. 

Eraser, His Honour Sir Andrew II. D., MA. 

l.l.d., k c.8.1. Calcutta. 
Fergusson, J. C. Eu 
Fermor, L. Leigh. C<ilc><th,. 

Finn. Fiank, B.A., v./.-. I nape. 

Firminger, The Revd. Walter K. m.a., Cal- 
cutta . 

Fuller, His Honour Sir- Joseph Ranipfylde, 

K.r.s.r. Shittona. 

Gage, Captain Andrew Thomas, m.a., m.h.,, 

F.r..s., t.M.s. oibpur. 
Gait, Edward Albert, t.c.s. Chaibaua. 
Garth, Dr. II. C. Calcutta. 

Ghu/.navi. A. A. Mymensing. 

Gn ?e, Jogendra Chandra, m.a.. u.i.. GalcvH"- 

Ghosh, Amnlya Charau Vid abhusana. Cal- 

Ghosh, Girish Ch under, Calcutta. 

Ghosh, Hemendra Prasad. J *re. 

Ghosha, Bhnpendra Sri. i;.\.. b.L. Calcutta. 

Ghosha, Pratapa Chandra, h.a. Vindyachal. 

Godwin-Austen. Lieut. -Colonel H. H., k.r.s., 

W.2.B., I'.e.o.s. Europe. 
Goswami, Hem Chandra. Qauhati. 
Gourlav, ( ptain C. A., i.m.s. Shilhng. 
Grant, Captain J. W.. i.m.s. Europe. 

Graves, H. (I. Calcutta. 

Grierson, Cenvge Abraham. PH.D., CLE., I.C.S. 




Guha, Abhava Sankara. Qoalpora 


l>ate of Election. 

1898 J^ne 1. 
1898 April 6. 

1898 Jan. 5. 

1901 Mar. 6. 
1892 Jan. 6. 
1904 Sept, 28. 
1899 April 5. 



1884 Mar. 5. L.M 

1897 Feb. 3. 

1904 June 1. 

1904 Dec. 7. 
1892 Aug. 3. 
1872 Dec. 5. 

1891 July 1. 

1898 Feb. 2. 
1884 Mar. 5. 
1901 Dec. 4. 
1873 Jan. 2. 
1905 July 7. 

18! »() Dec. 3. 

1866 Mar. 7. 
1903 Sept. 23. 

1905 Nov. 1. 

1901 Jan. 6. 

1899 April 5. 
1882 Mar. 1. 
1867 Dec. 4. 

1904 May 4. 
1896 July 1. 

1891 Feb. 4. 

1899 Auq-. 30. 
1902 Feb. 5. 
1904 Jan. 6. 
1902 Jan. 8. 
1887 May 4. 
1889 Mar. 6. 





Gupta, Bepiu Beliari. Cuttack. 

Gupta, Krishna Govinda, i.c.S., Barristei-at- 

Law. Calcutta. 
Gurdon, Major P. R. T., r.A. Gaukati. 






Habibur Rahman Khan. Maulavie 

Haii^', Major Wolseley, i.a. Berar. 

Hallward, N. L. Shil'ong. 

Hare. .Major B. C, [.M.S. Europe. 


i /'"''■ 

ttli than. 














A 1 i 

<i.C I.K. 

Mirza Sir Wala Q 

Hayden, H. H., b.a., b.e., p.g.s., Geological 

Survey of India. Calcutta. 
Hewett. J. P., i.e. s. (retired). Europe. 
Hill, E. G. Allahabad. 

Hill, Samuel Charles, b.a., B.SC. Nagpur. 
Hoernle, Augustus Frederick Rudolf, ph.i>., 

CLE. Europe. 
Holland, Thomas Henry, A.R.C.S., P.G.S., k.r.s., 
Director. Geological Survey of India. Calcutta. 

Hooper, David, r.c.s. Calcutta. 


Hooper. Tlie Hon. Mr. John, b.a., i.c.s. Allakar 

Hossack, Dr. W. C. Calcutta. 

Houstonn, G\ L., F.G.S., Europe 

Humphries. Edgar de Montfort, b.a., i.c.s. 


Hyde, The Kevd. Henry Barry, m.a. Madras. 

Irvine, William, i.c.s. (retired). Europe. 9 
Ito, C. Europe. 


Jackson, A. M. T., i.c.s. Bombay. 

Jackson, V. H., m.a. Calcutta. 

Kempthorne, H. E. Calcutta. 

Kennedy, Pringle, m.a. Moz»fferpore. 

King, Sir George, m.b., k.c.i.e., ll.d., f.l.s., 
f.r.s., I. M.s. (retired). Europe. 

Knox, K. N., i.c.s. Banda. 

Kiichler, George William, m.a., Bengal Educa- 
tion Service. Europe. 

Kupper, Raja Lala Bunbehari. Burdimv. 

Lai, Dr. Manna. Banda . 

N.R. Lai, Lala Sliyam. Allahabad. 

A. Lai, Panna, m.a., Europe. 

A. Lall, Parmeshwara. Europe. 
JjM. Lanman, Charles R. Europe. 

R. La Touche, Thomas Henry Digges, b.a.. Geolo- 
gical Survey of India. Calcutta. 


Date of Electiou. 

1900 Sep. 19. 

1902 July 2. 
1889 Nov. 6. 

1903 July 1. 
1900 May. 2. 
1902 Oct, 29. 
1889 Feb. 6. 

1904 Oct. 31. 
1902 July 2. 

1 905 Aug. 2. 

1869 July 7. 

1870 April 7. 

1896 Mar. 4. 
1902 July 2. 
1901 Aug. 7. 

1893 Jan. 11. 
1891 Feb. 4. 

1902 April 2. 
1893 Aug. 31. 

1898 Nov. 2. 
1889 Jan. 2. 

1901 June 5. 
1905 Dec 6. 

1902 May. 7. 

1903 Aug. 5. 
1892 April 6. 
1905 Aug. 2. 
1901 Aug. 28. 

1899 Feb. 1. 

1899 Mar. 1. 
1905 Feb. 1. 


July. 3. 

Mar. 3. 

1900 Jan. 19. 

1884 Nov. 5. 

1884 Sep. 3. 
1904 April 6. 
1898 April 6. 
1874 M a v. 6. 








L. M 

1895 Aug. 29. R. 





N.R . 






N T . R. 





Law, Tbe Hon. Sir Edward F. G., k.c.m.g., 

c.s.i. Europe. 
Leake, H. M. Saharanpxr. 

Lee, W. A., f.r.m.s. Calcutta. 

Lefroy, Harold Maxwell. Mozufferpn ,- . 

Leistikow. F. R. Europe. 

Lewes, A. H. Calcutta. 

Little, Charles, M.A., Bengal Education Service. 

Calcutta . 
Longe, Col. F. B., r.k. Calnitta. 
Luke, James. Calcutta. 
Lukis, Lt.-Col. C. P., i. m.s. Calcutta. 

Lyall, Sir Charles James, m.a., k. c.s.i., « i.r.. 
ll.d., i.c.s. (retired). Eh^ ■ . 

Lyman, B. Smith. Em-ope. 

MacBlaine, Frederick, r.c.s. Natl 


E". )"•. 

Macfarlane, John, Librarian, Imperial Library. 





Maddox, Captain R. II.. [.M.S. Jianchi. 
Mahatha, Pm-meshwar Narain. Mozi/fferpore. 
Mahmnd fiilani, Sham&S- ul-Ulama Shaikh. 


Malta*, Akshaya FCnmar, b.a., b.l. Rajshahi. 

Maliali. Kumar Ramessur. H vrah. 



Maractai, Edmund, b.a.. k.r.o.s. Calcutta. 

Marshall, J. H. Simla, 

Masoom, Dr. Ifeerza Mohammad. Calcutta. 

Maynard, Major P. P., i.m.s. Calcutta. 



McLeod, Norman. Calcutta. 

McMahon, Major Sir A. H., EJU.E., c.s.i., CXBi 

i.a. (p't'Ha* 

McMinn, C. W., b.a., i.c.s. (retired). Calcutta. 

Melitu s 



L.M. Metha, Rnstomjee Dlimijeeblmv. 0X1. OaU 

cutta . 

Michie, Charles, Calcutta. 

Middlemiss, C. B., b.a. Geological Survey of 

India. Calcutta. 


H any. Calcutta, 




Nag j 


Date of Election. 

1897 "jam 6. 
1901 Aug. 28. 
1897 Nov. 3. 

1905 Dec. 6. 
1901 Aug. 7. 


July 3. 
May 4. 
June 6. 

1904 Jan. 6. 
1894 Aug. 30. 
1900 May 2. 
1899 Sept. 29. 
1886 May 5. 

1892 Dec. 7. 
1901 April 3. 

1885 June 3. 

1904 Dee. 7. 
1901 Mar. 6. 
1889 Aug. 29. 

1885 Feb. 4. 

1887 July 6. 

1901 Jan. 2. 
1880 Aug. 4. 

1901 Aug. 28. 
1904 Aug. 3. 
1880 Jan. 7. 

1901 Jixne 5 
1899 Aug. 2 

1873 Aug. 6 

1888 June 6. 











1899 Jan. 7. 

1900 Dee. 5. 
1905 Nov. 1. 
1880 Dec. 1. 
1905 May 3. N.R 







Misra, Tulsi Rani. Atvagarh. 
Mitra, Kumar NarendraNath. Calcutta. 
Mitra, The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Saroda Charan, 
M.A., b.l. Calcutta. 

Mohamed Hossain Khan Midhut. Calcutta. 

Molony, E., i.c.s. Caicnpur. 

Monohan, Francis John, r.c.s. ShiUong. 

Mookerjee, R. N. Calcutta. 

Muhammad Shibli Nomani, Shams-ul-Ulama 

Maulavie. Align rh. 
Mukerjee, Hai'endra Krishna, M.A. Calcutta. 
Mukerjee, Sib Narayan. Uttarpara. 
Mukerji, P. B., Calcutta. 
Mukharji, Jotindra Nath, b.a. Calcutta. 

Mukhopadhyaya, The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asu- 

tosh, m.a., d.l., f.r.a.s., p.r.s.e. Calcutta. 
Mukhopadhyaya, Panchanana. Calcutta. 
Mullick, Pramatha Nath. Calcutta. 

Naemwoollah, Maulavie, Deputy Magistrate. 

Nathan, R., i.c.s. Europe. 

Nevill, H. R., i.c.s. Nairn Tal. 

Nimmo, The Hon'hle Mr. John Duncan. 


Nyayaratna, Mahamahopadhyaya Mahe-a 
Chandra, C.I.B. Boiares. 

O'Brien, P. H., i.c.8. Europe. 

N.R. O'Connor, Captain, "VV. P., B.A. Oyantse. 
N.R. O'Mally, L. S. S. Darjeeling. 
A. Oldham, R. D., A.E.8.M., f.O.8. Europe. 

Ollenbach, A. J. Or/'ssa. 
Oung, Moung Hla. Calcutta. 

Pande, Pandit Ramavatar, b.a., i.c.s. Hardoi. 

Pandia. Pandit Mohanlall Vishnulall, P.T.S., 


Panton, E. B. H., i.c.s. Satan. 
Parasnis, D.B. Saiara. 

Pargiter, The Hon. Mr. Justice Frederick 

Eden, B.A., I.C.S. Calcutta. 
Papons, W. < alcutta. 
Peake. C. W., m.a., Bengal Education Service. 

J a I pa fguri. 

Pedler, the Hon. Sir Alexander, CLE., F.R.S., 
Kt., Director of Public Instruction, Bengal. 

L.M. Pennell, Aubray Peicival, B.A., Barrister-at- 

Law. Rangoon. 


Dnte cf Election. 


1877 Aug. 1. 

1889 Nov. 6. 

1904 June 1. 
1904 Mar. 4. 
1889 Mar. 6. 


1889 Mar. 6. 

R. Percival, Hugh Melvile, M.A., Bengal Education 

Service. Calcutta. 

N.R. Peters, Lieut.-Colonel C. T., m.b., i.m.s. 


Phillott, Lieut -Col. f). C, 23rd Cavalry f.f., 

Secretary Board of Examiner*. Calcutta. 
Pilgrim, G. Ellcock. ( 'alcutta. 
Pirn, Arthur W., i.c.s. Jhanri. 

Plain, Lieut. -Col. David, M.A..M.B., LL.D., I.M.S , 

Superintendent, Royal Botanic (larden, 


Prasad, Hanuiiiaii, Kaes ami Zemindar. 





1880 April 7. 
1895 Aug. 29. 

1901 June 5. 
1900 April 4. 
1898 Aug. 3. 
1905 Jan. 4. 
1904 Mar. 4. 
1890 Mar. 5. 










INS 7 May 4. 


Rai, Bipina Chandra, b.l. Mymenringh. 

Rai Chaudhery. Jatindra Nath, M.A., B.L. 


Rai, Lai a Lajpat. Lahore. 

Raleigh, T. Europe. 

Ram, Sita, m.a. Moradabad. 
Rankin, J. T.. i.e.-. Dacca. 
Rapson, E. J. Europe. 
Ray. Pi-afulla Chandra, i>.sc, Bengal Ednca 
tiou Service. Calcutta. 

Ray, Prasanna Kumar, (Lond. and 

Edin.), Bengal Edu< rion Service. Calcutta. 

1905 May 3. N.R. Richardson, Thomas William, i.c.s. Banfapur 

1884 Mar. 5. , R. 

Risley, Tlie Hon. Mr. 

ci.i., i .as. Calcutta. 



1903 Mar. 4. N.R. Rogers, Charles Gilbert, *.L.s., f.c.ii., Indian 

1900 April 4. 

1900 Aug. 29. 

1901 Dec. 4. 

1889 June 5. 
1903 July 1. 





1896 Aug. 27. A. 
1905 Mar. 1. R. 


1899 June 7. 
1898 Mar. 2. 
1897 Nov. 3. 
1902 Feb. 5. 

1900 Dec. 5. 
1893 Jan. 11. 
1902 Feb. 5. 
1905 Jan 4. 

1901 Aug. 29. 


Forest Department. Port Blair. 
Rogers, Major Leonard, «.».,, 
f.b.c.s., i.m.8. Calcutta. 

Rose. H. A., i.c.s. Europe. 
Ross. E. Deni ,n, rn.i>. Calcutta. 

Roy, Maharaja Girjanath. Dinagepur. 
Roy, Maharaja Jagadindra Nath, Bahadur. 
( 'aloutta. 

Samman, Herbert Frederick, i.c.s. Europe. 

Saaiel S. C. Calcutta. 
Sarkar, Chandra Kumar. Kowkanik. 
Sarkar, Jadu Nath. Banlcipore. 
Saunders, C. Calcutta. 

Schulten, Dr. C. Calcutta. 

N.R. Sdnvaiger, Imre George. Delhi. 




Sen, A. C, i.c.s. liajshayee. 
Sen, Sukumar. Calcutta. 
Sen, Upendranath. Calcutta 



Date of Election. 

1885 April 1. 
1897 Dec. 1. 
1905 May 3. 

1 904 J a n . 6 . 

1 900 Mar. 7 . 


N. R. 

Sen, Yadu Nath. * 'alcutta. 
Setli. Mesrovb ,J. Calcutta. 



a pur 


1885 Feb. 4. 

1902 Dec. 3. 

1902 Mar. 5. 

1903 A] .rill. 

1893 Mar. 1 

May 2. 
May 3. 
Am?. 26. 
April 6. 

June 1. 






N T . R . 

Sharman, Gulab Shankar Dev, f.t.s. Puch 

Sastri-Samkhyaratmi-Vedatirtlia. Pandit Yo- 

gesa Chandra. 


Shastri, Mahamihopadhiya Haraprasad, m.a 

1902 Sep. 24 
1895 Aug. 29. 
1892 Mar. 2. 
1889 Aug. 29. 




Shastri, Harnarain. Delhi. 
Shastri. Rajendra Chandra, m.a. 

Shaun, Montague Churchill. E 
Shrager, Adolpha Calcutta. 
Silberrad, Chas. A., r.c.s. Banda, 


Uft >[>c. 


N.R. Sim] .son, J. Hope, i.e. s. Allahabad. 



2 Aug. 3. 

1SS9 Nov. 6. 


Simpson, Maurice George, m.i.k.k. Calcutta. 
Simpson. Robert Rowell, B.SC. Calcutta. 
Singh, Maharaja Kumara Sirdar Bharat, 



Singh, Kumar Birendra Chandra. ( 'alcutta. 
Singh, Lachmi Karayan, KJL, B.L. Calcutta. 

Singh, The Hon. Raja Ooday Pratab, Btng 
"' ' H.H. The Maharaja Prabhn Narain, 

Bahadur. Benares. 


1894 Feb. 7. 



1904 Mf 


1894 July 4. 

1897 Jan. 6. 
1872 Aug. 5. 

1905 Mar. 1. 
1901 Dec. 4. 
1904 Sept, 28. 

1898 April 6. 
1901 Mar. 6. 
1904 June 1. 


Singh, H.H. 




Hon. Maharaja Pratap 

Ajodhya, Oudh. 
Sineh, H.H. The Hon. Maharaja Ramesh- 

vara, Bahadur. Darbbanga. 
Singh, H.H. Raja Vishwa Natli. Bahadur, 

Chief of Chhatarpur. 
Singha, Chandra Narayan. 
Sino-ha Kumar Kamlananda. 

Sinha. Kumvar Kushal Pal, M.A. Nark 




Aug. 27. 

1899 Aug. 30. 

1900 Aug. 29 
1904 July 6. 
1904 Jan. 6. 



N . R . 





P.O.. Agra Dirtriet. 

Sii^car. Amrita Lai. f.CS. Calcutta. 

Skrefsrud, The Revel. Laurentius 

Rampore Haut. 
Sorabjee, Cornelia. Calcutta. 
Spooner, D. Brainerd. Europe. 

Stapleton,H. F, B.A., B.SC. Calcutta. 

Stark, Herbert A., h.a. Cuttac},. 
Stebbing, E. P. Dehra Th 

Stein, M. A., ph.d. Peshawar. 
Stephen, The Honble Mr. Justice, H. L. Cal- 
cutta. _ . . , 
Stephen, St. John, h.a., U..B. Barr.ster-at- 

Law. Calcutta. 

F.M. Stephenson, Captain John, i.m.s. Europ< 
N.R, i Streatfeild, C. A. C, i.c.s. Bahraich. 
N.R. I Stuart, Louis, i.c.s. Orai. 

• • 


Date of Election, 

1868"june 3. 

1898 April 6. 
1904 July 6. 

1905 July 5. 
1893 Aug. 31 
1878 June 5. 




1904 May 4. 
1875 June 2. 



1898 Nov. 2. 
1847 June 2. 

Tagore, Maharaja Sir Jotendra Mohmi, Baha- 
dur, k.c.s.i. Calcutta. 

Tagore, Maharaja Coomar Sir Prodyat Coo- 
mar, Kt. Calcutta. 

Talbot, Walter Stanley, I.C.S. Srinagar, 

Tarkabhusana, Pramatha Nath. Calcutta. 

Tate, G. P. ' Quetta. 

Temple, Colonel Sir Richard Carnac, Bart., 
c.i.E., i. a. Port Blair. 

Thanawala, Framjee Jamasjee. Bombay . 
Thibaut, Dr. G., Muir Central College. 


R. I Thornton, Edward, F.B.I.B.A. Calculi". 
L.M. Thuillier, Lieut.-Genl. Sir Henry Kdwnrd 


1891 Aug. 27. 
1904 June 1. 
1861 June 5. 

1905 Jan. 4. 

1905 Aug. 2. 

1905 July 7. 
1893 May 3. 

1898 Feb. 2. 
1900 Aug. 29. 
1890 Feb. 5. 

1902 May 7. 

1905 July 5. 
1902 June 4. 







1901 Mar. 6. 

1894 Sept. 27. 

1902 Oct. 29. 

1901 Aug. 7. 

1900 Jan. 19. 

1901 June 5. 
1889 Nov. 6. 

1900 April 4. 

1865 May 3. 
1905 Dec. 6. 
1874 July 1. 







N .11. 



Landor, Kt., c.s.i., p.r.s., r.a. Europe. 

Thurston, Edgar. Madras. 

Tipper, George Howlett, p.G.s. Calcutta. 

Tremlett, ,];imes Dyer, M.A., i.c.s. (retired). 

N.R. Turner. Frank. Dacca. 

Urwin, Captain J. J., m.b., i.m.s. Calcutta. 

Vaidya, Jain. Jaipur. 

Vanja, Raja Ram Chandra. Ma ywrbhanga, 
District Balasore. 

Vasu, Amrita Lai. Calcutta. 
Vaughan, Major J. C, I.M.8., Europe. 
Venis, Arthur, M.A., Principal, Sanskrit 

College. Benares. 



Vidyabhuaana, Jogendra 

Vidyabhusaim, Rajendranath. Calcutta. 
Vidyabhusana, M jihanmhopadhyay Satis 

Chandra, m.a. Calcutta. 
Vogel. J. Ph., ph.d. Lahore. 

L.M. Vost, Major William, i.m.s. Europe. 

Vredenburg, E. Calcutta. 


Walker, Dr. T. L. 

Wallace, David Robb. Calcutta. 

Walsh, E. H., i.c.s. Chimura. 

Walsh, Lieut-Col John Henry Tull, i.m.s. 


Walton, Captain Herbert James. M.B.. F.R.C.S., 

i.m.s. Bombay. 

Maior-General Jam 

Watson, Edwin Roy, b.a. Calcutta. 
Watt, Sir George, Kt., c. I . E . Europe. 

Eu rope 

• • • 


Date of Election 

1902 April 2. 
1905 Dec. 6. 
1904 Mar. 4. 

1900 Dec. 5. 
1894 Aug. 30 

1898 July 6. 




Wheeler, H., i.C.s. Europe. 
Wilson, James, c.s.i., i.C.s. 
Wood, William Henry Arden, M.A., 
F.R.'i.s. Calcutta. 


r As • o • j 

Woodman, H. C, r.c.s. Calcutta. 
Wright, Henry Nelson, B.A., i.C.s. 
Wyness, James, C.E. Calcutta. 



1905 Mar. L I R. | Young, Rev. A. Willifer. Calcutta. 


Date ut Election, 

1884~Jan. 15. 

1884 Jan. 15. 

1884 Jan. 15. 

1884 Jan. 15. 

Dr. Ernst Heeckel, Professor in the University of 

Charles Meldrum, Esq., C.M.G., m.a., ll.d., f.r.a.S., 

p.r.s. Mauritius. 

Professor A. H. Sayce, Professor of Comp. Philology. 

Professor Emile Senart, Member of the Institute of 

France. Paris. 

Date of Election. 

1848 Feb. 2 

1879 June 4 

1879 June 4. 
1879 June 4. 
1881 Dec. 7. 

1883 Feb. 7. 

1894 Mar. 7. 

1894 Mar. 7. 

1895 June 5. 

1895 June 5. 

1895 June 5. 

1896 Feb. 5. 


Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, o.C.s.i., c.b., m.d., d.c.l., 

ll.d., f.l.s., I.O.8., F.B.G.8., f.r.s. Berkshire. 
Dr. Albert Gunther, m.a., m.d., ph.d., p.z.s., f.r.s. 


Dr. Jules Janssen. Paris. 
Prof e- -or P. Regnaud. Lyons. 

Lord Kelvin, g.c.v.o., d.c.l., ll.d., f.r.s.e., f.r.s. G-las- 


Alfred Russell Wallace, Esq., ll.d., d.c.l., f.l.s., 

F.Z.S., F.R.S. Dorset. -, , . i 

Mahamahapadhyaya Chandra Kanta Tiukalankara. 


Professor Theodor Xoeldeke. btra**burg. 

Lord Rayleigh, m.a., D.C.L.,, ll.i>., ph.d., f.r.a.s., 



F.R.o.s., f..;.S., F.L.S., r.B.8. London. 

Charles H. Tawney. Esq., m.a., c.i.e. London. 

Lord Lister, F.R.C.S., D.C.L., M.D., ll.d.,, f.r.s. 





1896 Feb. 5. 

1896 Feb. 5. 
1896 Feb. 5. 

1899 Feb. 1. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1901 Mar. 6. 

1902 Nov. 5. 
1904 Mar. 2. 
1904 Mar. % 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 July 


Sir Michael Foster, k.c.b., m.a., m.p., d.c.l., ll.d.,, F.L.S., F.R.S. Cambridge. . 
Professor F. Kielhom, PH.D., CLE, Odttingen. 

Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman. Massac/tn setts, 


Dr. Augustus Frederick Rudolf Hcemle, PH.D., C.u 

Profe^^or Edwin Ray Lankester, m.a.. LL.D., f.k.v 


Sir George King, k.c.i.e., M.B., LL,D.j f.l.s.. p.r.8. 


Professor Edward Burnett Tylor, d.c.l., ll.d., p.b.8, 

Professor Edward Sness, P.H.I)., For. Mrni. »<S, 


Professor J. W. Judd, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. London. 

Monsieur R. Zeiller. Paris. 
Professor Heinrich Kern. Leiden. 
Professor Ramkrishna (iopal Bhandai kar, i .ME. 


Professor M. J. DeGoeje. L* > a. 
Professor Ignaz Goldziher. Budapest. 
Sir Charles Lyall, M.A., K.C.8.L London. 

Sir William Ram say, PH.D., (Tub.) hh. D., BCD. ( DnbL) 

F # C,S. ? r.l.C. 

Dr. George Abraham Grierson, PH.D., c.i.b., u .8. 

JJate of Ekrtion. 

1874 April 1. 

Dec. 1. 


Dec. 1. 

1882 June 7. 


Aug. 6. 
Dec. 2. 

1886 Dec. 1. 


April 6 . 

Dec. 7. 
1899 April 5. 
1899 April 5. 
1899 Nov. 1. 

1902 June 4. 


The Revd. E. Lafont, C.I.S., B.J. Col if". 

The Revd. J. D. Bate, M.B.A.8. R t. 

Mauluvie Abdul Hai. Calcutta. 
Herbert, Giles, Esq. tirope. 

F. Moore, K.sq., f.l.s. 8 y. 

Dr. A. FShrer, Europe. 

Rai Bahadur Sarat Chandra Das. c.i.k. Calcutta 

Pandit Satya Vrata Samasrami. Calcutta. 
Professor P. J. Bruhl. Sibpwr, 

Rai Bahadur Ram Brahma Sanyal. Calcutta. 
Pandit Visnu Prasad Raj Bhandari. Nepal. 
The Revd. K. Francotte, s.j. Calcutta. 

The Revd. A. H. Francke. Lea. 




Rule 40. — After the lapse of three yenrs from the date of n 
member leaving India, if no intimation of his wishes shall in the 
interval have been received hy the Society, his name shall be re- 
moved from the List of Members. 

The following members will be removed from the next Mem- 
ber List of the Society under the operation of the above Rule:— 

Womes Chunder Bonner jee, Esq., Barrister-nt-Law. 

Frank Finn, Esq., B.A., f.z.s. 

Dr. T. L. Walker. 

Major- General James Waterhonse. 


By Retirement. 

Edward Charles Stewart Baker, Esq. 
J. Bathgate, Esq. 

Major A. H. Bingley, la. 

Major E. Harold Brown, M.D., i.m.s. 

Dr. Arnold Caddy. 

Francis Joseph Ede, Esq., C.E., A.M.I.C.I., v .«;.s. 

Captain Stuart Godfrey, i.a. 

R. O. Lees, Esq. 

Charles Richardson Marriott, Esq., ix.8. 

William Stevenson Meyer, Esq., [ CA 

Rai Lnkshmi Banker Misra, Bahadur. 

L. F. Morshead, Esq., LC.B. 

John Nicoll, Esq. 

Dr. Frederic H. Norvill. 

Birendra Chandra Sen, Esq., I C.S. 

A. Tocher, Esq. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice John George Woodrofte. 

Lieut-Col. H. F. S. Ramsden, I.A. 

By Death. 

Ordinary Member*. 

Dr. William Thomas Blmiford, ll.k, P.B.8. (Life Member.) 
Raja Jaykrislma Das, Bahadur. 
H. W. Peul, Esq., k.k.s. 

Honorary Member. 

Dr. William Thom;is Blnnford, LL.D., P.B.8. 


By Removal. 

Under Rule 9. 

J. deGrey Downing, Esq. 
Pandit Navakanta Kavibhusana 

Under Rule 38. 

Robert Greenhill Black, Esq. 
Babu Jaladhi Chundra Mukerjee. 
Babu Ramani Mohon Mullick. 

Under Rule 40. 

Edwin Max Konstam, Esq. 

Michael Francis O'Dwyer, Esq., b.a., i.c.s. 

Alfred Fredrick Steinberg, Esq., r.c.s. 









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To Library and Collections. 

• « • 

• ■ • 

• •• 



Catalogue ... 

Picture Frame, including other exp iditnre ... 


• • • 

• • ■ 

« • • 

• • • 

• • • 

» - • 

• *• 

• » * 

To Publications. 

Journal, Pnrt I. 

Do. „ II. 

Do. „ III. 
Journal, Proceedings, and Memoirs 

• »« 

• • t 

• . • 

• t • 

* • • 

• • • 

* • 

• • • 

2,232 9 


1,207 10 


:,313 2 


319 11 


1.791 13 

1,649 1 


500 10 


422 10 

1 .377 1 1 


To printing charges of Circulars. Receipt 

Forms, &c. 
„ Personal Account (Writes off and miscella- 

I l*34 8 3 

7,250 1 4 


1 3 

» • • 

• • • 

• • - 

S88 11 9 

... 7*5 8 B 

To Extraordinary Expenditure 

Royal Society's Scientific Catalogue 


• • « 

• » • 

• • • 

1,597 15 
1,93,143 1 « 


ioTAL Rs. 

* « 


t 1 

No. 1. 

of Bengal. 




Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last report 

• • • 

t • • 

• • • 

Re. As. P. 

1,92,939 7 5 

By Cash Receipts. 

• • • 

* • • 

• ■ • 

• « 

Publications sold for cash 

Interest on Investments 

Rent of room on the Society's ground floor ... 

Allowance from Government of Bengal for the 

Publication of Anthropological and Cognate 

subjects ... 

Allowance from Government of Eastern Ben- 
gal and Assam ... ,.. 


- i • 

t • t 

• • • 

t • « 

• « m 

933 4 11 

6,891 8 



422 4 

11,797 10 (i 

By Extraordinary Receipts 

Subscriptions to Royal Society's Scientific 


• i • 

♦ • • 

1.481 5 1 

By Personal Account. 

Admission fees 
Sales on credit 

4 • 

• • • 

• * * 

• « • 

* ■ • 

• t 

♦ f # 

# • i 

t ■ 

• • 



809 12 

13 10 


11,263 6 9 



Total Rs. 

2,17,481 4 1 


Honorary Trev rer, 

Asiatic Society of BenjoL 


1905. Oriental Publication Fund in Acct. 


To Cash Expenditure. 

Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 

• • • 

• • • 

• •• 


Commission on collections 

Editing charges 



Printing charges 


• • • 

■ » • 

• • 

• • • 

• • • 

• * * 

• • • 

• • i 

• • • 

# i • 

• • • 

« • • 

• • - 

• • • 

• • • 

• •• 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

To Personal Account (Writes off and Miscella- 
neous) ... 


• • • 

- • - 

• • • 

• • • 

Total Bs. 




















• • • 

15,736 3 

44 14 
3,174 9 


18,955 8 


1905. Sanskrit Manuscript Fund in Acct. 


To Cash Expenditure. 


Travelling charges 




Purchase of Manuscripts 

- * • 

• •• 

• •• 

♦ • • 

• •• 

• • • 

• •• 

■ • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 


Rh. As. 


Rs. As. 


• • * 


• • t 

320 15 

• ■ • 

2,045 12 

* • 9 

103 11 

• • • 

12 8 

• t • 


8,666 14 

• •• 

• • t 

* ■ • 

3,120 2 


Total Rs. 



No. 2. 

with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Beport 

• • • 

Rs. As. P. 

5,097 1 3 

By Cash Receipts. 

• • • 

• • • 

Government Allowance 
Publications sold for cash 
Advances recovered 
Loan from Asiatic Society of Bengal 

• • • 

- ■ 

♦ •• 


822 9 9 

90 14 


11,913 7 9 

Sales on credit 

By Personal Account. 

9 ft * 

• • • 

• •• 


1,944 15 

Total Rs. 

• • • 

18,955 8 

Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, 

Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 

No. 3. 

with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



Bs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Beport 

I • • 

% ft ft 

Rs. As. P. 

3,578 5 

By Cash Receipts. 

Government Allowance 

Do. Do. special .. 

Publications sold for cash 

• • ■ 




By Personal Account. 

Sales on credit 

• • • 

• ♦• 


Total Rs. 


11,787 5 

Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, 

Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 



1905. Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund in 


To Cash Expenditure. 

• • t 


Purchase of Manuscripts 



• •• 

Travelling charges 

■ • • 

t • i 

• • • 

Rs. As. 


Rs. As. P. 

t • » ■ #• 
• • • • ••> 

• • • • • • 

• • • • • • 

* fl • • • • 

* • • ■ * • 

1,885 1 

6,258 4 

17 14 

64 15 

13 12 

666 9 


8,906 8 9 


t • • 

Total Rb. 

• # • 

13,365 8 9 


1905. Bardic Chronicles MSS. Fund in 


To Balance 

t • • 

• • • 

• • * 

Total Rs. 

Rs. As. P. 

« • • 

• • • 

Rs. As. P 


XXI 11 

No. 4. 

Acct. with the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal. 1005. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Report 

• • • 

• • - 

• • • 

By Cash Receipts. 

Kb. As. P. 

8.866 8 9 

Government Allowance 

t • • 

« • » 


Total Rs. 

• • • 

13.365 8 6 


Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 

No. 6. 
Acct* with the Asiatic Soc of Bengal. 1905. 

Government Allowance 


By Cash Receipts. 

Rs. As. P. 

• • • 

• VI 

• •• 

Total Rs, 

• 4 ■ 

Rs. As. P. 




Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, 

Hot ary Treasurer 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 







To Balance from last Report 

•#• ••• 

Rs. As. P. lis. As. P. 

4,963 10 

To Cash Expenditure. 

Advances for purchase of Manuscripts, &c. ... ... 5,551 8 9 

To Asiatic Society ... ... •.. 11,263 6 9 

„ Oriental Publication Fund ... ... 1,944 15 

„ Sanskrit Manuscript Fund ... ... 4 

13,212 5 9 

Total Rs. m 23,726 15 4 


No. 6. 



By Cash Receipts 
„ Asiatic Society 

« • • 



Oriental Publication Fund 

By Balance. 

• • • 

Subscribers ... 
Oriental Publi- 
cation Fond 

Dae to the 


• •• 

t • • 

Kb. As. P. 

• •• 

Due by the 



* • # 








• • • 

t • • 

• • • 


765 8 9 
44 14 

Rs. As. P. 
13,783 14 9 

810 6 9 

• • • 

9,132 9 10 

Total Rs. 

• • • 

23,726 15 4 


Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 






To Balance from last Keport 

. , Kj ftS 1 1 . # . ... 


Asiatic Society 
T rust Fund 

• • • 

» • • 

Total Rs. 





• • 

Rft. |A 




tts. A. 

1,49,343 6 

1,339 6 

11, 50/ 81 





Es. As. P 
.. 1,98,300 

• • 


Es. As, P. 

1,97,958 3 2 

6 3 6 

.. 1,98,300 1,97,964 6 8 





# • • 

* t • 




• • • 


Total Cost. 


# ft t 


15,293 6 





1 ,95,976 










To Pension 


• • • 

• •• 

Es. As. P. 

1,456 11 10 

Total Es. 

# • • 

l.oO-i 11 10 


No. 7 




By Cash .. 
,, Balance 


- • 

* » • 

• •• 

t m t 

Total Rs 

Rs. As. P 

• t • 

Rs. As. P 

2,000 1.988 8 7 

.. 1,96.300 O 1,96,976 8 1 

.. 1,98,300 1,97,964 6 » 

Asutosh Mlkhofadhvay, 

Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 

No. 8, 




By Balance from last Report 
„ Interest on Investment 

• «• 

• • • 

• . # 

• • • 

Total Es. 

Rs. As. P. 

1.455 11 10 

» 1 1 

1,504 11 10 


Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 





To Balance from last Beport 


• • • 

• • ■ 


Es. As. P. 
6,514 9 8 

To Asiatic Society 

Oriential Pnblication Fund 



• • • 

t • • 

Sanskrit Manuscript Fund 

Arabic and Persian Manuscript Fund 

Bardic Chronicles Manuscript Fund 

Personal Account ... 


Trust Fund 

« • • 

• • « 

• » * 

■ • • 

Total Rs. 

« • • 

• ■ ■ 

• • • 

• « • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • « 

• •• 

Be. As. P. 



5 11 





65,132 9 8 




• •• 

To Cash 

„ Personal Account 
„ Investment 

• • • 

• • • 


• •• 

i • i 

• i • 

• • • 

Re. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 

f • ■ 

2,644 12 

9,132 9 

1,95,976 3 



Government Pro. Note at Bank of Bengal's 


2,07,753 9 9 

Safe Custody Account Cashier's 

' ~ 500 

• • • 

• • ■ 

« ■ t 

Total Rs. 

• * • 

2,07,753 9 9 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet and the appended detailed 
Accounts with the Books and vouchers presented to us, and certify that it ie 
in accordance therewith, correctly setting forth the position of the Society a* 
at the 31st December, 1905. 


15th February, 1906. 

Meugenp, King and Simson, 

Chartered Accountants 

No 9. 





By Asiatic Society 

Oriental Publication Fund 

• * • 

• • * 

Sanskrit Manuscript Fund 

Arabic and Persian Manuscript Fund 

Personal Account ♦.. 


Trust Fund 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• t • 

« t « 

t • • 

t • • 

Rs. As. P. 

23,572 9 7 

15,736 3 

8,666 14 

8,906 8 9 

5,551 8 9 

6 3 6 


Re. As. P. 

62,487 12 10 


* t « 

Total Rs 

• • • 

2,644 12 10 

65,132 9 8 


Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

No. 10. 



• i 


By Asiatic Society 

Oriental Publication Fund 

Rs. As. P. 

. * • 


Sanskrit Manuscript Fund 
Arabic and Persian Manuscript Fund 
Bardic Chronicles Manuscript Fund 
Trust Fund 


Rp. As. P. 


1,93,143 1 9 

• •• 

3,174 9 9 

• *• 

3,120 2 5 





• *• 

1,456 11 10 

2,07,753 9 9 

Total Rs. 

2,07,753 9 9 


Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

Vol. II, No. 2.] The Bengal poet Dhoyika, etc. 15 


4. Supplementary Notes on the Bengal poet Dhoylha and on the 

Sena Kings. — By Monmohan Chakrayarti, M.A., B.L., 


I. Dhoyika. 


The Pavanadutam was certainly known to Siidhara-dasa, ae 

, he quotes its verse 104 and the first half of 

k *o*™to thHn- its verse 101 in his ethology, the Sukti- 
thologistSridhara- harn-amrta, under the name Dhoyika, 
dasa. The verse 104, as quoted in the MSS., 1 

nearly agrees with the printed text 

(J.A.S.B. 1905, p. H8), the only variants being ^rfru for ^tftr in line 

1, ST^ffa for WTHT in line 3, and sprn^^T for JreWWrin line 4. In 
the verse 101, the second half differs, but why it is not clear. 
It runs in the anthology as follows : — 

^rcrt^ 5?fcra*iTsrr U^amT^^ Jft€t 

fasiwfr &% IZ&KTttl* ^Wll ^li^l II fol. 182b. 
^T^SHTT* :, ^f^HStf^, 1%cfto3fN : , v. 29. 2. 

The "Pamnadmm mast, therefore, be earlier than S'aka 1127 
Phalguna, or 1206 a.m., in which year this anthology was 

completed. _ . 

Very little is known about the works of Dhoyika. bo 1 give 

in the appendix 18 more verses quoted m 

Additional ver- fhe Sukti-kum-nmrta, one quoted in Jal- 

sesof the poet. hanft , fl g^af&a-fndfctoaft,' and one 

•quoted in the SZrAgadhara-paddhati, in.tiU 20 verses. 

Jayadeva in his 4th verse calls Dhoyl bni-ksma-pahh as 
Srvtidkarah, or one having good memory. According to the com- 
mentators, this means that he was not original, probably alluding 
to his fondness for imitation as shown, e.g., in the Pwanadutam. 
The epithet Srutidharu is. however, used in the verse of Uhoyika 

quoted above. 

II. The Sena Kings. 

Further materials for the ascertainment of the Laksmanasena 

Samvat are to be found in the ^ otices of 

More dates in S-mskrit MSS " in the Durbar Library. 

La. Sa. era. N , vi{ - ted by our Philological Secretary, 

Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit 1 1 1 u fl prasad S'astn. which has pist 

" 1956 

I Vcc«<-ar„. v r,v*h„h > rrt^ha-sanU, .v.-fA, Bth ver86 (v. 61.5), fol. 

« Dr.UMtfMkrti Beport OH the Search for Sanskrit MSS., 1897. 

P xxvi 

16 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [February, 1906. 

come to my hands. Some 57 MSS. contain colophons dated in La. 
Sa. ranging from the year 91 (in the MS. No. 400, p. 15) to the 
year 558 (in No. 1076-73, p. 41). In most the dates are in figures, 
with the abbreviated symbols La. Sa. In only four MSS. words like 

the following have been used :— ^^ tB^ra<fSIWif>f 1% (MS. 787 *, 

p. 22), «W^(MS. 1577 w, p. 33), aiw^nw^ffa (MS. 1113 v, 

p. 35), and Wt^m (MS. 13616, p. 51). The words «* ' expired/ 
and H% are significant. 

Unfortunately, most of the dates given do not mention the 
tithis and the weekdays together, and are hence not verifiable. Of 
the few which do, in the following, the tithis come out correctly 
with the weekdays, if the La. Sa. be taken to have begun in 
a.d. 1119-20 (f aka 1041-2) : 

(i) The Mahahharata, santi-'parvva, Maitliili characters 

(MS/ No. 867, p. 25). 




day, the 27th October, a.d. 1530 (the La. Sa. year 

being current). 

The Bhagavata-dasama-skandha-tika of £ 

(MS. No. 934, p. 28), Maithili character. 

La. Sa. 472 KG 

15th of October, a.d. 1591. 

Sunday, the 

(iii) The Tatparyya-parisuddhih of Tdayana, in Maithili 

character (MS. No. 1076 m, p. 31). 
La, Sa. 339, Bhadra sudi safthyarii, k vje= Tuesday, the 

15th of August, a.d. 1458. 
(iv) The Karttika-mahatmyam, in Bengali character (MS. 

No. 1077 v, p. 32). 
La. Sa. 447, Srdvanavadi 5, candra-rasare = Monday, the 
5th of August, a.d. 1566 (the La. Sa. year being 

(v) The Devt-mahatmya-tlka, iu Bengali character (MS. 

No. 1361 f, p. 51). 

Netr-abdhi-rama-yuta-Laksmanasena-varse Bhadre knje 
Haripure Hari-vosare drak or La. Sa, 372, Bhadra 
su 12, kuje - Tuesday, the 15th of August, a. d. 1491 


(the year being current). 

e Devi-muhatmyam 
No. 1534ai, p. 613). 

Maithili character (MS. 

La. S». 392, Pausa vadi 3, budhe = Wednesday, the 18th 

of December, ad. J 510 (the year current, already 

calculated by Professor Kielhorn, see note 4 to 

p. 19, Professor Bendall's Introduction). 

(vn) The Suryya-siddhavta-bhasyam of Candesvara, in 

Maithili character (MS. No. 1166, p. 133). 

La. Sa 392, Phrdyuna sudi 7, cavdre = Monday, the 23rd 

t -x m L ° f Fe])rUar 7' A.D. 1511. 

(ym) The Bhagavata, d « sama-skandh a , Maithili character (MS. 

No. 36K p. 13). 

La. Sa. 397, SaknhdU 1399. 

Vol. 11^ No. 2.] The Bengal poet Dhoyika, etc. 17 

The only colophon giving the La. Sa. with another era. They 
do not agree on the basis of Sakn 1041-2. It is possible that the 
figures havebeen wrongly vend or copied. Then Siika Li99 = La. Sa. 

557, if the date fell in the months Caitra-Asvina. 

These Lit. Sa. dates in the "Notices" thus support the 
conclusion that the Laksmanasena Sarhvat was an expired year 


(though the current waa often used 

42, or a.d. 111D-20; 

Mate, that it was adopted by the king Laksmanasena. 

The genitive does The use of g enitiy e in the kings name, 

not necessarily though the year was of an era, I have 

signify regnal traced to an old period. In the Taxila 

y e f r * plate of Patika. the inscription begins : 

An old example. 

[Samvatsa'] raye athasatatimae 20 20 20 10 4 4 Maharayasa 

Mahamtasa \_Mo~] gasa, (p. 75) ; 

About which Biihler remarked :— "The year 78 is, of course, 
not that of the reign of Aloga, but of the era which he used/ 
(Ep. Lid. IV., p. 76). 

From this analogy it does not seem improbable that the Laks- 
manasena Samvat may be the era of the founder of the Sena 
dynasty, though passing in the name of Laksmanasena. 

In the Sukti-karn-amrta six verses are quoted under the 

nr«i a +ii A ~ A « o«~-> name Sri mat- Kesavasenadcva, and one verse 

prince named Ke- lincl ^ r furtisottama-pndanam, along with 

savasena ? one verse under Sr'-Ballfilasenadeva-padti- 

nam, and eleven verses under the name Sri- 
mal-Laksmanasenadeva (or simply Sri-L. or Sri-L.-sena without 
Deva). 1 Were, therefore, a prince by name Kesavasenadeva in the 
Sena dynasty, and another prince named Purusottama ? Vadfinam 
may mean a prince in the ancestral line, probably deceased Prin- 
sep read in the Bakarganj plate the name Kesavasena, as a son of 
Laksmanasena, though this is now said to be a misreading of Vis- 
varupasena. In its traditionary list of Bengal kings, the Ain-i- 
Akbari mentions one Kesu Sen, the second remove from Lachman 
Sen (Translation, II. 146). 

It is clear that from Vijaysena's time downwards, the tracts 

The extent of the ° f Gau ^ a ' Va "g a > Suhma, and probably 
Sena Kingdom. Radha, came to be under the sway of the 

Sena kings. 


1 In the SSmgadhara-Paddhati, one verse (No. 763) is q noted nnder 
Ballalasena and one verse (No. 923) under Lnksmanasena. In Jibananda Vidya- 
sagar's anthology, Kdvya»samgraha, under the heading Padya-sarhgrahah, four 
verses are cited, two being questions of Laksmanasena nnd the other two 
the reply of his father Ballalasena. ' 

In the Adbhnta-sdgara nnder the heading Sapt-ar?indm-adbhutdni I find 
the following important passage: — Bhuja-vasii-dam 1081 mita fake irimad- 
Balldlasena-rdjy-ddau'Vars-eka-Sfisthi-miinir-vinihito = viiesdydfh (India Govt 
MS.,fol. 52a. Was then gaka 1081 (A.D. 1159-60) the first year of Ballala. 
sena's reign ? The same MS. (fol. 28b) also refers to " 1090 iaha " under 
the heading Brhaspater-adbhut.dvartah—M.M.C. 12-3-1906. 

18 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [February, 1906. 


was found at Deopara, which is in Godagiri Tbana, District 
Rajsahi. This is in the Vai'endra tract, of which Gauda was the 
capital. In the Ddna-sagara and the Adbhuta-sdgara, Balla- 
lasena has been described as the king of Gauda. Similarly Laks- 
manasena has been described in the Puvanadutam as the king of 
Gauda. In the same poem his capital Vijayapuri, identifiable with 
Nudiah, is located in Suhma. It was to Vanga Laksmanasena 
retired on the sack of Nudiah by Musalmans ; and there his 
descendants were ruling in the time of Minliaj-as-Siraj. It 
is not unlikely that the Radha, which lay so close to Nudiah, would 
have fallen under the sway of the Sena kings. Consequently in 
the time of Ballalasena and Laksmanasena the greater part of 
modern Bengal had fallen under one overlordship ; and from the 
wide prevalence of the Laksmanasena Saihvat in Mithila, 
one may as well ask if Tirhut did not acknowledge his 

Both Ballalasena and Laksmanasena liberally encouraged 

Sanskrit learning. A number of reputed 

tu?S n £SrtBhed 'in San t rit P° ets and *!*»* flourished^ dm- 
the Sena rule. ing their reigns, one of whom, Jayadeva, 

attained an Indian reputation. The reign 
of Laksmanasena may not inaptly he called the 'Augustan' 
period of Sanskrit learning in Bengal. This subject is interesting 
enough, to he reserved for another article. 


Additional verses of Dhoyika 
(a) Sukti-lcarn-amrta. 

(i) WjfT*RT ^f yfawffrsl 

*TfocTTCWraTfipi>i *WT^' A fol. 576. 1 

TWTSRTT:, ftwwfcw Stf*:, H^ntf*: or II. 30. 5. 

(ii) ^yum ^ qgfr imm&hm 

checked by a lis ' « °? ft MS " of tho A8iftti <' Societ y of BePgal rl 
Collew (S«\ rLf, h * 8nnskrit College (S ) and a MS. of the Serampore 


Vol. II, No. 2.] The Bengal poet Dhoyika, etc. 19 


f f^TT^r faSfc *rr *f?nnh fasrifa *w**i « foi 59a. 

^ffR^^T^:, «T3cTT^[T^tfo, Mfasffap, H. 34. 2. 

(iii) cT??JT^^*TW W^THT^V 

^fNlfacT ^Tcrt<T <T*TT cT«IW 

^Tf%W*f^fcr ftil ffr fl yw ii fo1 59a - 



ib., ib., gcftinsffap, II. 34. 3. 

if titf T fllfwr^ftT **W ilftfw TOW* 

*&., ^WJI^fSR^tf^, ^g^^ft^:, II. 35. 4. 

*IRT3Tff fWT3 STfalsi^ffaTW ^ft<T : I foi. 666. 

*&.; W<l|ftHHfl ft *, f%^*"3ffa : , II- 51. 2. 

(vi ) HHWWPw wgw&OTW OTryr 

tot? *fe <<W€«iiwft TTw^^T^^ra- 

^ ^(BffTT^ ***** **' ftifW ** *™ 

«.. ftwrfrt^ *$*#*> n- 59 - 4 - 

i «T**, a. • W*. *" 

*t, Sr. 6 W» Sr 

20 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [February, 1906. 

(viii) ITCTfa 3cT $ JH^mVTSSTT 

**%UfT : W^J WlfaTOT* II fol. 726. 

ft., faf*OfH*TftaRTftf>, «I*»Nn, II. 64. 4, 

(ix) *fal3Wt *T fatff fa*)*!? 

^^fto^! VRWT 


^SfT^cTT IH^W^ffa II fol. 77a. 

" ib., Oi w ti iN* , Wtaft*:, 1 1 . 77 . 2. 

(x) ^TT'fr^tsrrTf^srN^ 

*T 5T cTRcf ' 

3ftM s S*qftT 5R«JHni: II fol. 77a. 

ft., TOnftftn, Mfr#* *» n. 78. 2. 

(xi) cfT^UT ftT*rri^^T«^: ^T*Jffi Tf/HT I « T 

WW ^^T^fa^lis fa 5 ^ ^^T^r ll fol. 89«. 

ft., VlfaTT^fa:, TT^««rt^ : , II, 107. 5 

(xii) fa^Hirrecf^W^'WTO'n^mfa ^ftfilRfl^ 

^3^#faift3t fa !i^*^0?l4 i tq^^f^^BTT [896. 

i6., **Rlitel^fa: ^jfofhlf:, II. 108. 4. 

(xiii) 1w?n: H^JT^IcTfi^ftw^SflTyT 


1 **"*' Sr - % % S. ?f. Sr. 8 TO. S. 5^- Sr 

* lift* rf*WF , A . b ^, Sr. *W A. 7 ^, Sr. 

Vol. II, No. 2.] The Bengal poet Dhoyika, etc. 21 


wm\m3ri [ *flr fwfisgjftaY wiftw u foi. 996. 

ib., wftRT^Clftf^:, SePhnsfN', II. 186. 3. 

v ) *r?r 'a^fcf ^T^rasft ifto^ Ti^mmnfa i [urn 

3rN*wrer<ng*uW^ qftftoi Piftf fw*w*P i foi. 

& ^Wncftfa, ^rpfofN : , II. 145. 4. 

(xv ) Tate 5 *? a^fa ^WT ^ ^ ^ : WfasfN^RT: 

w 3TPifB g^ *< Hif mifltefa ^ ^#^t 

7f«l^f^ g f* gftlfMtra 4 ^^ 5^TiT | foi. 12 la. 

WSWS f^frfffi^f^, f^^t^fJTNr:, III. 13. 2. 

(xvi) fw f*TOf*i : «fwn» « f^wrcurwn 

ib., VtltwdW?*'', *c?l*Hsfan, III. 33. 3. 

(xvii) ii^T^*:fira*ndfaw , lf*w T,r ( :* 

OTit^sr: 8 ijfacW^R H^T^^f I foi. 1716. 

^m *rair : , ^aiftf^s iro*i#*t, v. 2. l. 

(xviii) wto*fttW*Jfawyw ||| * 'rii | 3 ' 

^rfta^awTf? x ^jnrfr^WTinn n*: 11 foi. 1716. 

ib., ib., fi£N*t* 8 , v - 2 - 2 

(6) Jalhanas Subhdsita-muhtavali. 
(xix) f*3R*1«f*fa§*?*fa f ** : * alf ** T ^ ! 

jfHhift *UW I foi. 1326. 

*TW. Sr * ft*, a. 

i*ft**,s. 8 *ni, s. '^ Sr 

»*, S.Br. 6 <rm,A 7 *' A 

»WTTT, A. °*T*, A. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [February, 1906.] 


Quoted in the Sahitya-darpana without the author's name 

(8th pariccheda, verse 15). 
(c) Sarngadhara-paddhatt. 

Peterson's Edition, No. 1161, p. 189. Ascribed to Umapati- 

dhara in the Sukti-learn-amrta. 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 
Proceedings, 1865 — 1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 
Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc.. 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1 73, 1832—1904; 

Journal and Prm eedings, [N, S.~\ Vol. 1, etc., 1905. etc. 
Centenary Review, 1784 — 1883. 
Bibliotheca Indica, 18 fc8, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 




(a) To be present and % re at all General Meetings, which 

are held on the first Wednesday in each month except 
in September and October. 

T propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

To introduce visit at the Ordinary General Meeting* 
and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 



iuring the hours they are 



rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections 

(e) To 



from the 



(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fiU an y office in the &X&&J on bein g dul J elected 








Proceedings for February, 1906 

Supplementary Notes on th, Rempd )mt Dh ika and on th 
MUX* 1 V ******** CeAKiiAVARTr, MAR! 



* * • 

• ♦ • 

. •• 









Vol. II, No. 3. 

MARCH, 1906 




Issued 17th April. 1906. 

1 1 W 


List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1906. 


His Honor Sir A. II. L. Fraser, J1A., LL.D., K.O.S.L 

Vice-Presidents : 
The Hon* ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukliopadhy<iya, M.A., D.L., 


T, H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Secretary : Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 23rd 
Cavalry, F.F. 

Treasurer: The Hon* ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhop Ihyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries ; 

Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., PhD. 
Natural Hh »y Secretary : I. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 
Anthropological Seer ay: N. An • indale, Esq., D.Sc 

* J \j $ ) 


Joint Philologi I S ry : M imahopadhyaya Saraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 

Numismatic S< ret y: H. ST. Wright, Esq., I. - 

W. K. Dod 


H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A, F.G.S. 
E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

M iamahopadhaya Satis C h indra Vidyabhu na, MA 
0- Lutle, E |.. M.A. 

Hari Xath De, E .. LA. 
X JorF. P. Maynard,I.M ..>. 
J. A. Canainghiy t, } ,„ B.A. 

Major W. J. Buchanan, l.M 

J. Macfarlane, E | . 

J. A. Chapman, E 



Annandale, N.— Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 
No. I. A variety of Spongilln lacustris from Brackish 
Water in Bengal, Calcutta, Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Benp.. 

Vol II, No. 3, 1906, pp. 55-58. 

Spongilla lacustris var. bengalensis, var nov., described. 
N. Annandale, Calcutta, Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng.. 

Vol II, No. 3, pp. 56-57. 

Annandale, N. — Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 
No II. The affinities of Hislopia, Calcutta, Journ. and 
Proc. As. Soc, Beng., VoL II, No. 3, 1906, pp. 59-63. 

Hislopia is a true Ctenostome, N. Annandale, Calcutta , Journ. 
and Proc. As. Soc. Beng , Vol. II, No. 3, p. 63. 

Hislopia lacustris, Carter, general account of the anatomy 
of, N. Annandale, Calcutta, Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., 

Vol. II. No. 3, pp. 61-62. 

Norodonia Jullien = Hislopia Carter, N. Annandale, Calcutta, 
Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 3, p. 61. 

Aiyar, T. V. R.— Notes on some Sea- Snakes caught at Madras, 
Calcutta, Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 3, 

1906, pp. 69-72. 
Annandale, TS.—Testudo balnchiorum, a new specks, 
Calcutta Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. d, 

pp. 75-76. 

Testudo baluchiorum, sp. nov., diagnosis of. N. Annandale. 

p. 75. 


Hooper, DAV.D.-Some instances «f Vegetable Pottery 
Calcutta Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 6, 

1906, pp. 65-67. 

Lagenaria vulgaris. ~\ jj se( { j n preparation of pot- 
Cocas nucifera. \ ^ry, by D. Hooper, Calcutta 
Adansonia digitata . I j ourn . . and Proc. As. Soc. 
Cureuma longa. Beng., Vol. IT, No. 3, 1906 
Phylhmthus Emblica. pp g5_67. 
Aeyle Marmelos. J . 
Eremurus ancherianut, Boiss. 

a T Wormia M«nsoni : a hitherto undescribed 

Beng., Vol. II. No. 3, 1906, p. 73. 

March, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 7th March, 1906, at 9-15 P.M. 

His Honor Sir Andrew Fraser, k.c.s.i., President, in the 


The following members were present : 

Lieut.-Col. A. Alcock, C.I.E., p.r s. Dr. N. Annandale, Mr. 
I. H. Burkill, Babu Monmohan Chakravarti, Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, 
Mr. L. L. Fermor, Rev. E. Francotte, s.j., Babu Amulyacharan 
Ghosh Vidyabhushana, Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. D. Hooper, Hon. Mr. 

w in, Dr. M. M. Masoom, Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukho- 
padhyaya, Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 23rd Cav. F.F., Mr. G. E. Pil- 
grim, Rai Ram Brahma Sanyal Bahadur, Pandit Yoge£a Chandra 
Sastri-Sankhyaratna-Vedatirtha, Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chan- 
dra Vidyabhusana, Mr. H. Nelson- Wright, Rev. A. W. Young. 

Visitors: — Babu R. D. Banerji and Mr. A. H. Phillips. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Twenty-five presentations were announced. 

It was announced that the Hon. Sir A. Pedler, Kt., had ex- 
pressed a wish to withdraw from the Society. 

The President announced : 

1. That the Council had appointed Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 
General Secretary vice Mr. J. Macfarlane, resigned. 

2. That Mr. Macfarlane and Mr. J. A. Chapman had been 
appointed Members of the Council. 


The General Secretary read the names of the following 
gentlemen who had been appointed to serve on the various Com- 
mittees for the present year. 

Finance and Visiting Commit tee. 

Dr. N. Annandale. 
Mr. I. H. Burkill. 
Mr. J. A. Chapman. 
Mr. W. K. Dods. 

M»-. A. Earle. 

Mr. T. H Holland. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukliopadhyaya 

Major L. Rogers, [.M.S. 

Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sliastri. 

xxxviii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 

Library Committee. 

Dr. N. Annan dale. 

Mr. J. A. Cunningham. 

Mr. Hari Nath De. 

Mr. L. L. Fermor. 

Mr. J. N. Das Gupta. 

Mr. H. H. Hayden. 

Mr. D. Hooper. 

Mr. T. H. D. LaTouche. 

Mr. J. Macfarlane. 

Dr. H. H. Mann. 

Mr. C. W. McMinn. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhynya. 

Major L. Rogers, I. M.S. 

Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Harsmrasad Shastri. 
Mr. E. Thornton. 

Philological Committer. 

Babu Mural idhar Banerji. 
Babu Monmohan Chakravarti. 
Mr. Hari Nath De. 
Mr. E. A. Gait. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadliyaya. 
Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Pandit Satya Vrata Samasrami. 

Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastri-H inkhyaratna-Vedatirtha. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Chandra Kanta Tarkalankara. 
Dr. C. Thibaut. 

Babu Nagendra Nath Vasu. 
Mr. A. Venis. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushana. 

by Mr J Ph Vn'L rl j"'f; and ' Nlr - A - °- Woolner, proposed 

1906.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, xxxix 

The following papers were read : 

1. An account of the Qurpa IT ill in the District of Gya, the 

probable site of the Kukkatapadayiri — By Rakhal Dass Baneimi. 

Communicated by Dr. T. Block. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceeding*. 

2. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. — By Dr. N. Annan- 
dale. No. I. — A rariety of Spongilla lacustris from Brackish Water 

in Bengal. No. II. — Tlw Polyzoon Hislopia. 

3. Some instan < of Vegetable Pottery. — By David Hoopek. 

4. Sanskrit Literature in Bengal during the Sena ride. — By 


This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 

Jour d and Proceedings. 

5. Notes on some Sea-Snakes caught at Madras. — By T. V. R 
AlTAR. Communicated by H. Maxwell Lefuoy. 

6. A descriptive list of the Sea-Snafo •> (Hydrophiidse) in the 

I lian Museum, Calcutta. —By Captain P. Wall, I. M.S. Com- 
municatedby the Natural History Secretary. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

7. 11 rmia Mansoni, a hitherto und> ribed species from 

&w i.— By Captain A. T. Gage, I. .M.S. 

8. On a cup-mark inscription in the Ohumbi Yah /. — B</ 
E. H.C.Walsh. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

9. Vestudo bal ue h iorum, a n rpecies. — By Dr. X. Annandale. 


The following new books have been added to the Library 
•during February, 1906. 

Agriculture. — Imperial Department of Agriculture. Annual Re- 
port. 1904-05, etc. Calcutta, 1906, etc. 8°. 

Presd. by the Inspector -General of Agriculture in India. 

The Babar-Xama. The Babar-Nama, being the autography of 
the Emperor Babar... written in Chaghatay Turkish; now 
reproduced in facsimile from a manuscript belonging to 
the late Sir Salar Jang of Hyderabad, and edited... by 
S. Beveridge. London, 1905. 8°. 

F. J. W. Gibb Memorial, Vol. I. 

Presd. by the Trustees. 

BrOCkbank, Edward Mansfield. Sketches of the lives and work 

of the Honorary Medical Staff of the Manchester Infirmary. 
From its foundation in 1752 to 1830, when it became the 
Royal Infirmary. Manchester, 1904?. 8°. 

Publications of the University of Manchester. Medical 


Presd. by fie University. 

Cornell University. Librarian's Report. 1904-1905, etc. 

[Ithaca, 1905, etc.] 8°. 

Presd. by the University. 

DeUSSen, Paul. The Philosophy of the Upanishads... Authorised 
English translation by Rev. A. S. Geden. 
Edinburgh, 1906. 8°. 

Dos SantOS, Joaquim Jose Judice. Collection Joaquim Jose 
Judice Dos Santos : Premiere partie : Monnaies et medailles 
de Portugal. Monnaies coloniales, du Bresil, des Indes 
Portugaises et de TAfrique. Monnaies et Medailles de 
l'empire du Bresil. [Amsterdam, 1906.] 8°. 

Presd. by Herr J. Schulman. 
Xefroy, H. Maxwell. The Insect pests of Cotton in India. 

Calcutta, 1906. 8°. 

From the Agricultural Journal of India, Vol. I., Part I 

Presd. by the Author. 


Madras. — Adyar Library. Report. 1905, etc, [Madras, 1906, etc] 8°. 

Presd. by the Library. 

Merrill, Elmer D. and others. I. New or Noteworthy Philip- 
pine plants, IV. By E. D. Merrill ; II. Notes on Cuming's 
Philippine plants in the Herbarium of the Bureau of Govern- 
ment Laboratories. By E. D. Merrill ; III. Notes on 
Philippine Graminea?. By E. Hackel ; IV. Scitiminere 
Philippinenses. By H. N. Ridley ; V. Philippine Acanthacea?, 
By C. B. Clarke. Manila, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 35. 

ProJ. by the Bureau. 

McGregor, Richard C. I. Birds from Mindoro and small ad- 
jacent Islands. II. Notes on three rare Luzon birds. 

Manila, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 34. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Peake, A. S. Inaugural Lectures delivered by Members of 

the Faculty of Theology during its first session, 1904-05. 
Edited by A. S. Peake. Manchester, 1905. 8°. 

Publications of the University of Manchester. Theological 

Series, No. 1. 

Presd. by the University. 

Pope, T. A. The Reproduction of maps and drawings. A Hand- 
book of instructions for the use of Government officials and 
others who prepare maps, plans and other subjects for re- 


the Survey of India, [Calcutta, 1905.1 4°\ 

Office of 

Presd. by the Surveyor-General of India. 

Walsh, E. H. C. A Vocabulary of the Tromowa dialect of 
Tibetan spoken in the Chumbi Valley... Together with a 
corresponding vocabulary of Sikhimese and of Central 
(standard) Tibetan... Compiled by E. H. C. Walsh. 
Calcutta, 1905. 4°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Williams, Rev. J. G. Joanis rebiaba Hamba Gyrau Zyma. 
The Gospel according to Saint John in the Cachari language. 
Translated by Rev. J. G. Williams. Shillong, 1905. &°. 

Presd. by the Govt, of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

1906.] The Umgd Hill Inscription*. 23 

5. The Umgd Hill Inscriptions in the District of Gay a. — By 
Parjieshwar Dayal. Communicated by the Philological Secretary. 

The Grand Trunk Road which passes through the southern 
parts of the District of Gay a (in Bengal) has long been the most 
frequented highway in the district ; and before the construction 
of the East Indian Railway, it was the chief route for traffic 
between Calcutta and Delhi. Travellers passing through this high 
road generally meet with beautiful sceneries of mountains covered 
with forest trees, and table-lands intersected by hill torrents rush- 
ing through overgrown jungle. About a mile and a half to the 
west of Madanpur (an important camping ground and Police out- 
post on this road) the scenery towards the south has always 
charmed the travellers and attracted their special attention. A 
group of hills is found covered with forest trees teeming with 
ruins of temples. One of these temples, standing on the western 
slope of a hill, is built entirely of stone and is still well preserved. 
It is very large and attractive, and commands a wide view to the 
west and north for several miles. Travellers have often been 
tempted to leave their road and to proceed southward to take a 
nearer view of the temple. This is the " Umgfi Hill Temple," 
which has since long drawn the attention of archaeologists and of 
the admirers of natural sceneries. In the front of this temple, 
which faces the east, lies a large slab of stone containing a long 
Sanskrit inscription of 28 slokas giving a short narrative of the 
founder of the temple, Raja Bhairavendra and of his royal ances- 
tors. The inscription appears to have been noticed so far back as 
1847 a.d., by one Captain Kittoe, 6th Regiment, ITX, whose notes 
with a translation of the inscription, in Hindi, were published 
in the August and December numbers of the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society for a.d. 1847, Vol. XXXI. In a.d. 1866, it was 
again noticed by one Mr. Peppe, whose notes, with a photo of the 
temple, were published in No. 1 of the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society for 1866 a.d. I had occasion to see these ruins in 1898 
a.d., and on receiving information from one Pandit Devadatta 
Misra of Purnadih, a village situated in the vicinity of these hills, 
of the existence of another long inscription in one of the ruins on 
the top of the highest peak, I visited the spot twice. For a few- 
years past (since the discovery of ?m image of Sri Gaurigankara 
in a cave on the top of it) this peak has been named " Gaurl- 
•Sankara Hill." The way leading to the top of the hill is very 
difficult and has become misleading by being intersected by 
numerous footpaths of the wood-cutters. After a long search for 
the second time, on 5th November, 1901, my labour was crowned 
with success, and the stone containing the inscription sought for, 
was found lying loose in the heaps of the ruins of a temple. Some 
facsimiles of it were taken by me at once, and with the help of the 
said Pandit Devadatta Misra, who had accompanied me on this 
-occasion, it was deciphered immediately. 

This inscription exists on a slab of stone about 22 inches 
long and 15 inches broad and is comprised of 15 lines containing 8 

24 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 

slokas. The inscription begins with salutations to Siva and 
Parvati, in prose. Then follow the slokas. The first two slokas 
give the names of the 12 ancestors of Raja Bhairavendra. The 
third sings, in high terms, the praise of Bhairavendra himself. The 
fourth Sloka mentions the fact of the temples of Uma, Mahesa T 
and GaneSa, having been consecrated there by the Raja. The fifth 
contains the date of construction of the temples in astronomical 
symbols. After this is a small sentence, in prose, giving the year 
of construction of the temple in figures. Then follow three slokas 
quoted from some Puranas describing the merits of such pious 
deeds and the blessing secured by them. Then follows a small 
sentence invoking blessings to all. The inscription is dated 
Sarnvat 1500. The characters are modern DevanSgari, with very 
slight difference in some of the compound letters. The figure 5 is 
of a curious shape, thus U+. There would have been perhaps 
some doubt when deciphering the date 1500 Sarnvat, were it not 
for the fact that a serial number exists at the end' of every §loka r 
and the figure at the end of the fifth sloka is of this shape. The 
letters are generally T %th of an inch long. There is a crack in 
the stone m the left-hand side of the lower corner, and the writing, 
with the exception of a few words in the end of the hist four lines, 
and a letter or two in the 3rd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, and 11th lines, 
is well preserved. The gtone is perhaps even now lying loose 
near the heaps of the ruins, and on account of its compact ob- 
long shape is liable to be removed by villagers for domestic use. 
It would be very well to fix it in a puckka platform to be built 
near these ruins for the purpose. It would be also much helping 
the cause of archaeology if the village staff in charge of Umga 
Mahal be requested to see that plants, etc., growing on the ruined 
temples are rooted out from time to time. The images of the 
gods, the consecration of whose temples is mentioned in this 
inscription are still seen, some lying in or near the ruined 
temples, and others placed in a cavern on the top of the hill. 

I his mscnption being composed in simpler style gives a 
clearer expression of the facts stated in figurative, and in con- 
sequence somewhat ambiguous language in the larger inscription 
noticed by Captain Kittoe, and therefore seems to throw addi- 
tional light on the facts stated therein. 

In the bigger inscription, the founder of the family of 
Bhairavendra is named Durdama, which means - invincible" and 
the ep.thet Bhumipala (King) is attached to this name. As the 
names ot the various successors of the king and with the word 
Fa a such as Kumara Pain, Laksn.ana Pala, etc., Captain Kittoe 
was led to con sider Bhumipala as the chief name and Durdama as 
an epithet. Ihis newly-discovered inscription fully clears the 
doubt now as the name Durdama is mentioned in it with a new 
epithet 1 he names of the kings given in these two inscriptions 
are justaposited below for comparison : 


The Umga Hill Inscription* 


Xames of kings given in the infCXip 
tion noticed before by Cap- 
tain Kittoe. 


Names of kings given in the 
■mailer inscription now 









Najanap la 


Abhaya Deva 
Malla Deva 
Kesi Ri'ija 

Barasimha Deva* 
Bhann Deva 

Somes vara 


• i • 

• * 

• • • 

• « • 

■ * • 

• • • 

• • 

• * • 

• • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • t 

* • • 

- - - 




Abhava Deva. 


Key is vara. 



Bhaii iva. 

(Should be " Narsimhadeva.") 

It will be seen that the termination M pBla n baa not been 
given in the names noted in the 2nd inscription except in Laks- 
manapala and Nayapala. The name Xayanapfda of the 1st inscrip- 
tion is Nayapal IB the 2nd inscription. Sandhapala of the 1st i* 
Sandhesa in the 2nd. Ceshraj is Kesisvara. It also becomes 

clear that the name Baraaiipha read by Captain Kittoe is actually 


In the last para, of his note on the larger inscription, Captain 

Kittoe notices the fact of another inscription of the year 1297 A.D. 
baring been found in the hills of Sirguja by Colonel Ously, 
recording the fall in cattle of a Raja named Lachhmandeva, son 
of Kumant Raja. Bhairavendra (whose last inscription, now un- 
der notice, is dated Samvat 1500, corresponding to a.d. 1443) is 

the 10th in descent from Laksmanpala. This gives an approxi- 
mate period of about 15 years to each king, and takes back King 
Durdama to the earlier part of the 13th century a.i>. 

About three miles to the west of the village of Umga, there is 

another small hill covered with ruins of temples, etc.. called San- 

dhail Hill. In one of its caves, called " Sita Thapa," there ore 

till located some old sculpture-, with a few words of insignificant 

inscriptions here and there. The Chief " Liftgam of 'Siva " is 
named Sandhe^vara Xatha. Near the Police station of Fateh- 
pur, about 45 miles east of Umga, there is another shrine « died 
SandheSvara Mahadeva, which is surrounded by views ami 
which is much frequented by pious Hindus. In honour of thifi 

shrine a fair is still held in the Siva Ratri festival, in the month 
of Phalgun every year. These facts naturally iaggest the idea 
that both tin e shrines were probably con >< crated by the King 
SandheSa, one of the ancestors of Bhairavendra of Umga, and that 
the kingdom of SandheSa extended over a considerable area in 
this district. About 25 miles north-east of Umga is Konch which 

26 Journal of the" Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 

is famous for a very large ancient temple built of bricks. It re- 
sembles in construction the ancient temple at Umga, and by tradi- 
tion its construction is ascribed to Bhairavendra of Umga. This 
would prove that the kingdom of Bhairavendra was also ex- 

The importance of these two inscriptions lies specially in the 

following points, vis : — 

(1) That they contain a full description of the geueology of 
13 kings of the lunar Dynast}-, and may, on the discovery of some 
important inscription of any of the kings of this Dynasty, throw 
some light on the ancient history of the district of Guy a. 

(2) That they contain clear dates in the widely-known era 
•of Vikramaditya, and thus give a very clear idea of the period, 
when the facts stated in them occurred. 

(3) That one of them maintains tlie fact of consecration of a 
temple to Jagannatha, Balarama and Subhadra, and therefore 
serves as a conclusive evidence of the fact that the worship of these 
gods prevailed in Gaya, at least so far back as the 14th Century 


(4) That the other inscription mentions the fact of construc- 
tion of a temple to Uma, Mahesa and GaneSa. The images lying 
near the ruins of the temple are one of GaneSa and the other of 
G_auri-Sankar, viz., of Gauri, sitting on the' left thigh of Sankara 
(Shiva). This image is of a comparatively modern form, though 
■of a very ancient type. I mean its design is like that of the 
images of Gauri- sankara, made of black stone, lying mutilated 
here and there throughout the district (specially in the town of 
Gaya) in vast numbers, which by their appearance seem to be 
very ancient, and which in structure resemble the ancient Buddhist 
sculptures, which bear inscriptions in Kutila or other still more 
ancient characters ; but the image of < 'hmri-Sahkara found near 
the rums of the Umga temple, on the top of the hill, is not of 
black stone, is much inferior in sculpture, and appears to be of a 
comparatively very recent period. A figure of Gaori-Sunkara, 
lying m the cave of Sita-Thapfi in the Sandhnil hill, however, 
much resembles this image. The images of Gauri-sankara are 
found m abundance in this district, specially in the town of old 
tiaya as stated before. Some are fixed in the walls of modern 
temples or private buildings, while others are lying here and there 
under trees or m ruined temples like the Caityas, the relics of 
the Buddhist faith. The enshrinement of such a figure of Gauri - 
sankara is entirely out of fashion in this period in India or at 
least in Behar. The facts that ver V old images of Gauri-sankara 
are found in great numbers everywhere, and that the enshrine- 
ment of the most modern of them yet discovered, has been clearly 
mentioned in an inscription, dated a. n. 111.1, are likely to throw 
some light on the religious history of India. It would appear 
that the worship of the image of Gauri- Sankara was much in 
vogue for several hundred years before the 15th century a.k 

\ & J 1 . l Jf t thes e are perhaps the only inscriptions in the 
-district, with the exception of the cave inscriptions of the Baraber 

1906.] The Umgd Hill Inscriptions, 27 

Hills, ond the inscription of Kiilchand, a governor of Gaya, under 
the Emperor Firoze Shah, dated 1429 Samvat, in the temple of the 
Sun God in Gaya at Suraj Kund (published by Professor Keilhorn, 
CLE , in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. XX, for September 1891), 
that still remain attached to the ruins of the ancient temples, the 
construction of which they commemorate. 

(6) That they bear a decisive evidence of the fact that the 
modern Deva Nagari character continues almost unchanged from 
nearly 500 years; and that, therefore, the inscriptions found in 
Gaya, containing no date in any recognised era, and written in 
characters much different from modern Deva Nagari, must either 
be very ancient or written in imported characters then prevalent 
in other parts of India, by people who came to Gaya either as 
pilgrims or as conquerors. In this connection it may be said that 
the following inscriptions now available in the town of Gaya, 
which bear a clear date in the era of Vikramaditya, are written in 
modern Deva Nagari character : — 

(a) Inscription dated 1257 Samvat, 1200 a.d., on a slab of 

stone fixed on a wall on the northern side of the temple 
of Parpita mahesvara in Gaya, and being No. 22 of 
the list of Gaya inscriptions given by General Cun- 
ningham, in Vol. Ill of his report on the Archaeologi- 
cal Survey of India. 

(b) Inscription of Suryndasa, dated 1516 Samvat, attached to 

the Gayesvari temple in Gaya (being No. 28 of the 
list of General Cunningham), a translation of which was 
published by him in Vol. Ill of his aforsaid report. 
(r) Inscription of Kulachand, dated 1429 Samvat, corres- 
ponding to 1373 a.d., attached to the Surya Kunda 
temple in Gaya, published in the Indian Antiquary, 

Vol. XX, pp. 812 to 315. 
(J) Inscription dated 1519 Samvat, of seven long lines on a 

slab of stone, about 25 inches long and 7 inches broad, 
fixed on a wall in the temple of Kotesvara Mahadeva, 
south of the well-known temple of Saksi Mahadeva 
near Visnupada in Gaya. 

According to local tradition, the line of this family of the 
lunar kings ended with Bhairavendra, the last king named in 
these inscriptions. After his death, his widowed Queen is said to 
have succeeded him ; but she is said to have been overpowered 
by one of the ministers of Bhairavendra, who was a Bhat (bard) 
by caste, but whose name is not known now. This Bhat minister 
was trying to seize the throne for himself when chance ordained 
it otherwise. 

It is said that four brothers, warriors, belonging to the 

family of the Maharana of Udaipur were proceeding to the 
shrines at Gaya by the route, which later on seems to have 
been developed into the Granfl Trunk Road by the Emperor 
Sher Shah. They happened to halt for the night under some 
trees near a well in front of the town of Umga, the capital of 

28 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [March, 

Bliairavendra. Some maidservants of the widowed Queen, who 
f ame to fetch water, asked them not to halt there as tigers used to 
come there at night. The brothers did not mind this warning, 
and stayed there, and actually killed some tigers, This spread 
the fame of their valour next morning so much so, that the 
-Queen solicited their assistance in disentangling herself from the 
clutches of the Bhat minister. The brothers readily offered their 
services, and succeeded in killing the Bhat minister. The Queen, 
in recognition of this service, adopted one of them, named Rao 
Bhanu Singh, as her successor. This man, who belonged to the 
Sisodhia family of the Rajpoots of the Solar dynasty, stayed 
there and was the founder of a new generation of kings who ruled 
for a long time at Umga. Of his three brothers, one is said to 
have proceeded to Nepal, where he is supposed to have become 
the founder of a new line of kings. Another of them is said to 
have proceeded to Purl, in Orissa, and to have been the founder of 
a new line kings of the Solar dynasty there. The fourth brother 
is said to have returned to Udaipur. 

Rao Bhanu Singh, according to some papers, supposed to 
exist in the family of the present Raja of Deo, is said to have 
been succeeded one after the other by 15 other Rajas 1 named 
below, the last of whom, Rajakumara Jagannatha Prasada Tsara- 
yana Simh of Deo, is now a minor, aged about 9 years, whose 
property is under the management of the Court of Wards. His 
father Raja Bhickham "Narayana Simh Bahadur died in 1898 ad. 
Assuming that the accession of Rao Bhanu Singh happened in 
1448, viz., after five years of the date of the last inscription of 
Bhairavendra, the 15 Rajas appear to have reigned throughout 
period of 450 years, giving an average of thirty years to each 
reign. It is said that Atibala Singh, the sixth in descent from 
Rao Bhanu Singh, killed the then Muhammadan rulers of Deo, and 
removed his capital from Umga to Deo. The fort at Umga is now 
a heap of ruins covering a large area and overgrown with jungle. 
Some traces of gateways, walls and wells can still be found, and in 
one of the rooms are still enshrined some family gods, to worship 
which the Rajas and Ranis of Deo even now use to go to the 
ruined fort once a year or at least on the occasion of marriages. 

A tomb of Bijiili Shahid at Deo, and one of Dana Shahid at 
Ketaki, a neighbouring village, are still associated by tradition 
with the conquest of Deo by Atibal Singh. 

In this connexion it may be said that almost all the peak 
and ranges of hills in the southern part of the district of Gaya 

have marks of ruins on them. Some of them were apparently the 
strongholds of kings, while others were the sites of sacred shrines. 

Ml) R»o Bhanu Siipha. (2) SahasaMalla Siipha. (3) Tarachnnd. f4) Bis- 
vambhara Siipha. (5i Kalyana Simha. (6) Atibala Simh*. (7lNayapala 
Simha. (8) Prat n pa Simha. (9) Prabil Siu.ha. (10) Chft traps ti Siihha. 
01) Fateh Narayana Simha. (12) GhnnaSyama Siipha. (13) Mitrabhanu 
Siipha. (14 Maharaja Sir Jayaprakasa Siiphn, Bahadur, k.cs.i (15) RSjS 
Bhikham Narayana Simha Bahadur, (16) Rajkumara Jagannat.ha I'rasada 
Nayana Singh (the present proprietor of the Deo Raj). 

1906.] The Umgd Hill Inscriptions. 29 

The ruins on the hills of Manda, Pachar, Dongra, Cheon, Bakan, 
Sandhail, Umga, A'ranagar (about six miles south of Deo), Pawai, 
Koluha, Singar, Malier, etc , may be quoted as instances. In the 
days of yore when the use of artillery was in its infancy or 
totally unknown, or out of practice on account of being in- 
humane, kings and noblemen probably selected their capitals in 
hills and other inaccessible places where fortification was render- 
ed easy by nature. To build a castle in the plains was perhaps 
considered unsafe. The seats of Government were therefore in 
the southern hills and in the tnaccefl ble jungles, which still 
abound in ruins of towns and palaces. The northern fertile 
plains of the Gaya district were therefore perhaps less densely 
populated in those days, being more open to foreign attacks. 

Ttxt of the inscription on the t<>p of Q**uri Sharikar Hill near Umgd,] 

District Oayd. 

33l«?t ^'tl^^lWfor^t 19qi*l *ITOOT *H1§ST ^??JT(iT^: II \ II *- 

^r ^^ ipj: %%• ^^^VJ^nft ^wr$\ ^\fm rvn*t€\ i fti^THRi^T 
w. n ^ n ^«t fl^t *nraf JnTt 1 ^ ^fjsnm w ft^r fafrrei: i i^Tf^aj* 

^s?Tjf pn^j *fw?nn i t fa t q^i' ^ ii 8 ii fana fM*r faftwt roim 

?p i vrcfwm ^Tigfa vwnvt fei v$ct n 4 11 <ft*r titocr- to fa[rf; 

1 shoaid be ^faftnrrer 1 

2 Should be ff^T^fTH I 

3 In the original it is T*Rfct, that is, the ^ is wanting, 
* It can be also read ST^lf^ $*9^ II 

& ^B is probably a mistake ^6 II 

G 3lHjfsMf| dors not seem to be correct Snii&lcrii : may be fflWwPI 

80 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 

Translation of the second inscription discovered recently on 

the top of Umga Hill in Gay a. 

Om ! Salutation to Siva (Gauri) and to Siva. 

There was in the lunar race one (King) Durddama the 
invincible, a fire for the forest of miseries. His son was Kumara, 
the supporter of his race, and the ocean of virtues. Of him 
(was born) Laksmana Pala, the virtuous; and of him Candra, 
who was like the moon ; the lotus-eyed Nayapala the refuge (of 
all); his son was Sandhesh. — 1. 

Of him was born Abhayadeva the Great ; of him Malla, 
and of him the virtuous Kesisvara well up in the devotion of 
Ke§ava. His son (was) Narasimha, the defeater of enemies. Of 
him (was born) Bhanu the Great, and of him, Soma, the jewel of 
the ear of the lunar race, the great bestower of worlds and giver 

by ten millions. — 2. 

Of him was born King Sri Bhairavendra, the extender 

of dominions, the leader of kings, promoter of his race, the lord, 
the great, the accumulator of treasures, the supporter of worlds, 
the king by having whom the earth has the honour of being 
named a kingdom, (who is) the defender of the poor, the excava- 
tor of tanks, the performer of sacrifices, the consecrator of temples 
to gods, the knower of Dharmas, the lord of elephants, (who is) 
like Rama in fame. — 3. 

Having enshrined (in temples) Uma, Mahesa and Ganesa 
with his Ganas, (the king who is) well acquainted w T ith rites and 
(having strengthened) with fortifications of rivers, etc., (be) made 
Umga the residence of the clans of the lunar dynasty, an abode 
of (all) good things. — 4. 

On (this) hill, the King Bhairava, who has no equal, 
(Lit. who is one) enshrined Girisa (Siva), Girija (Gauri), and 
Ganesa, on Monday the 12th date of the dark half of the month 
of Jyaistha in the year 1500 of the era of Vikramaditya. — 5. 

Also here in figures 1500. 

Even he, who commits the most horrible sins, sucb as the 
killing of the Brahmanas, etc., by building a temple to Han, is 
washed of his sins and goes to heaven.— 6. 

Three times greater merit than that stated above, (i& 
secured by him) who builds a temple to Visnu in a place of 
pilgrimage, in a sacred place, in a place of devotion, and in an 
hermitage. — 7. 

It is said the merit is 100 times greater than that stated 
above (to him who builds a temple) on a hill, and thousand times 
(to him) who builds a temple on the top of a hill.— 8. 

Peace be to all. 

32 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1006. 

6. Some Lullabies and Topical Songs collected in 

Persia by Lieut. Colonel D. C. Phillott. 

The following lullabies (with the exception of 
No. VI) are common in the districts of Shiraz or 
Kirni an, and probably in other parts of Persia : 



La-la l&-la be my Rose : 
Be my darling ; he my B/<!-1>hJ. 
Never die nor leave me. 

La-la la-la la-lay. 

La-la laH he falls asleep. 

The sound of his dada'fl shoe I hear 

La-la la-la, my own wall-flow »i. 

Why wilt thou ne'er r<>t still ¥ 
La-la la-la la-/a*i. 


La-la*% lay-la'i lay-Ifi s ~t iRy-la'i 

Sleep dear life lay-a*i lay-la'i. 

Ala i im Baba * Manrtr 

Go tell my mother. 

J Ala is bare part of the lullaby sound : it is not an int. ijection. 

Baba a slave-boy, a kind of 'buttons. 1 Manmr " Victorious ? ' is a name 

otten given to negro slaves. 

Vol. II, No. 3 ] • Persian Lullabies and Topical Sou is. 33 





_£U r _I5 3)S( *J 

• • 

^i i( Ji 3131 

^—^ jr 3i3i n 


51V SI V * * 

I J. 

J* tf > J* J* J* is* ^ * 

J>)1 iS S J t/* <s^ &J& *> { * ^ ^'^ 

1 La-la, lullaby : U-IH kardan (m.c.) " to lull an infant to sleep," 

2 Ml -ad> vulgar for m't-iyad. 

3 Arum $ i.e., m 

♦ The Persian bulbul [Ddulias Hafiti) is very like the English nightin 


34 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906, 

They gave me a pitcher and I went bo draw water ; 
Close by the spring I fell asleep. 
Ala la*i Baba Mansiir 
Go tell my mother. 

Two Turkish men from Tnrkistau 
Carried me off to Hindustan. 

Aid lu'i Baba Mansur 
Gro tell my mother. 

They married me to the son of a king, 

Kuler of men and of women. 

Aid ld p i Baba Mane fir 

(to tell my mother. 

Now four sons IVe got, 

One's with the flocks, one's with herds, 

One's at school 1 and one's in the oot.* 

Ala la*i Baba Mansur 

Gro tell my mother. 


La-la la-la my dear son 

Sleep my sweet life ; 

Suhel 1 has risen o'er the hilU. the moon behind him. 

Oh lender of the caravan, when wilt thou load and start ? 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian Lullabies and Topical Sony* 

[A T .S.] 

fi*; V 1 ^ **^ ■> 


or*; p il * ^ ^ 

Ijjwi *&f 


r;^ u * -J 

r~* a > r^ * u 

*c ; y. Aii ; ^ /. «* _r~ *»J J-i 

tyfi fi* J-i .'. **> • J? **) U& 

; £ bb IC 5H Hi 

or-; r^ u r" 


* r^; 3AJAi w?3,ii ^ 


5 AVna" mummy" a child's word for mother, and hence a mothers 
address for a child, vide note 2 to Lnllaby No. IV. 
* Rud P.-tifl, a child, son or daughter. 

36 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 

Oh leader of the caravan, pray travel slow 
For my little child has lagged behind. 
LS-lft la-la be my sweet marjoram, 
Thy dada's come ; bright be thine e'en. 

Come, oh moon of my sky ! 

Art up-rooting violets : 

Art planting roses ?*- 

La-la la-la be my sweet marjoram, 

Thy dada's come ; bright be thine e'en 

A white bird was I in the almond tree [ ; 

Fate cast a stone and broke my wing. 

Oh Fate withhold thy hand, for I am young ; 

The World's to me as yet unknown ; 

The joy of life's unwon. 

La-la la-la be my sweet marjoram ; 

Thy dada's come ; bright be thine e'en. 



1 Lit. f ista tree. 

Vol. II, No, .*>.] Persia" Lullabies >md Topical Sonys. 7 


I; ' r l/ A— lili sj } y. 

v* — "; r> 

jtp*J jjjjU ^^ J — aJc «^ 


i w f JL_* 4 J M 

o~jJ * ° — ~^ ^ *V* 


~_f J f > y *D 


*>>cf c/ J J 

j ^-o r * J vv 

A — v-££ ^JU |*j f &- iJLii 

l^i c *>c A> ^J^c ^t\^» t^Xb 

^ J; 

*xcf lj b 

1 Abzhdn pronounced abshan, in Arabic scffar, is also called prndinn-yi 
knhi or hill-mint : here* 3 ' 1 my sweet child." 

2 Cha* 9 vnlg. for cha$hm-at. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, I90G 


La-la la*i, my Sweet Life l&-la*i, 


My darling and sweet soul la-la s i ; 
For thee, dear, I would die lR-la s l ; 
La-la la-la l3-la-la*t. 
Friends, pleasure in this life's in wealth ; 
Who lias a child lias pleasure perfect ; 
Who has no child in this world, 

Were he Jamshld imperfect were he. 
La-la la-la la-la-la*i. 


La-la la-la la-la la-la la-la f i; 
Friends, my sweet son is sleeping ; 
Were I to die for him, t would be but just ; 
La-lS la-Id la-Id la-la la-lti*i. 
Art thou lion, art thou leopard, I know not ; 
This I know thou'rt straggling with me ; 
La-la la-Si my Sweet Life, la-la'i. 
Friends my son is sweet of speech ; 


He will have a pen and be writer to the Court 


L<\-la la-la la-la ln-la lH-la f i. 

Vol. II. No. 8.] P< '><<*» LuUabi-s •<n.l fl y "/ So»g«. 

[* 5.] 



i...u .v* n 

^ w yy * v 


J» m i> M 


^H f i IS s > 

♦l> J*. 


«c^i ^d jj ^< *-*y r" 

1 Bora? for bar«iy-af . 

« IfarfVrr r relations caII children by the aaroo appelation that Children fall 
them • thn« a mother will call her oon or dan K hter midar or mMar-jin and bo 

3 ,4«f. Future Ten pe. 



Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 


i * v 

Tehran Lullaby. 





3* i^ 



♦ 9 










»> ' 3^ c^ 


V 51 



• • 





c? * —ij * 

• ■ 

%\ — k 




8 <^»a 31 


j- 5 ;' ;*> 





v y 




<**-*** &H1 31 Jl 




Mir Khan Bdz is the name of the father of the 
Tan m tavdf. 

Itul utul m dar in tnl va dar an taL 


i.e., j^n. 

Ld dddan 

nuqndn dddan. 





Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian Lullabies and Topical Sonys. 41 


The following topical songs (tasntf) collected in 
Persia are fair samples of those composed and sung 

2J2„ 1 

by the lulls. 


I Lvti a strolling player, a buffoon, tc, etc. 

42 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 


The King of China's Daughter. 

" The King's daughter is just like this and just like that 

Come, show me thine eyes, 

That I may describe them." 
" Mine eyes— what dost thou want with theni ? l 

Hast never seen the eyes of the gazelle ? 

Mine, too, are like them." 

" My love's brows are just like this and just like that 

Oh show me thy brows, 

That I may describe them." 
" My brows— what dost want with them ? 

Hast never seen a bow in the bazaar ? 

They, too, are like that." 

" My love's lips are like this and like that : 

Oh show me thine lips, 

That I may describe them." 
" My lips— what dost want with them ? 

Hast never seen a pista * in the bazaar 

They, too, are like that." 

" My love's cheeks are like this and like that : 

Come, show me thy cheeks, 

That I may describe them." 
" My cheeks-what dost thou want with them P 

Hast never seen peaches in the bazaar ? 

They, too, are like that." 

kernel inside! 7 PS * nd exhibit8 the P ink 



Vol. 11, No. 3.] Persian Lullabies and Topical Songs. 43- 



» " *,/* ** fi£ w * a ^ c^ '; •»■•£* l ttrt fc* te>ft*** •*- r*"* 

« 4 a^iswfj ^n— i|£l <j ^AfiS s,*T ^Li*. fy** y*!***** <•*** 




* " «^ •* ri^ ^ u l— ■•** ^ b °^ wh>*u>** r^ * • M 


* * c5^ d * ^ ^ t> L* e>— * »j ^ e/^5 e>±^ 


• " *— ±*w^ f — ^! ? ^A*fc yjb * ^U C^**^*!**** f;^ " 

• Hamchh/ u chin or cMn u c/w/i : colloquial for hamchunin u Jtamchftriin, 

2 CM is the vulgar form of cluz and chi chlz or cM cht is vulgar of 
" what?" 3 For?m-^;tf<7-;. 

* Hamchii is in speaking pronounced hamchi. Ant is sometimes shortened 
into a final a: this is now considered vulgar. 

5 Up, "cheek." 


Journal of the Asiatic So&ety qJ Bmyal. . [March, 19-J6 


Come, show me thy teeth, 
That I may describe them." 
" ^J teeth — what dost thou want with them ? 
Hast never seen fresh pearls > 
They, too, are like them." 


" My love's breasts are like this and like that : 
Come, show me thy breasts," 

That I may describe them. 
" My breasts— what dost want with tliem r 
Hast never seen Shiraz limes ? 
They, too, are like them." 

" My love's bosom is like tins and like that 

Come, show me thy bosom, 

That I may describe it." 
" My bosom— what dost want with it P 

Hast never seen white marble P 

It too is like it." 


" My love's navel is just like tin's and just like thai 

Come, show me thy navel, 

That I may describe it," 
" My navel— what dost want with it P 
Hast never seen a crystal bowl 1 P 

It too is like one." 

" My love's 'chastity 'is like this : „ 
Come, show me thine honour. 
That I may describe it." 

" % e * * t— what dost wish with it r 

Has never seen the foot of a gazelle r 

It, too, is like one." 

id like thai 

/Vol. II> No* 3.]/ Persian Lullabi** mid Topical 8ongs 







< I 

* *- 

(j ( .,Gu^ 

trt*jt^ f;- e 




* - fty «tj f — fS!» ?^*f jijfc*u»H! $*^^!> a ^jp iu ^ " 



y* *t fl& e^ 13 ^ ttH '; •< *^ 

e>t^ j e^ (*; 

b £\ju*» 

" d 

*s*M f— ts« ? ts*i* '*&* s> j* S^^/^-i***!^ 



• *' 




- ^ ^ 1 

9+& (•— &' 

u c^ 1 ; 

S^^ ; 


e»i^ j t«T (•; 

L, oli " 

,L <Ltf C^Kf.^itjAft'tjfK" 

" u* *^ fO*? t^ S U»fc*Mj 2 


[i c^tj> er*f r; L - :: ^* 



±^n J f — t^ 







yty***])*** 9 * 


l Tar, Afresh, i.e., with lustre." 2 r#»iat»nd nimm % yu'nl far} 9 

8 £fc* TAr. pi. a&w&j, is the crudest word for the article either in 
Persian or in Arabic. 

+ Z* Sirr-i nihdn-ash yak-i harfbild 
Su?n-i ahu-i rafta dar barf bud. 
to one thing only can it be compared »«*„ to tin print of a gazelle's 

foot in pure snow. 

, » 

46 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 


r. v n I 

Tasnif-i Dukhtar-i $afura. 


fi*« ^yfjJ^J tj «■ >«* 

ji> c5» # - & *i> *t - r*i u* ^ - r*3 u> r** $ ,J 3 *» r* 


^i£ ! ; ,| A*"^* .♦. ±i)d \ ; JU> J^> .\ ±ij~» j** <^ 1 — i 

»^} 1^ — *"* d**** sS — *•■ 




I >Su/«ra was the daughter of a mulla in Shiraz. She had a reputation 
for learning nml piety aud ubp<I to preach to women from the pulpit. She, 
however, strayed from the path and this tafnifwM composed by the wigs ol 

* Illdhi — " I hope." ( 3 Bit, i.e., ld$h. 4 Biram = bi-ravam. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Pemon Lullabies and Topical Songs. w 



T<i.<n'if-i $Bdtq-i Mulla Itajah. 1 

[Every second Hue is from Hatiz.] 

1 w^; ^ jjU 

olv? *^. *».-/« A*, w-l tiA* &l^ ^ *♦* 

^% * o.—^- *— ~ /t y * 

cU i-j^.J 

y o^ ^y )l r- *■** 


Taptlf-i Sddiq-i Muttfl Ayah 

1 S*ta son of Mulla Kujab of Kirman. He adopted the profession of a 
m from choice, and his fcpfi amount c.nain c a ? ,^oa notonety. 

* Gai/aw understood after *aa-» »»•**. 3 , A ' because^ 

- ft IfeST /«»'«* it mJb t.,r P«a,-.-n mb«. Any good work done on the 
Muslim Friday night (,> .. the English Tmu-Mlaynigh.) has a ep. .al value. 

6 Lupcha. dimiu. of /»<p, "check." . ..--.,-„ 

« Allknlang, meaning doubtful: probably form l»e<Ift«* Anna da. 

rant'ijuft gin ft an. 

48 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Benyal. [March 

** j* ***-**) »'r isj-i*Ji*J 


/ -~ v_~ ; «« ^ 



^ ** c-rjjj ^^ ^ ^ f ^ ^, 



r^i A& + 0) j^ ^ ^ f ^ ^, 

**jl*» J*ijl v 15 (—*-*/>•. l -^3 *-* «*> ^-V 


^> o^ ^ £*, ^ ^, ^^ , 


1 My heart it loves a gypsy, Oh ! ' 

LS ^ j ' */-' F 3 V -> 

1 IMH for hildl. 

2 Digger of qandts. 

.3 Sitam-gar, i.e., ma'shilqa. 

* Bar.gfi, poetical. 

4, dear^?J!Tn V *£ "Z , clear ™*™g in these two lines. 'AtU, 
,'-? Rl ^ a * ltle for the R uler of Egypt. 

? mi- nli8 8pin thread - 

quanta, vulgarly ^tfit/a, is a kind of grass from which baskets are 


Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian Lullabies and Topical Songs. 1-9 


VIU . 





/J O-l > ^ U«A ^— If S y J 

f T J „_>?! *l»t 0>— Uj */ .«• 


W ,^to * t «l— a*a «*« — ^ r^ 

^m> - <s K ~i+" isj--—^ c 

'ff s^kM r H j> [ -+> c^ 

ss j—i^i J*ji )£» *$ <* — JUr 


1 Qiip, " cheek." " They gave me their cheeks to kiss." 

2 Kur, in the dialect of the Lulis, is a small boy or girl. 

3 Gump, a bunch of flowers. A plump boy is called gump-i gul. 

4 Ham-pa, " with." 

& My road became divided, i.e., I fell in love both with the mother and 

the daughter 

Mo.Pr,f Garqen 


50 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 


( ^j* c£u (jr ^ ^ »u~ ^y ... a*^ ^ r<i ^A o^ y fM^ 

• • . •* 

* AJ|A) ; &i\*>) ^liL* Ail i»A) .-. ^ ^y* ^^. ^S f, JU 1 

* ailtWj aifJJj Ail — i-A) Jul — i~* .-. |>5 ^ixj ^ ^jja. i^ Jb Jla> * 

* u~^ y igpL jt * ^y .-. A~^> -ij *fc» ^j;y ** 

• « t • 

* Ju|iX>j aj|^ &.U~* *>l — iL^o .-. ^ i^>c ^ J^ _a 

* jj 


f*J* O l — »*? *-Jtf fj*j t^/ ctff 

^^—^f ^u u 

; u j* 

u-^^f^^J 3 3' y^ 

^,—^ 1^ .J 

c> - j ■ p **y *-* — * A> y c j ^ /♦ 

1 Fa understood. 2 tk; r u 1 • ^ 

. z 1 his hue |j;i8 no clear meaninir 

* rhete lines are from llnz. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian Lullabu* and Topical S«ngs. 51 




so* mi - -^*i >* **& ?y± >'■ o* %/i ) j~ *&—^. } 

i»A m m O. ♦AI,»_kX> 1*1 

j— r 


To snif. 

^.v- ^vr- T- 1 .- • • c* 

X I V. 



Tasnif on Ifoft /on. 1 

Js, .* Ji, T .1 feiJt i — ^yf *i 


1 Moti Jan was a famous Indian OOOXteMO who went to Shir**, 

2 Mut M>iti Jan— the lady's Dim 
* Na^rniram « namhmvayn. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 190& 




f,lU i £—iJ 

ht .-. w — b ^T u 







!; 2 l 

o-r* j- 



*y *t 


C? e> 




C 1 c;^ 3 . 



J -^ 3 <JT 

o> J' oJ' e>>° 


;,u oij ,_^ . 


^ ^f J.w .g,^ . ^_i f j 

ty* ^U 4 . 


5 d>b ., 


>>'* igr— **j 

Cs'>* {pt 


£f o 

e^sf ^ 

Aif t&t*—* 

^-* J fc>*/ — ft* 

♦* t 





f Ca^ 


o-i U* 7 „l 



• A 

. o-i f 



n >* v 


* ^ '^' •* ji*. o^i 


'3 Ji') C^y .*. *- UJ A— Li ^—sbJl; jLM 

^A>j »^- (J f ; l» JU-O 







*>** <jt;V^ .'. a 


'^ iL * ^ J^er^t 




LT> ^ V° ) 



jJ 1 ^ 



Th e all U8 i (mi8 notcl,.ar. •*•*««•"" tt** 

££&£? ^ ' Wit '' Qot W-i 0" but . .tad. 

* 2 Vulvar for siyah. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian Lullahies and Topiral Song*. 




±*1 Vji^ ts*/** •'• l <s* " ** : ^ U J ; *> U f 

Lf~' J J 

*s A i/ fayufjftt l^il *» .*. ? 2 *^/ ' — ' ^^ 

Verses by a Dervish to extract money from a British Consul. 

Tasntf-i Husain-i Lutl. 

- t 1 . e . . 1 . Al 

ja lu. ^ i/ c— »j t; ^t 

1 ftiWJMiamadi i contrary to the usaal custom of fiftfe* he used to wear 
a Persian felt hat. 

2 Kirmdn-a = Kirmdn ast. , , 

IJB»!a = »»««*■ The Shirazis pride themselves on be,ng «•«» and 
look down on the quiet Kirmanis who are mostly weaver*. 

* Also in Arabic cka^. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 



7. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. I. — A variety of 
Spongilla lacustris from Brackish Water in Bengal. — By N. 

Annandale, D.Sc., C.M.Z.S. 

Thanks to Carter's 1 classical memoirs, the Freshwater Sponges 
of India are better known than most of the animals which inhabit 
our Indian tanks. In Bombay, Carter examined five species, basing 
-on them the researches which laid the foundation of the scientific 
study of the Spongillidee as living organisms. Two species have 
been recorded from Calcutta by Weltner, 2 and two by Bower bank s 
from Central India. The following list, based mainly on the third 
part of Weltner's " SpognilUdenstudie?i" * shows the distribution, 
in India and in the world, of all the forms as yet known to occur 
as members of our fauna : 

Indian Spongillid^. 

Genns Spongilla 

• • • 

1. S. alba, Cart. 

2. S. bombayensis, Cart. 

3. S. carter* , Brok. 

• ■ • 

• •• 

• • • 

4. S. cerebellata* Bwrk. 

5. 8. cinerea, Cart. 

6. S. decipiens, Weber 

7. S. lacustris, auct. 

Genus Ephydatia . 

8. E. plumosa (Cart.) 

• • t 

• •• 

• • - 

v « • 



Bombay, Chota Nagpur, Central India , 

Calcutta; Madura (Malay Archipelago), 

Mauritius, Eastern Europe. 
Central India. 

Bombay ; Celebes, Flores, N. America, 
Calcutta; Celebes. 
Lower Bengal ; Europe. N. America, 

Northern Asia, Australia. 

Bombay ; N. America. 

The following species have been recorded from countries near 
India and will probably be found to beloug to the Indian fauna : 

Spongilla sumatrana, Weber 
Ephydatia fturiatili*. auct. 


blembingt'ib Evans 

• •• 


Eastern Asia, Europe, N. America ; 

Malay Peninsula. 

During ft recent visit (January 28th -30th) to Port Canning 
in Lower Bengal, I was much struck by the enormous number of 
sponge-gem mules which formed a scum on the surface of some of 
the shadeless brackish pools so numerous in the neighbourhood. 
These gemmules originated in a Spongilla which incrusted the stems 
of plants growing in the water and sticks which had fallen into it. 
Some of the pools were already drying up and the sponge was be- 
ginning to be exposed to the air. At one point I saw specimens 
which appeared to have been carried some distance from the 
tank by a gale of wind and were hard and dry. 

1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 1847, 1849, 1856, 1859, 1874, 1881. 

2 Wiegm Archiv. f. Naturgesch. LXI, 1895. 

8 Proc. Zool. Sac. 1868. 

* Carter regarded this form as no more than a variety of his S. alba, 

• (1881). 

* Quart Journ Micr. Science, 1900. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 

I have made a careful examination of Living and preserved 
material, and I cannot find any specific difference between thifl 
sponge and the widely-distributed Sponyilla lacustris, which is not, 
however, usually regarded as a tropical form. It may be con- 
venient, for the sake of reference, to give the form a varietal 

Description of 8, lacustris var. benyahnsis- 

Texture firm, resistant, fibrous. Thickness never more than half 
an inch. Habit incrusting ; without branches, entirely surround- 
ing support; pores and oscula inconspicuous; 


Colour flesh-colour or dull-green. 

surface smooth, 
Gemmnh's numerous, 

disposed throughout the sponge except on the surface, of two sizes 
thickly coated, with ' * * " ' * 


gle funnel-shaped opening, spherical. 
Spicules: — skeleton spicules smooth, slender, cylindrical, f< ebly curv- 
ed, very rarely bent at an angle, abruptly pointed, joined together 
in strands to form a reticulation in which the gemmules rest: 
flesh spicules very slender, cylindrical, feebly bent, pointed, 
minutely spineal throughout, numerous 

gemmule spicules slen- 
der, cylindrical, sparsely covered with fine, pointed, recurved spines, 
which are more numerous towards the ends than at the centre ; 

the spicules very numerous, arranged tnngentially, not penetrating 
coat of gemmule. 


A. =skeleton spicules. 0. - flesh spicule. 

Length of skeleton spicule 
Length of flesh spicule 
Length of gemmule spicule 
Diameter of larger gemmule 
Diameter of smaller gemmule ,.. 

• • • 

• 9 • 

♦ • • 

- . • 

0*3 mm. 
014 mm. 
01G mm. 
09 mm 
06 mm. 

0'4 mm 

The most notable peculiarity of this variety is the total ab- 
sence ot brandies,! but in certain forms of the species the bn. nehefl 
a re better dev eloped than in others. 8. la< vtris ifl so variable Led r f , 0l,l l CS '' ribe8,lis S - I****™ var. »phaerica, from New South 
ThJ l',«o* OH F "*****, kuglig oder eif arming" (Zool. Jthrb. part % 1887). 
Lw^otir ? thi8 , f orm i8 don! hi Weltner is not sure that it 

belongs to the genus Spo.gilla, no gemmules being available for examination. 

Vol.11, No. 3.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 57 


that Potts, 1 in his monograph of the Fresh water Sponges of the 

world, recognized six varieties in addition to the typical form. 
The Bengal form most nearly resembles his inoutana (from the 
Catskill Mountains, New York) as regards its spicules ; but in the 
gem mule spicules the spines are more distinctly aggregated at the 
ends in the Bengal form. I regard the angularly bent skeleton 
spicule, of which 1 have on!}- seen twoexamples, as an abnormality. 
The gemmules are very distinctly of two sizes, the smaller 
ones being less numerous than the larger ones. They are scattered 
indiscriminately through the sponge, and in both the opening is 
directed outwards. They are not found in groups, and have no 
large air-cells. Dried pieces of the sponge bear a close external 
resemblance toWeltaers 1 figure of part of a branch of EuspongUla 

lacnstrU from Germany ; but there is in the centre of each of such 
pieces of the Bengal form a twig or grass-stalk which would be 

absent from European specimens. The green colour of the Port 
Canning examples was due to a multicellular alga 3 whose 
filaments ramified among the spicules. This alga was evidently 
growing with great activity, but it had only commenced to invade 

certain pieces of the sponge. 

S. lacustris has been recorded from brackish water in Europe 
and possibly in Australia. The species is evidently adaptable, and 
its great fertility as regards gemmules, gives it every cliance of a 

wide dispersal. 

The common sponges in the Calcutta tanks are S. carteri and 
8. decipiens. The former propagate itself during the winter 
months, by means of buds, and forms gemmule tther later in the 
year than do« S S. dra'piem. By the end of January, specimens of 
the latter are usually reduced to mere skeletons containing these 
bodies, while even large examples of S. carteri are, at the same date, 
either devoid of gemmules or contain only a few. 

The life-history of these two forms differs also in other 
respects. The bads of S. carteri attach themselves chiefly to water- 
plants such as Pistia stratiotes and Irimnanthemum and grow rapidly 
into globular masses, which may be six or eight inches in dia- 
meter. These gradually weigh down the leaves or roots to which 
they adhere, and finally sink them in the mud. The lower part of 

the sponge then dies, the cells probably migrating towards the 
upper part. S. decipiens, on the other hand, incrusts the lower 
part of the stems of reeds, bricks which have fallen into the water, 
and other sunk objects. Neither species is exposed to the air for 
any great part of the year in Calcutta, as both are said by Carter 
to be exposed in Bombay. 

Both species shelter a number of Insect larvae, some of which 
are generically identical with those found in the same position in 
Ge^nany. A minute Naidomorph worm is abundant in the 

1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Science, Philadelphia, 1887. 

2 Wnt. Nachr. (Berlin; xx./No. 10, p. 150. fi>. 7 1893. 

3 Cf. M. and A. Weber, Zool. Ergeb. Niedcrland t-Ind* Vol. 1, page 50, 

pl- V, fig. 1. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of B* mjal. [March, 1{K)6. 

decaying tissues of older specimens, and appears to play an impor- 
tant part in the liberation of the gemmules. At Port (Sinning I 
found a crab of the genus Varana concealed in considerable num- 
bers among grass stems coated with S. lacuMris. The relations 
between the Freshwater Sponges and the various animals associ- 
ated with them is a subject to which I hope to return later. 

Vol. II. No. 3.] Notes oh the Freshwater Fauna of India. 59 

l -v. ft ] 

8. Notes on the Freshwater Fanni of India. No. II. — The Affimtii 

of Hislopia. — Btj N, A\nam»alk, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

The genus Hislopia was founded in 1858 by Carter for a fresh- 
water Polyzoon 1 sent to him in spirit from Nagpur by Hislopthe 

geologist ;* while in 1880 Jul lien * described a form, which he recog- 
nized 1 in 1885 as allied to Carter's, under the name Norodonia, baa- 
ing his diagnosis entirely on external characters* The systematic 

position of these Polyzoa has remained obscure. Stoticsk*,* who 
referred to the existence of Hislopia in Lower Bengal in his ac- 
count of the brackish water Mt>mbr<u<i/><>ra bengal ensis, did not 
carry out his intention of describing its life history. A recent ex- 
amination of living material from a tank on the Calcutta 'maidan' 

enables me to give a general account of the anatomy of Carter- 
species, II. lacustris, and to indicate its affinities in general and 

its relationship to Norodonia* 

genus as allied to r lustra, de- 
scribed the colony as " spreading in aggregation over smooth sin- 
faces, sometimes in linearly, but for the most part with no definite 
arrangement." In Calcutta the linear arrangement is far com- 
moner than any other, but occasionally several zoo-cia are adjacent 
to one another in a transverse series. This may be due either to 
parallel branches chancing to approach one another, in which ca> 
there is no communication between the polypides, or to lateral bud- 
ding* In any case the zoarium is flat and consists of a single 

layer of cells. The substance of the BOOSCia is tran 

Ntiff, while the thickened margins of the orifice have a deep brownish 


The individual zooecia are described by Carter as " irregularly 
ovate, compressed/' and his figure (op. cit. pi. VII, fig. 1) shows that 
considerable variation in their outline is brought about by the 
pressure of neighbouring cells. Although he represents, in the 
-a me figure, a considerable flattened area between some of the cells, 
he does not note that their horny margin is of considerable width, 
and his fig. 2 is misleading in this respect. Moreover, the relative 

length of the spines at the angles of the thickened borders of the 
orifice is more variable than he indicate-. In some zocecia they 
are verv short, and occasionally two or even three of the four are 
vestigial. The large " stolonif erous holes'* he describes and 
figures are a very marked feature ; the actual plate being normal 
in character, although the depression at the base of which it occurs 
is of considerable extent. Even when the colony consists of a 
single line of zooecia these depression- may be present on the sides 
as well as the extremities of each cell. They then indicate thai 
lateral budding is about to commence; for although no aperture 

I Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) I, page M*i pi. VH. 

Bull. Soc. ZwA. France, 1880. page 77. 
3 ibul. 1886, p?ige 181. 
* Journ, As. Soc. Benoal. XXXVIII, (2), page 61. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [A [arch, 1906. 


Fig. 1. Hislopia lacuttris : two zooecia from the contr 

of the zoarium (drawn from life). 

A. m unicellular alga in gizzard. E. « egga. 


] .Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 61 

as yet exists, a roundish mass of undifferentiated tissue on the 
inner wall of the zocecia opposite their b; i >e represents the youn 
bud. Occasionally a very short, flat creeping stolon is produce 
between two zooocia. 

It is only as regards the eooecia that it is possible to compare 
the diagnoses of Ih'slofia and Norodonia. The following is a 
translation of that of the latter : 

"Zocecia horny, creeping, strongly adherent to submerged 

bodies, originating one from another below the summit to form 
linear series, primitive axis of the zoarium rapidly giving rise to 

secondary, tertiary and other axes, these appear on a level with the 
upper third of the zocecium, sometimes on one side, sometimes on 
two; lateral margin thick, bearing a delicate membranous an >a, 
near the summit of which is t he orifice." (1885). 

Allowing for the dried condition of the specimens examined, 
this diagnosis applies equally well to Histopia. In dried specimens 
of J9T. lacustris the front collapses helow the margins, which then 
appear thickened, and the tubular character of the orifice is less 
conspicuous. No mention is made of the four " valves " which 
•close the orifice in llislopia; but they are extremely delicate mem- 
branous structures, which cannot he seen in dried specimens. 
For these reasons I regard Norodonio afl a synonym of Hisbji i. 
Whether Jullien's N. cambodyiensis is specifically identical with 


hut the authors figures bear a 

close resemblance to dried examples 'of the latter. 

As regards the polypide of //. lacustris^ one or two important 
features may be noted. The lophophore is circular, not horse shoe- 
shaped as Jullien's (1885) copy of Carters figure would suggest. 
There is no epistome. A folded collar, very conspicuous when the 
lophophore is in the act of expanding, exists and is well represented 
by Carter (op. cit. pi. VII, fig. 3). When the polypide is retract- 
ed, the aperture is closed by what appear on the surface to be four 
valves. Carter stated, and indicated in his figure, that the pos- 
terior of these was larger than the others and had a different 
character from them ; but in the living animal the relative extent 
of these "valves" is by no means constant, even in the same 
zooecium at different times. Their nature is best indicated by a 
study of the young bud. Before the orifice is actually perforated 
irs lumen is almost circular, the edge is hardly thickened, and 
there are no spines. At this stage no "valves" can be seen, al- 
though the collar, which is very long, may be already apparent. 
As an opening is formed, and as, simultaneously, its edges become 
more or le 3 completely rectangular and stiff, the upper extremity 
of the walls of the orifice, inside the thickened rim, collapse to- 
gether, and a slight transverse folding take place, producing what 
appear on the surface to be regular flap s, although the folding is 

not sufficiently marked for the projections froni the four sides of 

the orifice to have actually this character. These projections are 
the so-called valves. In such forms as Alcyonidium and Bower* 
bankia, the walls of the orifice close in more or lesB tightly above 
the collar when the lophophore is retracted, but no projections of 

62 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906, 

this kind are formed, the aperture being circular and not having 
stiffened edges. In Paludicella, in which the opening is rectan- 
gular but without a thickened rim, the resemblance is much more 
striking. In Hidopia there are no peculiar muscles connected with 
the orifice, the structure of which is absolutely distinct from that 
of the Cheilostomes. 

The tentacles are, as Carter says, "about sixteen," occasion- 
ally a little more numerous; but their number is not constant. 
When expanded they are long and slender. The pharynx is rather 
lengthy. Near its point of origin it is swollen slightly ; but it be- 
comes Cylindrical again before entering the gizzard, which is sphe- 
rical and bears from two to six greatly thickened ridges on its 
infernal surface. The passage between the gizzard and the stomnch 

is capable of some extension and bean peculiarly long and active 
cilia. The gizzard almost invariably contains i number of round- 

ed green bodies, which appear to be unicellular alga'. Sometime 
these bodies remain in the gizzard unaffected for at least two days* 


p. v.. 


Fig. 2. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the orifice, 

the polypide being retracted. 

T.= thickened rim. P. \\ — posterior val\f. A. V. -anterior valve 

Those situated furthest down are inconstant motion, being whirled 
•ound and round by the cilia in the passage I k tweeu the stomach 
and the gizzard. Occasionally a movement of the whole aliment- 
ary canal causes some of them to descend into the stomach: but. 
owing to their spherical shape, the action of the cilia brings them 
back into the gizzard again. I am inclined to believe that these 
bodies are merely food which is waiting to be crushed by the 
gizzard, as some of them are always disappearing and the 
fames afterwards are preen. If so, the animal is able to save up 

an excess of food for some time in thi manner. The stomach, 
which has the usual characters, is well reprt tented by Gaiter ; but 
the intestine is a cylindrical tube when empty. The M -lobular, 
sometimes elliptic-ally dilated portion" is merely the temporary 
swelling caused by the presence of feces, and serea 1 such swel- 
lings may occur. The rectum is shorter than the intestine. The 
anus is, of course, external to the lophophore. 

The inter-tentacular organ is large, and the ganglion appears 

to be normal The muscular system is well developed ; but 1 can- 
not detect a definite funiculus. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Notes on the Freshwater Faiout of India. 6:> 


The ovaries are attached to the wall of the sooecium on both 
sides of the polypide and are of considerable extent Spermaries 
occur in much the same position, but neither kind of gonad can be 
said to have any very definite arrangement, although botb are 
found together. Apparently the female elements, as a rule, mature 



formed Mid they escape through the orifice, occasionally, at any 

rate in captivity, as unsegmunted ova, but this maybe due to 

abnormal conditions of life. 

The exact position of Eidofia has hitherto remained uncer- 
tain ; hut I think there can he little doubt that it i B somewhat 
aberrant representative of the Ctenosiomata, the orifice having un- 
der .ne special modification, possibly in connection with life in 
fresh water. Probably the genua should be regarded as constituting 
a distinct family closely allied to the Palttdicellid». 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Some instances of Vegetable Pottery. 65 


9. Some Instances of Vegetable Pottery. — By David Hooper. 

Certain vessels are frequently made in India from the dried 
fruits of trees and used for holding water and liquid substances. 
Familiar examples are found in the bottle gourd (Lagenaria 
vulgaris), the bel (2Egle marmelos), and the cocoanut (Cocos 
nucifera). An aperture is made at one end of the fruit, the pulpy 
portion is removed by excavation and washing, and the dry, hard 
shell forms a bottle-shaped vessel which serves many useful 


While many of the poorer villagers in India take advantage of 
these naturally-shaped vessels, a peculiar use is sometimes made 
by others of a glutinous and plastic material entirely of vegetable 
origin which, when formed by the art of a potter into cups, 
saucers, and jars, and dried in the air, is a substitute for earthen- 
ware. There is more than one instance in history of vegetable 
matter being confused with earth or clay. So long ago as the 
fifth century, Prosper Alpinus noticed that the powdered pulp of 
the fruit of Adansonia digitata, commonly known as the baoab, 
was sold as Terra Lemnia to those unacquainted with the original 

article. The genuine Lemnian earth of the Greeks, or Sphragide. 
was a yellowish "grey earth or clay found in the Island of 
Stalimene (ancient Lemnos). It was regarded as a medicine in 
Turkey, and was esteemed as an antidote to poison and the plague. 
Another instance of confusion between vegetable and mineral sub- 
stances is the name Terra Japonica, formerly applied to the extract 
or cutch of the Uncaria plant, which was supposed to come from 
Japan. The analogy between cutch and clay is shown by the fact 
that the former can be readily moulded into figures and vessels 
which retain their shape when dried in the sun. Dr. Annandale, 
during his recent visit to Ramnad in South India, found the 
villagers adepts at making toy images of black catechu, and illus- 
trations of their workmanship will be given in a future number of 
the Memoirs of this Society. 

The powdered root of the turmeric (Curcuma longa) was 
another substance formerly regarded as of mineral origin and 
known as Terra Merita, probably on account of its resemblance in 
colour to ochreous minerals. 

The pulpy parts of various astringent fruits have the peculiar 
plastic property of clay, and by hardening in the air, after being 
moulded into pots, they are impervious to water, and have the addi- 
tional advantage that they can fall to the ground without being 


The use of the fruit of the aoula for making pottery was 
described in 1896 in a letter from Mr. James Martin, written from 
the Tnmgaon District, Raipur, Central Provinces, to the Reporter 
on Economic Products to the Government of India, He writes : 

11 1 have come across a peculiar ware that is made by the Banjaras 

" of the district from the fruit of the aoula {Phyllanthus emblica). 
" The fruit is collected and dried. It is then boiled in water until 
" quite soft and pounded, the stones removed and the pulp beaten 

66 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, ll'OB. 

"up and worked with the hands into a thick, dark-brown, sticky 
"rnass. When this is quite ready, the manufacturer takes an 
" earthen vessel — any shape that pleases him — and covers it all over 
" with a thick layer or coat of the pulp. This is then put aside to 
"set a bit, and when hard, rude devices are stamped round the neck 
"and shoulders of the article, which is then set aside to dry. 
"When quite hard, the gharra inside is broken and the pieces 
" removed. These vegetable pots are sold according to size from 4 
" annas to 8 annas each, and are much sought after by the people 
"of the place. Oil and ghee stored in them are well preserved 
" and show no evidence of rancidity." 

In another letter, Mr. Martin describes the process in greater 
detail: " I sent for some Banjaras and got them t,» stay for four or 

u five days at my camp and prepare, in my presence, li I st the pnlp of 

^the Phyllauthiis emblicti fruits, and then saw them mould and 
^ form the jars in the various stages of the proce ^. On the first 
"day I sent the men to collect fruit and they brought in a large 
m basketful. The same evening this was put into large madden I ) 

g harras with cold water sufficient to cover the i ait, placed over 
•fires and hoiled till soft. The gharras were then removed and 

the contents emptied into a basket and allowed to drain and cool 
k Un the following morning, the fruit was broken by hand, each 
(( into tve or six pieces, the fleshy pericarp dividing easily into 
« ^ctions the stones as they were removed were thrown aside, and 
„ , e "£"' s P read on a m at, was placed in the m to dry. The 
^ clay alter, the gharras were three parts filled with cold water and 

Placed over fires. As soon as the water boiled, the previoush 
^ boiled and dried fruit was added and allowed to cook till soft 
u again. I he vessels were then taken from the fires and all liquoi 

carefully drained off. This was kept in a separate vessel for 

future use. A small quantity at a time of the fruit was next 
taken and reduced to a pa >te on a stone slab with I mailer, a 

« « .„Vm i ! U|U<M ' l,eing added to kee P ,he P U| 1> * oft : " ,d of 
a suitably ph, she consistence. The moulds-in this case small 

earthenware gharras- were next attended to. The outside surface 

"e2nn?T a f ^ "Tf* * *■*•*. and then coated with a paste 

"3 f i fe? ° ! b ? rr,t «"»*"* and the fruit liquor, and set 

« ST * Y \ * he " a l Waa read J- th fruit pulp in small quanti- 
"dubbS ff Jf* 1 *.** manipulated by one hand, was .akin and 

"inSeft Wg haml ' the °P erator 1,oldi »- the moukl 

" He commenced by covering the mould round the neck am 


"flion «^™i i i * m wn ***B L11C "louia l'ouna trie necK *»»** 

« II. !r ards finishing off at the button,, spreadin 
u SifS^f *keooatwith hii haml. which he every now and 

" efveL P -^ m , t0 ? e fn,it li( * uor - Whe]l tie entire surface was 

" dowut "'I I>U ., P ab ° Ut * inch thick » *• ■«« ™s stood | r ) neck 

"lav It °V. he gr ° Uml U1 theSUn ,odl T- H was left there all 

" coat of , ' 'in " htln . !l * ni 8Tht. On the following morning a second 
-« SZ P ; V! " I ''fteivd on as before, and the pot was again 

" lav aft! 1 J - m ' 1G ?"' l*inff removed at night! On the third 

day, aftei having stood in the sun all day. the earthen moulds 

Vol. II, No 3.] S<>>ne instan* >•> of Vi g< table Pottery* <>7 


" were broken by being tapped ffith a stone inside, and the pieces 
11 removed. The necks of the jars thus formed were then moulded 
44 by hand with the addition of more pulp, and then the entire jai 
"both inside and out was smoothed and finished oft' with a coat of 

11 pulp thinned down with the fruit liquor, after which the jars were 
"again set aside to harden. When hard enough to handle— which 

u was by evening — an attempt was made at ornamenting the neck of 

44 the jar by impressions left by pressing a thin round stick against 
41 the yet soft and yielding pulp. Kmvrio shells and the red seeds of 

"Abrusprxati ta are often imbedded in pulp round the neck to 

44 beautify it. TheBanjaraa declare that the manufacture is stopped 

tk during the rains." 

The aoula tree is very abundant throughout ihe forests ot 
tropical India and Burma, and the fruits, known as Emblic Mvro- 
balans, are frequently employed in medicine and for tanning. 
The advantages which the fresh palp possesses for preparing 
vessels might well be recommended for more extensive trial, and 

probably the fruit of the gnb {Diospyros embryopteru) could b 
similarly utilised. 

Another material used in making jars is the root of the great 
asphodel (Eremnru* aucherianus, Boiss.) The fleshy root of this 
plant, by drying in a sand-bath and grinding, is prepared into a 

,-/U,' rt V» t^Tiati mi'voil wifli lint wntpr vifdds a most tenacious 



holding oil and clarified butter The native cobblers employ it in 
preference to animal glue in their work. Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison 
describes ■ the method of making these vessels in Persia : M The 

''tenacious gum is painted over a hollow earthen mould that has a 
"single layer of some coarse country cloth covering it; on this 
" cloth, layer after layer of the glue is* painted until a sufficiency is 
" reached ; this forms, when dry, a parchment-like skin, the mould 
"is then broken up and removed through the mouth of the jar, 
u and then usually the jar is sewed into a goafs hair sack. With 
"ordinary moisture, or the amount of moisture likely to affect the 
" jar through the goat's hair covering, no harm is likely to accrue, 
" but if the jar is allowed to stand in water for days, it will in time 
€t dissolve or melt away." 


the dried roots of Eremurus with the intention of converting them 
into glue. S"rish-i-kaki is the vegetable glue ready made for use. 
Daba-i-sarish are the vessels made in the above manner. There is 
.said to be a large trade in this material in Khorasan. 

I Notts on Products of Western Afghanistan and North*Xattern Persia, p. 06. 

Vol. II, No. 3,] Notes on some Sea-Snakes caught at Madras. 6!' 


10. Notes on some Sea-Snakes caught at Madras. — By T. V. R. Aiyar* 

Communicated by H. Maxwell Lefroy. 
The almost unbroken coast of the port of Madras extending 

from Cassimocle on the north to Mylapore in the south, seems to 
afford but little shelter to these marine reptiles, the favourite 
haunts of which are salt-water estuaries and tidal streams. They 
are said to be found in shoals along the Burmese coast near the 
mouths of the river Inavvadi and the Sunderbunds of Bengal. 
However, with all its disadvantages as a locality in which to carry 
on such an investigation as this, I was able to procure from the 
Madras coast a fairly good number of specimens during the com- 
paratively short period of my work. Of the specimens collected, 
the majority were got along the rock-bound coast of Royapuram and 
from within the artificial harbour, where young ones are often 
found swimming in their characteristic fashion. 

There seems to be no particular season of the year when sea- 
snakes are found ; all the year round hardly a day passes without 
some fisherman coming across specimens of these snakes. During 
the cold weather, however, viz., from the month of October to 
February, they are found in greater numbers. Big snakes 
generally approach the shore at night and this fact is corrobora- 
ted by the experience of the fishermen who often fish at night. 
During the rainy weather when the sea is rough, many of them 
are dashed ashore and found stranded on the beach, when they 
easily become a prey to the eager sea-gull, which I have seen eat- 
ing them. 

Sea-snakes are generally hauled up in the big fishing nets 
employed by the Madras fishermen in the mid-bay. Among the 
various undesirables which the net raises up, as urchins, corals, 
sea-stars, etc., at each drawing of the net, sea-snakes invariably 
come up, and unless anyone interested in these succeeds in pre- 
vailing upon the fisherman to retain these snakes, they are thrown 
overboard with the rest of the useless lot. With their natural 
hatred and vulgar antipathy towards these reptiles, it requires no 
ordinary promises of presents to induce these illiterate men to 
fetch home specimens of snakes. Sometimes a fisherman, in- 
duced by payment to catch them, brings big eels and specimens of 
Ghreshydrus granulatus ; and on being told that they are not 
the right creatures wanted, he loses his confidence in the offer 
and gives up collecting them. 

A few general observations may be recorded as regards habits 
and other features which I have been able to make during a recent 


The peculiar habits and surroundings of some of the species 
have been found to have brought about several marked variations 
in the general form of the body. The most striking of these is 
the peculiar modification of the anterior portion of the trunk in 
some species of Hydrophis. It may be suggested that the small 

70 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 

head with the attenuated and cylindrical neck is specially adapted 
to penetrate into the crevices and crannies among the rocks in 
seai'ch of prey. It may also be urged that the modification serves 
the purpose of an offensive organ also, inasmuch as the prey 
could be easily caught and poisoned by an agile dart of the 
anterior portion, without the thick belly exerting itself much. Tin- 
graceful Distira viperina Bouleng. with its unique ventrals adapted 
to a slightly regular motion on land, is, I think, a shallow water 
form often crawling along the sandy bottom of the littoral area. 
I have seen specimens crawling on the sand after being caught. 

nation, the voumr ones are, as a rule. 



the snakes grow old the colour becomes dull and the band-. streaks, 
and other markings appear very faint and sometimes even dis- 
appear. This is especially the case in Enhydris ciirtiu Menem., 

EnhydHna valakadien Russell, Distira ttyanodncta Russell, and 

Hydropkis cantoris Giinth. Th« airangement and number of 
the head shields and scales which are taken as the criteria in 
determining the specific characters are, in many eases, found to 1" 
very variable. In almost all the specie* described above, the 
number of scales vary from those given l.y Mr. Bouleimer in his 

Though one and all the species are poisonous, thepoi-'>n fangs 
are not so very well developed as in terrestrial snakes. They are 
small and not markedly differentiated from the maxillary teeth be- 
hind them. In one species, however, viz., EnhydHna valakadien. 
they are comparatively larger. The terminal end of the poison 
duct in these snakes is found to be very convoluted. The 
fangs being small, the puncture caused by the bite must lie 
very minute ; nevertheless the effect of the bite from a toxicologi- 
cal point of view, is said to be very deadly. Some of the most 
eminent medical men, i who have been recently conducting a re- 
search into the action of snake venoms, have found out that the 
most deadly of all substances of this nature, whicl they have ex- 
amined, is the venom of the sea-snak.- Enhydrina i/akadi <• 
ine native fisherfolk are not unaware of the poisonous nature of 
these snakes ; in spite of this knowledge they are always found 
carelessly playing in the waters, even of localities wMch are 
said to be the special haunts of sea-serpents. And it is none the 
less curious to note, that cases of bites by sea-snakes are very 
rarely heard of; evidently they attack man very seldom. Here is 
what one observer* says : " Although all these are poisonous, they 
rarely attack man. I have seen scores taken by careless sailors on 
the north-west coast of Australia without any bad results, 
several instances of fatal bites have been recorded, one having 
caused death m an hour and a quarter. " A case of fatality by 

« vi L c - SSP™ in Proc - u °y- s <*- 1 

?igo4) ! *J 9 homft9 Fraser and R - H . m 

2 B *a9et Smith, M.R.C.S ., U.N. 



Vol. II, No. 3.] Not* i 

sea-snake bite came to my notice during my investigation*. A 

fisher-boy was bitten by a slender-necked species while on a cata- 
maran in the bay, at the Royapuram coast. The boy did not feel 
the bite, though he knew it was a snake, but gradually became pale 
and unconscious. He was brought ashore, at once and all sorts oi 

restoratives and handy medicines were resorted to, bnt the boj 

expired in the course of the next day. The natives regard th 

next in grade being the slender-necked forms to which they give 

the name of Mnhigadim fdmb. Implicit faith in the curative 



all fishermen. An experiment in the way oi mutual 
was tried by making the jaws of a healthy living specimen of 
Enhydris eurttu close on the body of a young specimen ot 
Enkydrina valakadien which was very active at the time. JJoi 
some time the latter exhibited no sign of poisoning or ill- heaJi h. 
but the next day it became paralysed ami died This killed on. 
had been living for a long time in captivity, and was apparently 

healthy when bitten. 

In the matter of food, all these snakes more or to I confine 

themselves to a diet of fish. Of all the species, Enhydnna vat* 

am ^ ■ A 1 ^m ^^ - - ^^ * * * 

-pecies that we 


oracious. In almost all the spen 

half digested. 
In some case 

small crustaceans were also found in the alimentary tract, ine 

slender-necked species, which cannot swallow big fishes, are ifonnd 
to feed on young and >mall fish. I am also inclined to think, that 
these snakes haunt coral reefs and feed on the minute poly} • 

Female specimens, with their oviducts crammed with well- 
developed eggs, were chiefly found during the cold months iron, 

October to January. 

The peculiar way in which the ecdysis of the epidermis takes 
place in these marine reptiles is well worth a note. Unlike the 
terrestrial snakes which periodically shed their skm as a single 
piece, these snakes have the habit of casting away the epidermis 
piecemeal. Consequently a thorough moult takes longer time 
than in ordinary land forms. During the period of moulting the 
snakes are found to be very inactive. It seems to me a mystery • 
why such a method of ecdysis should be the rule in these marine 
snakes. The following feature which I observed, however, makes 
me hazard the conjecture that the sea-water may play a part in 
this process of piece-by-piece moulting. Some specimens ol sea- 
snakes, which I had kept in captivity in fresh water, underwent 
this process of moulting more or le.- like the land snakes, the 
epidermis coming off almost as a single piece. 

Several specimens of the snakes collected, especially young 
ones, had foreign organisms attached to the surface of their 
body. The chief of these organisms are the barnacles, both the 
stalked and the sessile forms (Lepadidte and Balanida). These 
were abundantly found in young specimens of Enhydnna valaka- 
dien. In a specimen of Enhydris curtus the body was completely 

72 Journal of the As ia fie Society of Bengal* [March, 1906. 

fringed with hydroid colonies like grass. A specimen of Dw- 
tira viperina was found to have attached to its body the calcare- 
ous skeleton of a polyzoon colony (Membrantpra /). 

The way in which sea-snakes behave when thrown ashore, 
and their habit while in captivity, are not uninteresting. Once 
out of their native element, they generally become quite helpless and 
appear blind, except Distira n'p> ,nm. ■ They are tillable to progress 
on land because of the want of big ventrals. None of these ever 
attempted to attack, but they often try to bite and injure their 
own bodies. I tried to feed some in captivity, but with very 
little success. Dr. Fayrer says that they die very rapidly in 
captivity, but I was able to keep some alive in captivity for :« 
fairly long time. A specimen of Knh;/drina valakadien^ V Belong, 
lived in fresh water from the 12th of September to the 9th of No- 
vember, which is nearly two months. One specimen of MnhydrU 
enrtus, a foot long, lived from the 19th September to the 12th 

October,— nearly a month. Another specimen of the Bame species 

2' 9" long, lived for nearly 20 days, vi*., from the 26th December 
to the 15th January. A specimen of Distira jerdonii Russell, 
3' 2.V" long, lived from the 9th November to the 14th January. All 
these were kept in open tin buckets half full of fresh water, the 
water being changed now and then. Other species wei a Iso tried, 
but none lived any appreciable time in captivity. In captivity all 
were active and quite at home, and it tlfl probably starvation that 
killed them, since they refuse to feed in captivity. 

Here is a list of some of the Tamil namefl by which sea- 
snakes are known in Madras :— Nulla Wahlagille pani of Russell 
is called KarivSla pdmb. Species of Enhvdris are called P^tta 
pUmb (meaning blind snake). E. valakadien li .ailed Valakadv 
pamb (meaning the net biting snake). The slender- necked ones 
are called Mclnkadien pSmb : nlso Kodal nag&m (meaning pea- 
serpent). The long and banded one. are railed Kndal sarai 

Vol. II. Xo. 3.] Wormia Mansoni* 73 

11. Wormia Mansoni: " hitherto undescribed species from Burma* 

% A. T. Gage. 

In May 1905, Mr. F. B. Manson, now retired from Government 
service but then Conservator of Forests, Tenasserim Circle, sent to 
the writer a species of Wormia, which could not be identified with 
any species in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden) Calcutta. 
More material of the same species was sent in the following July 
and September by Mr. Hanson's successor. This allou <*d of a fairly 



The writer is indebted to Colonel Pram and Mr. J. F. Dnthie 

for having kindly compared the species with the Wormias in the 


Wormia Mansoni. — Frntex primo cum foliorum nascentmni 

cost-is costulisque subtus pilosis denique omnino glaber ; ramuli 
teretes brunnei lenticellati. Folia alterna, breviter petiolata, sine 
ala stipulari, elliptico-lanceolata, apice acuta, basi cuneata, serrata, 
coriacea, supra nitida, infra surda, nervis Litem libus 12 — 15. 
Petiolus 1 — 1*4 cm. longus j lamina 13 — 16 cm. longa, 4*5— 65 cm. 

lata. Flores 4 — 5 cm. lati, in racemis 

tibus dispositi, alabastro in brae tea decidua incluso. Pedunculi 
2 — 3 cm. longi. Sepala 

minora. Pet ala 5 

rtro imbricate, carnea, ovato 

ga, 1*5 cm. lata, duo exteriora 

,. intccrra. obovata. 2 — 3 cm. 

longra, 1 cm. lata, in alabastro imbrieata. Stamina numerosa, 7 — 10 

mm. longa, 6 laments fere aeqnalia 3-serialiter disposita, anther i- 

perostia terminalia dehiscentibus. Carpella 5 rato6, subtrigona. 
vix in axe cohaercntia, staminibus obtecta; stigmata tot quot car- 

pella, subulata, reflexa; ovula numerosa bi-setialia axillariter 

disposita. Fructus 2 — 2*5 cm. crassus ; carpella maturescentia 

2 — 3-sperma, carnea, hand intorta, vix cohaerentia, basi staminibttfl 

persistentibus cincta et calyce carnea persistente inclusa. Sem;na 

reniformia, fusco-brunnea, rugulosa, 5 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, in 

arillo (albo?) tenaci inclusa. 

In ripis fluminis Yunzalin, prope confluentem cum Salween, 

Tenasserim, Manson ! 

Up to the present the species of the Eu- Wormia section, found 
in Ceylon and the Malayan Peninsula, which have been described 
are : — Wormia triquetra Rottb., Flora Brit. Ind., i. 35, from Ceylon ; 
W.fulcheUa Jack, Flora Brit. Ind., i 36, W. meliosm zefol in King, W. 
ScortechimiKin^, W. KtntsUeri King, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, lviii. 
11,365-366, all from the Malayan Peninsula. The present species, 
which extends the distribution of the genus northwards into Burma, 
is readily distinguishable from those just mentioned W. triquetra, 
W. Scortechinii and W. Kunstleri are trees, the two latter at least 
20 metres high, while W. Mansoni is a shrub. W. meliosma? folia i- 
described as a small tree, and IT. pulcheUa as a shrub. The former 
differs from IP. Mansoni in having 12 carpels, the latter in havings 
obvate-oblong entire leaves with only 5-7 pairs of nerves. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Testudo baluchiorum, a new species. 75 


12. Testudo balucliiomm, a neiv species. — By N. Annaxdale, D.Sc. r 

CM Z.S., Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Museum. 

Diagnosis of Testudo baluchionim, sp. nov. 

Shell arched transversely and longitudinally, slightly more 
than half as deep as long ; anterior margins slightly reverted, 
serrated ; costals almost vertical. Head small, broad, covered 
with irregular scales above ; interorbital region of the skull almost 
flat, but sloping a little towards the nasal opening ; upper jaw 
tricuspid, feebly serrated ; occipital process short, barely extending 
beyond the condyles. Four claws on each foot ; the fore-foot 
with about six rows of large imbricating scales on the anterior 
surface ; the hind foot with three spur-like tubercles on the heel ; 
two Lirge subtriedral tubercles, surrounded by smaller ones, on 
the back of the thigh. Tail short, with a small apical tubercle. 
Shields of carapace concentrally striated, with a flat sculptured 
central area ; supi-acaudal single, almost vertical. Plastron 
truncated in front, probably notched deeply behind. Colour of 
shell pale brown, irregularly marbled with darker brown. 

Locality. — Baluchistan (A. W. Murray). A stuffed specimen 
in the Indian Museum, identified by Anderson as T. hors/ieldii. 

Remarks. — This species may be distinguished from the Afghan 
Tortoise (T. horsfieldii) , the only other species of its genus with tour 
claws on all the feet, by its deeper carapace, which is not flattened 
on the dorsal surface, and by the characters of its skull. In T. 
horsfieldii there is a marked transverse depression across the 
i nterorbital region and the sides of the upper jaw are smooth. 
The new species resembles T. zarudnyi Nikolski in several of its 
characters, notably in its almost vertical costals The description 
of the latter Tortoise, described from Eastern Persia and possibly 
occurring in Baluchistan, is given below. 

As it seems probable that the type of T. baluchiorum is abnor- 
mal in certain respects, I have given a very brief and guarded 
diagnosis of the species it represents. The anals are almost 
entirely absent, being represented by several small, irregularly 
shaped tubercles, which separate the femorals from one another 
at their anterior extremity. There is no evidence that this is 
due to injury, as the place where the missing plates should be is 
covered with normal and apparently healthy skin. 

Dimensions of the Type of T. baluchiorum. 

Length of shell ... ... 211 mm. 

,, ,, ... ...1X1,, 

Breadth,, ,, 

Length of skull ... ... 35 

Maximum breadth of skull ... 30 

160 „ 



For comparison the diagnosis of Tettudo zarudnyi Nikolski is 

appended. It is quoted from Nikolskfs paper in th« Anni aire 
du Mnsce Zoologique de VAcademie, St. Petersburg^ L s '.>7. I am 

76 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906.] 

much indebted to Mr. G. A. Boulenger, who has sent me a copy 
of this paper on loan. 

" Testudo affinis Testudini iberse Pall., a qua carapace lateribus 
compressa, scutis margino-lateralibus perpendicularibus, supra 
non visis, scuti margino-brachialis anterioris margine inferiore 
valde assurecta, unguibus brevibus obtusissimis, rhinotheca <lis- 
tincte denticulata, differt. 

Testudo, latitudine carapacis in media parte 1*5 in ejus 
longitudine ; margine ejus posteriore expanso, pa rum assurrecto ; 
marginibus scutorum margino-femoralium, incissura magna inter 
se discretorum, rotundatis ; margine scuti margino-brachialis 
anterioris valde assurrecto, supra posticeque spectante; scuto 
nuchali elongato, ensiformi ; scutis margino-collaribus supra dup- 
licibus ; scutis margino-lateralibus perpendicularibus, supra non 
visis; scuto supracaudali indiviso, sub angulo 45° ad planitiem 
horizontalem posito, longitudine ejus scuti longitudini scuti verte- 
bralis primi aequali; margine anteriore scuti vertebralis primi 
rotundato, nee angulato ; latitudine omnium seutornm vertebra- 
lium longitudinem coram multum supeiante, latitudini scutorum 
costalium fere aequali; margine posteriore plastronis inciso, ad 
suturam inter scuta femoralia et abdominalia mobili; margine 
anteriore plastronis inciso, sutura inter scuta analia cum sutura 
inter scuta femoralia multum quam sutura inter se abdominalia 
breviore, scutis axillaribus unguinali basque parvis angustis, 
sutura inter scuta brachialia dupla quam inter pectoralia longiore, 
scutello praefrontali duplici ; rhinotlieca distincte denticulata; 
pedibus anterioribus antice scutis latis rotundatis imbricatis 
5 series longitudinales et 6 transversales finctis, tectis ; longitudine 
horum scutorum distincte quam latitudine eorum minore, tubere 
magiio comeo subconico in femoris parte posteriore; unuuibus 
brevibus obtusissimis, longitudine longissimi unguis oculi dia- 
metrum longitudinalem aequante, vel paulo superai.te, latitudine 
unguium vix H in eorum longitudine; cauda tenui, longa, 
longitudine ejus longitudinis capitis majore, scutellis caudalibus 
ailatatis deplanatis quadrangularibus vel pentagonalibus, 6-8 
circum caudam dispositis ; carapace lateribus flavescente, macula 
""?ra m scutorum costalium tuberibus ornata; margine anteriore 
carapacis, scutis vertebralib us nigricantibus, scutis margino- 
!„? b " S ni gro-marginatis, plastrone flavescente nigro-notato ; 
scutis pedum antenorum flavescentibus, anguste nigro-marginatis, 
ungmbus palmarum flavescentibus plantarum nigriSntibnfl. 

i-ongitudo carapacis 254 mm. 

Habitat in montibus provinciae Birdschan in Persia orientali. 

• >* 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788— IS 9, 
Proceedings, 1865 — 1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 
Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 
Journal. Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. S-] Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc 
Centenary Review, 1781— 18K 

Bibliotheca Indiea, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 

Honorary Secretary 



(a) To be^ present and vote at all General Met ings, which 

are held on the first Wedne lay in each month except 
in September and October. 

(b) To propose and se( nd candid >s for Ordinary Member- 



tors at the Ordinary General 
grounds and public rooms of th 

duriner the hours 


br ry 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plate and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive grat , copies of the Journal 

am Proceed™ 






Proceedings for March, 1006 


r l jr 

The TJmga HM Inecriptiw in the D of —B 

Parami Dayal. G dbythe Ph 



• • • t • , . , 

Some LnUah - and T ical - igs co\ i P, r s — B 

No s a i Fresh r I f India 


§*«« Utcu m from Brack r i Benaal—Bu > 


7 ... 

Not the Freshwater I f/_ je 

hesof Hislopia.—Bij X. A , A ,D.S .( M.Z.S. 

AV- o»«ome -a S fc ., m a B T R 

Alyar, cv / t h. Mi 

fty A. T. GU6E ' 

• » • 

Tesludo b< ttehic a new <?iw;V>< Eva 

• • • * * . 

# t 



#Veg< i iery*—B Da g s 









Vol. II, No. 4. 



APRIL, 1906. 







Issued 18th May, 1<M)6. 


List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1906. 

President : 

His Honor Sir A. EL L. Fraser, U.A., LL.D., K.C.SJ. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosli Makhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer ♦ 

Honorary General Secretary : Lieut.-Gol. D. C. Phillott, />>• - 

retary, Board of Examiners. 
Treasurer: J. A. Chapman, Esq. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 
Natural History Secretary : I. H. Burkill, Esq., M. I. 

Anthropological Secretary: N. Annandale, Esq., D.Sc, 

Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
Shastri, M.A. 

Numismatic Secretary: R. Burn, E j., I.C.S. 

Members of 




Mahamahopadhaya Satis Chandra Vidyibhusaaa M 
C. Little, Esq., M.A. * ' 

Hari Nath De, Esq., M.A. 
Major F. P. Maynard, I. M.S. 
J. A. Cunningham, Esq., B.A. 
Major W. J. Buchanan, I. M.S. 
J. Macfarlane, Esq. 



Vxnandale, X. — Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. 

III. — An Indian Aquatic Cockroach and Beetle Larva, 
Calcutta Journ. and Proc, As. So<- Beng., Yol. II, No. 4, 1906. 
pp. 105-107. 

Eyilumpra, sp. (larva), habits of. N. Annandale, Calcutta 


Luc tola, sp. (larva), habits of. 


and Proc, As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 4, 1906, p. 107. 

Annandale, N. — Notes on the Fr< hwater Fauna of India. No. 
IV . — Hydra ori&ntalis and its bionomical relations with other 
Invertebrates. Calcutta Journ. and Proc, As. Soc. Beng., 

Vol. If, No. 4, 1906, pp. 109-116. 

Hydra oriental !s, additional specific characters of. X. Annandale, 
Calcutta Journ. ;.nd Proc., As. Soc. Beng. Vol. II. No. 4, 
1906, p. 109. 

1 )rti& '" moiiifaf't, ocean *e of in India. N. Annandale, 

Calcutta . 

p. 110. 

Piihuh'na, habits of Indian. X. Annandale, Calcutta Journ. and 

Proc, As. Soc Beng., Vol. II, Xo. 4, 1906, pp. 110-111. 

Oper&daria nutans, sea >nal occurrence of. X. Annandale, 
Calcutta Journ. and Proc, As. Soc Beng., Vol. II, Xo. 4, 
1906, pp. Ill (Xote). 

Ohironomid larva, Indian, habits of. N Annandale, Calcutta 
Journ. and Proc, As. Soc. Beng.. Vol. II, Xo. 4. 1906, p. 112. 

«»urn. and Pr >c . As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, Xo. A 



Annandale, N.— Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, 
No. I. A variety of Spongilhi lacustris from Brackish 
Water in Bengal, Calcutta, Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., 
Vol. II, No. 3, 1906, pp. 55-58. 

Spongilla lacustris var. bengalensis, var. no v., described, 
N. Annandale, Calcutta, Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., 

Vol II, No. 3, pp. 56-57. 

Annandale, N.— Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, 
No. II. The affinities of Hislopia, Calcutta, Journ. and 
Proc. As. Soc, Beng., Vol. II, No. 3, 1906, pp. 59-63. 

Hislopia is a true Ctenostome, N. Annandale, Calcutta, Journ. 
and Proc. As. Soc. Beng , Vol. II, No. 3, p. 63. 

Hislopia lacustris, Carter, general account of the anatomy 
of, N. Annandale, Calcutta, Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., 

Vol. II. No. 3, pp. 61-62. 

Norodonia Jullien = Hislopia Carter, N. Annandale, Calcutta, 
Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 3, p. 61. 

Aiyar, T. V. R. — Notes on some Sea- Snakes caught at 

—Notes on some Sea-Snakes caught at Madras, 
Calcutta, Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No 3 
1906, pp. 69-72. 

ANNANDALE, N. — Testudo baluchiorum, a new species, 
Calcutta Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 3 
pp. 75-76. 

Testudo baluchiorum, sp. nov., diagnosis of. N. Annandale, 

p. 75. 


Hooper, David. — Some instances of Vegetable Pottery, 
Calcutta Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 3, 
1906, pp. 65-67. 

Laqenaria vulqaris. ~\ TT -. . 

Cocas nucifera. U f d in u Preparat.on of pot- 

Adansoma digitata. [ *"*' ^ D : H °°P er > Calcutta 

Phyllanthus Emblica. | Ben | 5 '_ J o1 ' TI ' No ' 3 > 1906 < 

Aeyle Marmelos. J PP- 

Eremurus ancherianus, Boiss. 

Gage, A. T. — Wormia Mansoni : a hitherto undescribed 
species from Burma, Calcutta Journ. and Proc. As. Soc. 
Beng., Vol. II, No. 3, 1906, p. 73. 

APRIL, 1906. 

The Monthly G eneral Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 4th April, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D., in the chair. 
The following members were present : 

Dr. N. Annandale, Mr. I. H. Burkill, Babu Monmohan Chakra- 
varti, Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Mr. L. L. Fermor, Babu Amulya- 
charan Ghosh Vidyabhushan, Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. T. H. 
Holland, Mr. D. Hooper, Mr. A. H. Lewes, Dr. M. M. Masoom, 
Lieut. -Col. D. C. Phillott, Rai Bahadur Ram Brahma Sanyal, 
Pandit Yogesa Chandra S'astree-Sankhyaratna-Vedatirtha, Babu 
Chandranarain Singh, Pandit Pramatha Nath Tarkabhushan, 
Pandit Vanamali Vedantatirtha, Pandit Rajendra Nath Vidya- 
bhusan, Mahatnahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushan, Mr. E. 
R. Watson, Rev. A. W. Young. 

Visitors: — Mr. Gr. P. Abbott, Babu Hem Chandra Das-Gupta, 
Mr. D. W. K. Hamilton. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Thirteen presentations were announced. 

It was announced that the Hon. Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, 
and Major P. R. T. Gurdon, LA., had expressed awish to withdraw 
from the Society. 

Rev. A. H. Phillips, proposed by the Rev. A. W. Young, 
seconded by Mr. D. Hooper ; Mr. L. D. Petrocochino, proposed by 
Mr. J. Macfarlane, seconded by Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott ; Mr. 
Evan Mackenzie, proposed by Miss Flora Butcher, seconded by Dr. 
E. D # Ross ; and Mr. M. Krishnamachariar, proposed by Pandit 
Yogesa Chandra Sastree-Sankhyaratna-Vedatirtha, seconded by 
Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushan were ballotted 
for and elected Ordinary Members. 

Dr. E. D. Ross read the following report on the search for 
Arabic and Persian MSS. for the official year 1905-06 : 


MSS. % 1905-6 

In submitting the following report I have to state at the outset, 
that I have adopted three principles in carrying out the duties 
of the research work entrusted to me by the A.S.B. : — (1) to take 

notes of all the importan 
and private ; (2) to purch 
transcripts of rare works. 


(3) to procure 

xlii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 


In connection with the first item, I this year paid a visit to 
the Rampnr Library which is one of the finest libraries in this 
country and one of which India may well be proud. The col- 
lection owes its inception to the learned Nawwab Muhammad Fad- 
ul-Lah of Rampur, but the greater part was bought together in 
the time of the late Nawwab Kalb 'Ali Khan, who was a great 
patron of learning. He also removed the bookx from the Tosha- 
khana to the present Library which he had built at a cost of forty 
thousand rupees. There are in all 8,494 volumes of Arabic and 
Persian works in manuscript, print or lithograph, of which about 
5,000 belong to the first category. 

Out of this number upwards of three hundred represent very 
scarce works; 347 are distinguished for their beautiful penman- 
ship, and no less than forty are authors' autograph- The oldest 

dated book is v**)^ *£+<x)\ v Uf (Kitab-7<>i-Nvkat-ica/-'Uyun), a 
commentary on the Quran. This copy was made in a.m. 557. 
The author of the book, Abu'l Hasan 'Ali b. Muhammad 
b. Habib alMawardi, died in a.h. 450. 'Besides, being an old copy, 
the work itself is rare, no ropy being mentioned in any of the 
catalogues I have consulted. Brockelmann, in his admirable 

work Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur, p. 386, gives the 
names of some nine books written by this author, but he does not 
mention this particular work. An interesting anecdote about 
this author's compositions is given in histories. On his death- 
bed he said to one of his friends : — 



|| with the approval of Almighty God, so you may take them 
I' out of the place, where they are now secretly hidden, and throw 
*f them into the river. But if I do not press your hand then take 
|| it for granted that my productions have been approved by the 
" Almighty, and do your best to prop;. -ate them." 

It so happened that the hand of the 'All amah remained steady 
to his last breath and, consequently, his friend did all he could for 
the publication of his works. 

Another very interesting work— of which no other copy 

yiFZ* 6 * t? c , xist - is at-Taisir fi ' Ilm-it-Tafsir by Abu'l Q>im 
Abd-ul-Kanm b. Hawazin Al Qushairi, who died in a.h. 465. I* 
is dated a.h. 679. 

I give below a list of some of the oldest-dated MSS. belong"* "g 
to this library. 

Book. Author. Dateoftran- Remakk. 

(1) Gharib- 'Ali b. 'Omar ad a.h. No copy in 

ul-Lughat. Daraqutni 566. Europe. 

'■L. ; ' d. 385-995. 

U) Amsalus Sa'irah Abii Ubaid a.h. Common. 

al Q.isim b. Salam 574. 
d. 223-837. 

1906.] Pr feedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. xliii 

(3) al Maiser. Abul Hasan *Ali a.h. No copy in 

b. McL al Bazdavi 590. Europe. 

d. 400-1009. 

(4) Diwanrul-Hadiiah Qo(ba b. Aus a.h. For other 

al Hridira. 629 copies see 

Bk. p. 26. 

(5) Abu Muhammad a.h. No copy in 

Kityan b. <AK 623 Europe. 

b. .lamal-ud-Din al 
Asadi' an Nahvi. 
d 560, 1164. 

(6) Al Mnsiau'al) Abtt * Abd-Ullah a.h. No copy in 

Muhammad b. 693. Europe. 

'Abd-Ullah as- 
Samiri al Hanbali. 


The total number of MSS. purchased in the year 1905 was 
657. They have been procured from different parts of India such 
as Delhi, Bombay, Hyderabad, and specially from Lucknow. In 
addition to this Ave were fortunate enough to purchase two Col- 
lections of MSS., which had been brought to us this year by 
two Aral) travellers. These Collections contain some very rare 
and old MSS. The majority of the MSS. are in Arabic. Our 
Persian Collection does not contain more than 105 books. The 
following classified li -t will show the number of books under each 


subject: — 

Commentaries on the Quran ... ... 30 


• 1 1 



Zaidi Law 





History and Biography 



■ • • 

• t • • • 

• » • •«• ••• ••• 

• • ■ 

- • • 

• • • ••• ••• 

• ■ ■ • ' 

••• ••* ••• 

# • • 

• » • • - - • • • 

• • • 

- • • 



Dictionary ... ... ... ... 8 

Principles of Jurisprudence... ... ... 25 


• • » 

Science of Controversy 
Law of Inheritance 

• • • 

• • • . . . ••• 

• • • 

• • • 

. • • 

Gramma i 




I B.K.I. 106. 

xliv Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 

The following facts in connection with this year's collection 
are worthy of mention: 

(1) Ont of the total number of books purchased we 

have some eighty MSS. which are unique. Many 
of these being the works of ancient or modern authors 
which are not even mentioned in European catalogues. 

(2) In about one hundred cases the dates range from a.h. 635 

to 900. 

(3) There are some sixteen autograph copies of the authors 

such as ' Ali b. 'Abdul Knti us Subki, d. a.h. 756, a.d. 
1355; Muhamjnad b. Usman al Khaiili, c. a.h. 751, a.d. 
1350 ; Abd-ur-Ra'uf al Munawi, d. a.h. 1031, a.d. J621. 

(4) About half a dozen of our MSS. bear upon them some 

lines from the pen of such eminent scholars as Yusuf 
b. ' Abdur Rahman b. Yusuf al Mizzi, <1. A.H. 742, A.D. 
1341; Ahmad b. ■ Ali 4 Asqalani. d. a.h. 852, a.d. 
1448; Ahmad b. Muhammad al Qustalam, d. A.H. 923, 

A.D. 1517. 

(5) And there are about half a dozen MSS. which bear the 

original corrections and marginal notes of the authors 

Among the most interesting additions to our collection are 

the following : 

(1) Al Katibat-al-Kaminah by Muhammad b. * Abd-ul-Lah 

Lisan-ud-Din ibn ul-Khatib, the Spanish vezir, d. a.h. 
713, ad. 1313, It is an unique copy in Maghribi 
hand and contains the biographical notices of all the 
Moorish poets of the 8th Century Hijri. 

(2) The rough draft of the valuable work entitled Kharidat 

ul-Qasr by Katib al Tsfahani, d. a h. 597, a.d. 1201 ; 
dealing with the biographical accounts of the poets of 
4 Iraq, Sham, Misr, Jazira and Maghrib who flourished 
from a.h. 500 to a.h. 592. 

(3) Tuhfat-ul-Ashraf by Yusuf b. Abdur-Ral?man b. Yusuf 

al Mizzi, d. a.h. 742, a.d. 1341. This book enu- 
merates all the traditions and sayings of the Prophet 


can easily know at a glance 

how many traditions have been referred to each 

(4) An unique autograph copy of al-Ikhtisar wat-Tajrid by 

Muhammad b. 'Usman b. 'Ulnar al- Khaiili, dated a.h. 
728. It is a digest of the two most important and 
authoritative books on Hadis or Tradition. 

(5) A rough draft of Maqasid-ul "Hasanah by Muhammad 

b-'Abd-ul-Baqi az-Zarqain dated a.h. 1099, a.d. 16&8, 
a unique work containing the known traditions of the 
Prophet arranged in alphabetical order. 

(6) History of the battle of Biffin by Nasr b. Muzahim- Ihe 

*—" ^ *** ** W *** ». *- m m %^ ^fUl W WAV/ Vy X PS-/ ill J 11 WLJ T ^ ' IIVJ* ^r • ■»- — — . 

author belongs to the Second Century of the Hijra 


1906.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. xlv 

he is one of the earliest Shi 'all writers. No copy of 
this book exists in Europe. 

(7) Ithaf-uz-Zaman by Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Fazl at-Tabari 

ash-Shafa'i. It contains a chronological history of the 
successive Sharifs of Mecca from the time of the 
Prophet down to A.H. 1141. 
Tadkirat-ul- Kuqaha by Hasan b-Yusuf b-Ali b-al-Mutah- 
har al Hilli, d. 726 1326, dealing with Shi'ah Juris- 
prudence on an extensive scale in three big volumes. 
This rare work is not found in any European 

(9) The commentary on the well-known Tafsir al-Kashshaf 

by Mahmud b-Mas'ud ash Shirazi, d. 710-1310. Al- 
though two copies of the work exist, one in Paris and 
the other in Aya Sofia in Stambul, it is very rare 



(10) The Persian translation of the famous Arabic work 


911-1505, entitled 

Akhbar-i-Hasinah. It contains a general history and 
topography of Madinah. 

(11) Rubab If amah or Masnavi-i-Walad by Sultan Walad 

(son of Jalal-ud-Din Rumi, the greatest Sufi Per- 
sian poet) d. a.h. 712, a.d. 1312. J.t is partly in 
imitation of the Masnavi of Hakim Sana'i (d. 5-45— 
1150) and partly of the Masnavi of his father Jalal- 
ud-Din Rumi (d. 672-1273). It is in two separate 
parts. This MS. is in the hand-writing of the 
author's grandson 'Usman b-'Abd-ul-Lah b.-Walad, 
copied in 718 a h , 1318 A.D., only six years after the 
death of the author, 

(12) A valuable copy of Kafal>at-ul-Uns by Jami d. 898-1492, 

bearing the seals of the Emperors of Delhi and the hand- 
writing and signature of Bairam Khan. Copied in a.u. 
902, onlv four years after the death of the author. 
(13j MasAlik wa Mamalik by Abul Hasan Sa'id b-'Ali al- 

Jurjani, d. 881-1476. A Persian treatise on geography, 
dated 920 a.h. 


The last item of business in my programme was to get 
rare MSS. copied for the Society. 

I procured in all ten transcripts, among which may be men- 
tioned the following rare works on Medical Science by Galen. 

(1) Tahrim-ud Dafn, in which the author forbids the burial 

of a dead body within 24 hours after death. 

(2) Manafi'-ul-A'da, on the respective utilities of the limbs 

of the bodv. 

(3 ) Kitab Ugluqan, a book on diagnosis, written at the request 

of a Greek philosopher Ugluqan (literally the blue-eyed). 

(4) Kitab-ul-Agdiyah wal At'miah, n nutrition and food. 

xlvi Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [April, 1906.] 

It will not be out of place to mention that I commissioned 
Shains-ul Ulama Maulavi Atawar Rahman, who was proceeding on a 
pilgrimage to the Hijaz, to keep a lookout for ancient Arabic MSS. 
in that country. But I regret to say the M.iulavi met with no 
success : for all the books offered to him for sale were well-kin >wn 
works and of recent transcription. 

In conclusion I desire to express my high appreciation of the 
valuable assistance which I have received throughout the year 
from Moulvi Hidayat Husein, the fire* travelling Mauhivi. With- 
out his enthusiastic zeal, his untiring industry, and his quick 

Council such a satisfactory report. 


Rai Ram Brahma Sanyal, Bahadur exhibited a melaimid 
variety of Stumojiastor contra, Hodg., the common Pied Starling. 

B remarked that although individuals of the species vary a great 
al in shades of colour, a uniformly black specimen is rarely 
seen. About forty -five years ago Ty tier observed a caged speci- 


m oori t . 

en ne aesenhed as sturnopww 
known, Blyth disagreed with 

» liU , c*xi U tunftKiereu uie oira to oe a variety of Stnrnopustorconm 
It may be interesting to note in this connexion that uniformly 
white specimens of Pied Starlings, like white or partially white 

eylr,nicus) are not at 

™ „ ^« wiumuu uai ucis \±nereiceryx z il<n\cus) are not »" 

all uncommon. Sturnopastor contra inhabits the plains of North- 
Uestern India including the Renal and Sithim Trmi Attending 

let under 

estern India including the Nepal and Sikhim Trrai 
eastwards to Assam and Cachar and south to Mudmn. 

The following papers were read : 

1. GyantseTRoelc Inscription of „. .,.,... -.,„.,„-„., .. ™ 

f/w bakyapa Bierrarch in the 14th century AJ)—Bi/ MahA- 


2. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna „/ India.— By N. Annan- 

dalk D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. tfo. .5.— ^ n J,„ft f m Aquatic Cockroach and 
Beetle Larva. No. 4.-Hydra orientalis and it* relation* with other 

3. Notes on "Pacheri" and simitar qavus, a* played in the 



Hindu Method of M< 


its scientific explanation. —By 3. C. Kay. Communicated by TJR 
P. C. Ray. 


5. Silver dioxide and silver f&ttzynttrafcr—By B. R. Watson 
B.A„, B.Sc. 

• «- • 

Persia , 

from dervishes in the South of 
rr.nTT S.WiW.ii-j/ /r< /Ae Board of 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

7. Notes on *Ae Sikandar-Nama of NizSmi.—By \j\fvt.-Col. 

!. PeifcLOTT, Secretary to the Board of I&nminers' 


The following new books have been added to the Library 
during March, 1906 : 

Buckland, C.E. Dictionary of Indian Biography. 

London, 1906. 8°. 

Calcutta Dirrctory and Guide, 1906. Compiled by K. T. 

McCluskie. Calcutta, 1906. 8°. 

Presd. by Mr. E. T. McCluskic. 

Dangerfield, Dr. H. Vivian. Le Beribere. Definition, etymologie, 

historiqne, bacteriologie, symptomatologie, pathogenie, patho- 
logie experimentale, traitement. Deux planches en couleurs, 
etc. Paris, 1905. 8°. 

Dictionnaire des sciences anthropologiques.... A vec... figures dans 
le texte. Paris, [1889.] 4°. 

Dvivedin, Acala. f#fm«J<lM<*: [Nirnaya dipaka,..With commentary 
in Kri«na Sastri. Edited by Sada Sankara 
Hirasankara.] [Nadiar, 1897.] 8°. 

Farnell, E*. R- The Evolution of religion An anthropological 
study. London, New York, 1905. 8°. 

Grier, Sydney C, pseud, [i.e., ATm Hilda Gregg]. The Letters of 

Warren Hastings to his wife. Transcribed in full from the 
originals in the British Museum. Introduced and annotated 
by S. C. Grier. London, 1905. 8°. 

Haeckel, Ernst, Wanderbilder. Serie I und II, Die Natur- 
wunder der Tropenwelt. - Insulinde und Ceylon. 

Untermhaus, [1905]. 4°. 

Presd. by the Author 

Haffner f Dr. August. Texte zur arabischen Lexikographie 
Nach handschriften herausgegeben von Dr. A. Haffner. 

Leipzig, 1905. 8°. 

HIti baba, .JUit** bb ^^l*. **^y [Persian Translation of Morier** 

Hajibaba of Ispahan by Aka Mirza Asdulla Khan of Iran.] 
[ Bombay, 1905.] 8°. 


Henry, Victor. Le Parsisme. Paris, 1905. 8 9 . 

Merzbacher, Dr. Gottfried. The Central Tian-Shan Mountains, 
1902-1903. London, 1905. 8°. 

Mironow, Nicolaus. Die Dharmapariksa des Aniitagati. Ein 
beitrag znr literatur-und religionsgeschichte des Indischen 
mittelalters. Inaugural-Dissertation, etc. Leipzig, 1903. 8". 

Newcombe, A. C. Village, Town, and Jungle life in India... 
With illustrations. London, 1905. 8°. 

Oldenberg, Hermann. Vedaforschnng. 

Stuttgart, Berlin, [1905.] 8°. 

Rawling, C G. The Great Plateau, being an account of explora- 
tion in Central Tibet, 1903, and of the Gantok expedition. 
1904-1905... With illustrations aud maps. London, 1905. 8. 

Boyal Society— London. Reports of the Commission...for the 
investigation of Mediterranean fever, etc. Pt. 4, etc. 
London, 1906. 8 G . 

Presd. by the Society. 
Schuster, Felix. The Bank of England and the State. A 

lecture, etc. Manchester, 1906. 8°. 


Presd. by the University. 

Wallace, Alfred Russel. My life. A record of events and 

opinions... With facsimde J 
2 vols. London, 1905. 8°. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] An account of the Gurpa Hill. 77 


18. An account of the Gurpa Hill in the District of Gay a, the 
probable site of the KukkutapadaqirL — By Babu Rakhal Das 
Banerji. Communicated by Dr. T. Bloch. 

Introductory Remarks. 

Since General Cunningham's unconvincing identification 
of the Kukkutapada Hill, mentioned by the Chinese pilgrims as 
the place where Mahakasyapa entered Nirvana, with some low 
hills north of Kurkihnr in Gaya District, Dr. Stein in his report 
on an Archaeological tour in South Bihar and Hazaribagh, has 
located this site on the S'obbnfith Hill, the highest peak in a range 

Ronth-wftfit from Knrkihar and about four miles 



distant from the village of Wazirganj. 1 

The following account describes another hill in Gaya district 
which, for various reasons, seems to agree more closely with the 
account given by the Chinese of the Kukkutapada or Gurupada- 
giri, as it also used to be called. The hill has first been brought 
to notice by Babu Sreegopal Bose, a Sub-Overseer of the Public 
Works' Department, in charge of Bodh Gaya, who already noticed 
the great similarity between the remains on the Gurpa Hill with 
the description given by the Chinese of the Kukkutapadagiri. 
He accompanied the author of the following paper on his visit to 
the hill during the last Christmas holidays. 

The points w^hich to my mind make the identification of the 
Gurpa Hill with Kukkutapadagiri preferable to Dr. Stein's 
identification with the S'obhnath Hill, are the following :— 

(1) The modern name Ghtrpa is an exact Prakritic develop- 
ment out of Sanskrit Gurupada, the second name by 
which the hill used to be called according to the 

2) The distance of 19 to 20 miles east of Bodh Gaya agrees 

better with the 100 li east of the same place, the 

distance given by Hiuen Thsang, than the distance of 

14 miles north-east of Bodh Gaya, as calculated by 
Dr. Stein for the S'obhnath Hill. Probably also the 
corresponding distance from the approximate site of 
Buddhavana will be found to agree better with the 

Chinese accounts for Gurpa than for S'obhnath. 

(3) The Gurpa Hill has a large tunnel running through it 

and forming a passage leading to the top, thns corres- 

ponding accurately with the cleft throu^ 
made by Kasyapa on his ascent according to the 
Chinese accounts. No similar feature is recorded for- 
the S'obhnath Hill by Dr. Stein, who, on page 89, 
merely observes that M in the confused masses of rocks 
heaped up all along the crest lines of the three spurs, 
we can lock for the passages which Kasyapa was 
supposed to have opened up with his staff. 

1 Ind. Ant. y March 1901, p. 88. 

78 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Beuyal. [April, 1906. 

(4) The top of the Gurpa Hill has three distinct peaks 

forming the three cardinal points of a triangle. Hiuen 
Thsang likewise speaks of three high peaks on the 
summit of Kukkutapadagiri, between which Kasyapa 
sat down when he entered Nirvana. With regard to 
STobhnath, Dr. Stein mentions merely three spurs, 
extending from one joining point into various direc- 
tions and thus resembling a cock's foot, from which, 
according to him, the hill came to be named ' Cock's 
foot Hill ' (Skt. Kukkutapadagiri). 

The Gurpa Hill has, on its peaks, remains of old brick 
buildings, which may have belonged to the Stupa on the top of 
Kukkutapadagiri, mentioned by Hiuen Tlisang. 

That the Gurpa Hill still forms an object of local worship 
is also a point which cannot be overlooked. 

From all the above arguments, 1 think the proposed identifica- 
tion of Gurpa with the Kukkutapada or Kurupadagiri of the 
Chinese has much that speaks in its favour. I only regret that 
the paper impressions of the two short inscriptions referred to 
below were too indistinct to enable me to add a complete reading 
of the inscriptions. 

T. Bi.och. 

Vol. II, Xo. 4.] An accoimt of the Gurpa Hill 


Gurpa is the name of a hill near the station of the same name* 
at the 25th mile on the new Railway from Katrasgarh to Gaya. 
Directly, it ii about 19-20 miles from Bodh Gaya. The village folk 
call the hill Gurpa. They say that the deity of the hill, Gurpa- 
sinmai, suffers nobody to climb on it with shoes, and whoever 
does so is sure to slip his foothold. The sides of the hill are- 

very steep and composed of polished slippery boulders large and 
small, which justify the statement. There is only a single path 
leading to the top on the north side of the hill, all other portions 
• ' uiu-limbable. The plain surrounding the hill is thickly 

From the station to the foot of the hill is about one 


mile, and we had to cross the dried-up bed of a hill stream on 


Journal, of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

the way. The hill is a curved chain running S.W. to N.E. 




In the middle of 

the chain there is a sharp rising of about 300 ft. which divides 
itself at the top into three sharp peaks ; after this, at a 
-distance of about 500 ft., it ends abruptly. This is the highest 
peak in the neighbourhood, higher than the Brahmavoni, the 
height being slightly short of 1,000 ft. Along the track to the 
summit the trees* grow smaller, and along the highest peak the 
vegetation shrinks to short reeds and sharply-pointed grass. There 
is a sort of wood-land track up to the bark of the hill, i.e., up to 
the base of the highest peak, going across the hill to the south- 
western or other side and ultimately losing itself in a rough 
upward incline at the base of the highest peak. Here is a small 
Ahir shrine consisting of six small mounds of earth well plastered 
over with cowdung and marked with vermilion, which is known 
as Dvarapala, the gate-keeper of Gurpasinmai. Here, concealed 
among the shrubbery, appears the mouth of a tunnel or cave 4 ft. 
wide and 6 ft, in height. At a small distance from the entrance, 
it branches into two parts, one south -westemly going downwards 
and choked with large bricks, stones and rubbish, and the other 

2 ft. in width in the 


The plan of the tunnel. 


Choked up 


Choked np 

entrance going up- 
wards, gradually nar- 
rowing until at the 
53rd ft. from the 
junction, it becomes 
impassable, being 
merely a fissure in the 
rock with sharp rocks 
interlacing across the 
fissure. Here another 
passage opens towards 
N.E, Turning to this 
gallery one st 1 1 mbles 
as it is extremely dark, 
upon a staircase of 
stone of 28 steps at the 
end of which the pas- 

.i^^i a4 , . », , , saere turns sharply 

wS t g ? ai f leS towards the east and ends on a platform 
Wfcl ?i? l ge b0ulder ' At the extremity of this platform is 
^T. J / ? 8hr J ne / The ob J ect ot * worship is a small pool of 
lam-water formed m a natural depression in the rock, around 

vv men are placed three small boulders of about a man's height, 
riere the track becomes sheer impossibility. The path is along 
boulders of stone polished to the smoothness of marble by the 
action ot ram-water up an incline of 60° with no hold for assist- 

l~A+t° T *r ls bei S ht vegetation consists of sharp, thorny grass 
and thin reeds. After a climb of more than 50 ft., another 

ww 1S rf ached - Here ' another tunnel is reached running 
north to south across the whole width of the mountain, a length 

Vol. II, No. 4.] An account of the Ourpa Hill. 81 

[A T .6\] 



leaning on one another, thus forming a sort of archway 4 ft. in 
height at the entrance, gradually widening in circumference — 
the height at the end of t lie cave or tunnel being nearly 30 ft. 
The tunnel ends in a steep precipice about 500 ft. high # At 
the edge of the tunnel there is a rectangular tank with a single 
step running along its four S ides (8'x5'). The tank is dry and 
there is no possibility of its ever being filled with rain-v iter. 

I heard a curious story about tin's tank from a guard of the 
East Indian Railway, Balm DayilCli. (Jupta. He told me that 
the tank was covered with a huge piece of stone which was 
raised by order and in the presence of Mr. P. E. Cockshott, the 
Kngineer-in-chargeof the new Hue, and inside was found a skeleton 
more than 6 ft. in length. Where the skeleton and the coverin 
stone is now 1 could not ;i -certain. Was this a Sarcophagus 
On a small boulder along one of the walls of the cave are some 
Buddhist sculpture-, a headless statue of Buddha about 8' in 
height, another of a Drowned Buddha in the Bhumisparsa Mudra, 
l'-4" in height and a votive stupa with panels containing a 
Buddha on each of its four faces about 2 ft. in height, all 
uninscribed. The track to the top continues from the plat from 

_ a a -* M & ^ 


walls of the cave. Here steps are cut in the stone of the width 
of about ten to eleven inches, From this platform further climb- 
ing with boots and shoes on became an impossibility. Many of 

these steps are almost effaced with age, being mere notches less 



stairway which lead 


around it. From the platform the three peaks are distinctly 
seen, their pinnacles would form a right-angled triangle. 

The X.E. peak is the highest, the Western in the next, the 
Southern being the lowest of the three. On the top of the 
highest peak there is a piece of level ground about 20 ft. square 
on which there lie, -ide by side, two shrines each five feet square 
in dimension. The shrines are made of huge ancient bricks, 
sculpture and statuary loosely piled without any mortar or cement. 
In each is shrined a pair of footprints on dark square pieces of 
stone. The western shrine contains a slab which is evidently 
modern judging from the clumsiness of the sculpture of the floral 
ornamentation around the footprint and the nnnaturalnew <»f 
the footprints themselves. Besides these there are numbers of 
Buddhas. some of them crowned and Buddhist T;iras enshrined 


each of the four cornci 

the eastern shrine MB four votive stupas. The slab in this 
-hrine contains two lines of inscriptions along the two sides of 
the slab in early Kutila characters, such as those which occur in 
the Bodh Gay a inscriptions of Mahanaman. One of these lines 
is the usual Baddhist sloka " Ye Dhar met h<tu prabhara" etc. 
the "hetu prabhava" is quite distinct in my impression. The 
>ther line most probably contains a dedicatory inscription a 

82 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

along the middle of it I can read in my impression " tad bhavatv, 
satvdnam matapitroh, etc" On the walls of the western shrine I 
noticed a chaitya panel inscribed below with a Deya-Dharma and 
ye Dharma hetu, etc. The one other inscription is by far the 
most important of the whole lot. It is incised on the back of a 
door lintel or jamb. On this side the jaggedness of the chisel 
marks has not been removed by polishing. The initial letter 
is most probably gu ; then follows several letters which I can- 
not make out. Then a gap of about 3 or 4 inches after which 
follows a na inverted and after that another letter also inverted, 
but which has been cut away by an incision in the stone probably 
for the iron clamp which secured this piece to other portions of 
the door or window. 

On the western peak there is another square basement of 
large bricks, probably the base of a stupa. At present the peak 
is difficult of access. On the southern peak there is a large pile 
ot fragments of sculptures, bases of stone stupas, votive stupas, 
portions of statuary, etc. Traces. of blood stains were found at 
the door of the two temples on the north-western peak, and, on 
enquiry, I learnt that the villagers offer animal sacrifices at all 
the shrines. The best view of the three peaks is obtained from 
the platform where the Ahirs worship a natural hollow in the 
rock described above. It is evident from the above description 
that the remains at Gurpa are of Buddhistic origin 

Position of the hill. 

To Gaya 25 miles. 

mzw// /w 

Railway line. 

To Patwus 6 miles. Relative position of the peaks 



* * 




A« ar S J pa }\ coincides remarkably well with Hiuen Thsang's 
™Z f? T Ku kkutapadagiri. The tunnel through the rock 
must be the very tunnel which, according to Hiuen Thsang, Kasyapa 

Vol. II, No. 4.] An account of the Gurpa Hill. 83 

opened for himself. " Ascending the north side of the mountain 
he proceeded along the winding path and came to the south-west 
ridge. Here the crags and precipices prevented him from further 
advance. Forcing his way through the tangled brushwood he 
struck the rock with staff and thus opened a way.*' This is the 
first tunnel in the accompanying plan which branches at a short 
distance from the entrance and goes downwards. " He then 
passed on having divided the rock and ascended till he was 
again stopped by the rocks interlacing one another. He again 
opened a passage through, and came out on the mountain-peak 
on the north-east side.'* One of these is the tunnel leading to 
the stairway and the other is the tunnel which contains the 
stairway described above. We learn from Fa Hian that the entire 
body of Kasyapa was preserved in a side chasm on the hill. 
Perhaps the skeleton found in the cave is the skeleton of the 
venerable Kasyapa. Fa Hian also says that outside the chasm 
is the place where Kasyapa when alive washed his hands. This 
is the natural hollow in the rock described above as an Ahir 
shrine. It is interesting to note that the place is still an object 
of local worship. Both Hiuen Thsang and Fa Hian agree to the 
fact that the approach to the hill lay through a dense forest 
inhabited by wild beasts. This is still so. The whole of the 
plain is covered with dense forest. On our way from the Railway 
to the base of the hill we found marks of enormous paws on the 
sandy ground. According to our guide, a local man, the forest 
is inhabited by large numbei of bears and tigers, some of whom 
are white. Probably these white tigers are described by Hiuen 
Thsang as Lions, since lions in these parts of the country are 
scarce. According to Hiuen Thsang Kasyapa, after emerging 
from the tunnel, proceeded to the middle point of the three hills and 
there he still lies awaiting the coming of Maitreya I>odhis:tttva. 
The second tunnel described above is formed of huge boulders of 
stone leaning against each other. A further point of coinci- 
dence is this. Hiuen Thsang says : " On quiet evenings those 
looking from a distance see sometimes a bright light as it were 
of a torch, but if they ascend the mountain there is nothing -to be 
observed." I heard from Dayal Babu that on dark nights lights 
are visible on the top of the mountain. The villagers attribute 
the presence of these lights to jewels which they say are on the 
mountain-top. Some Europeans organised a search party, but 
on reaching the top they of course found nothing. This also is 
a curious survival of the tradition which has been recorded by 
the Chinese master of law thirteen centuries ago. The gentleman 
from whom I received these pieces of information know very little 
either of the Chinese pilgrims or of the venerable Mfthi Kisyapn. 
The mountain-side is covered with caverns which justifies Hiuen 
Thsang's epithet M Cavernous." It is imposible to photograph the 
three peaks, because the place whence the only distinct view is 
obtainable is too small for working a camera. 

86 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

14 Some Persian Biddies collected from dervishes in the south 

of Persia. — By Lieut.-Colonel D. C. Phillott, 23rd 
■ Cavalry, F.F., Secretary to the Board of Examiners, 

1. A strange thing I saw in this world : 

Water bubbling round fire. 

Ansicer : Snmavar. 

2. A strange thing I saw in this world : 
It roared and wailed and circled round. 

Answer : Mill. 

3. What is that which travels without feet, head or hands ? 

Answers : Wate r, 
Wind, a Worm. 

4. What is that which hides men in its belly ? 

Ansicer: The Earth. 

5. AY hat is that which encompasses the world in a moment ? 

Ansicer .-The wind. 

6. What is that which from head to foot is all tongue P 

Answer : Fire. 

7. What 

If a man eat it he grows strong. 

Good is it and impalpable, but in eating it 

Neither hand, nor lip, nor mouth is used. 

Answer : Knowledge. 

8. White art thou as snow ; black am I as a Negro : 
My head is split : thou art below and I am above. 
You do not move : though I do move. 

Ansicer : Pen and 

9. What is that travelling ship, double-doored, 

Lion-armed and dragon-shaped ? 
Another sight I saw in it : 
It made the dead alive. 

Answer : Tortoise. 

Vol. II, No. 4.1 Some Persian liiddles. 87 


^5 ^S t^laJl ^l*-c u-jU*. £ i^-^M L$"^* c «> 

rr ^ \}y* &J* u j^u w^Lp v£>^$ 

;*^^-V ^^^^cr^ 5 cr* 5 ;>? \J^H 


\jiMt ^)~ *$?* ~^ c>4/> ^ u ^ 

^, i c~i,> ^ ;l i j.i>— Ji (^i*^ Jac i 

JJ , 

j *>JC _X> j i^JlXX ^f 

J* % *r*Vct *)****»/• i^ii**^-**^ 3 

01 <; c~4 J?^ <>•** J** * »4t o* 4 

^L» = (J*. ? JU *♦* *^C A^aJ «-£> *f >^>- i t tt^ S 

fed ';y »»** ->^ 4f *<4* cA ? 

J b? bjl irrr* t^y fcj* V / 

(*>^ u" 

J±u ±6*4 *±>\ l ; >.yo • ^ ^s ^j&i C^ 


88 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

10. A headless crane I saw]: nor barley does it eat nor 

Water it drinks from the river and it benefits all 
mankind. Answer : Pen (reed). 

11. What is that strange creature with two heads P 

Six holes has it in its body • 

Weigh it and its weight is six misqal ; l 

On its back it carries a hundred mann. % 

Answer : Horse-shoe. 

12. A strange creature I saw that had six legs and two 

heads : 
Stranger still, listen to me, was this; its tail was in its 

13. A strange thing I saw in this world 

Answer: Scales. 

That had a hundred nails in its feet and hands. 
Five bodies, five heads and four lives 

Read me this riddle, oh wise man. 

14 What 

Answer ; Bier (with 
the corpse borne 
by four men). 

It flies without wings ; it emits sound though void of 

Answer ; Paper-kite. 


15. What is that which is round and rolling 

Its whole without life : its halves alive? 
Ass is he that guesses not this 
And less than a goat is that ass. 

Answer : M e 1 o n 


16. A man from Africa came to me ; 


The animal by God's creating 

Had eighty heads and ten bellies and thirty legs. 

Answer : Elephant 



17. The head of (the word) mull a on the neck of mull8. 

This riddle is made in the name of God. 

Answer: The word 
Majid*" Glorious. 

[The head of mulla is the letter mlm, and the Arabic for 
neck ' is jtd : together these make MajidJ]* 


1 One misqal is« T V oz. and 90 misqal ^li oz. 

* The Tabriz mann is about 7 lbs. 

s By abjad: o«80 and ^-10 and J = 30. 

One of tbe ninety. nine attributes of God and also a proper name 

Vol. II, No. 4.] 


Some Persian Biddies. 



&£ *i ftgfLj^. u i ,OJ0 j£AS j~ ^j 10 




Wo \ 




\ d J^j o^J »J^ ^;^ J^« Jt* >' 0»3 ^ J 




r iJd^-v , ^j^ ** <•*** ^iai^w 


C jjii (O ^ ^u* >^ un;iy v^ 

»3 l 

!y* jiK 

•^ t^t ;A f«*a i/Mi" 






yj ^y *y— f 





*<** ,yo tf 


8 j u?b* 


i U csrf * yu * 


,r n 




■> w? 




..Ikli . *J *&U it-1 


J ^ 

r 5 

• • * 





^l*^ u£J a — ftti i*»j jUv ji 

^,1^ 5 - 

oil **" 


yt a* ^ 


i J > 



~» i 








b Ay- 




)/ the Asiatic Society of 


18. It travels to the sky ahead of the eye 


But no one has ever seen it. 

Answer: Sight. 

19. This wool-dressed and well-stuffed Sufi 

Has one penis and two hundred testicles. 

Answer : The Kathal l 
or Jack-fruit. 

20. In the depths of this sea there dwells a shark 

That holds in its mouth a single pearl ; 
Strange that though it has no belly 
It drinks the sea to the last drop. 



Wick of 


21. A bird I saw without legs or wings ; 


Neither in the sky nor 'neath the earth it lives, 

Yet it ever eats the flesh of man. 

Answer : Anxiety. 


What is that fairy-shape that h 
It laughs yet has no mouth : 
It weeps yet has no eyes 
It travels much yet has no feet. 


life P 



23. What 

In its body it has neither breath nor life P 



nswer : M ill -stone, 


A strange thing I saw in this world 
Inanimate it followed the animate. 


V * 

Answer : Threshing- 


25. Two bodies in two Caravans I saw 

Their heads bared, their bodies blistered ; 
The Caravans do not move without permission of those two 
Nor do those two move without permission of the Caravan. 

Answer : Dice at 


1 This riddle was made in India. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] 



Some Persian 1 ddlee* 


**— i* c£« j* o 1 — ***f ^ «**; l8 

*^ — jjj 



^$4* crV 




^ _jlo ,j ^^j «Jj — + 



U. * 


J^ J 

aya ^ ? i 


el^ Al t 

a LI? 









*p ^ 








Xy 20 

^ ^ii^ f;jl *$ »= — it 


!jd <^ 



j <5L. b *i <*A J^ 





, .• 

~-> A 



r^ ^ 

m ^ 


**j .7*) ^ ^ o 





-f f. v 

^-i*xi ^^pol 

^ - ***** e;f 



| jbX*d *— &** l*^ 

«4 ^ 

#Jai c4» 

^ &*1 23 






3 ur 









»/ y 



^ t 




•> &&* if*« <i* 


^ w* y* e>' 

i^ ;* o l 





ji yjl i< »W ^J^ f ^ 


*_ XAJ Uy 

e> 3 j^ «|1 c$ </? *^ ^'>; ^ ** 

1 Maliil ^ Aram. 

92 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906 

26. What is that which has no bones ; 

If it fastens on you it does no harm. 

Answer : A Leech. 

27. A warbler of this garden am I, and this garden is my 




carry gold ; 
Answer : Egg. 

1 Atash-khwdr is also a name for the pheasant. 

2 As it surrounds it when cooking 

Vol. II, No. 4.] 




Some Persian Biddies. 



1 * 


cHt 26 

1 " 5t i>io ^c 

jj 1 



is'r- 1 

\ i^* 

I w- J L j^ cf 3t j ehL J* if 


*i tf* f">' j »j 


f ^* ili-f j l * a>l*» cs*" 




8 . j* aiy * 




jfjl ^ ^ *♦* u 







of 29 



£ & 

j*V ajA c5*j — ft - ****** 

1 Bit for bt-at ( *s»» ** ) 

2 From tnaiidan " to taste." 

* From hhaiidan " to slide, be slippery." 

♦ Qhazanfar "lion " : farr " magnificent 


Vol. II, No. 4.] , Gyantse Bock Inscription. 95 

1 5. Gyantse Bock Inscription of Chos-rgyal-gnis-pcii a ruler under 

the Sakyapa Hterarch in the m fourteenth century a.d. — By 

MahamahopIdhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A. 

This is a bas-relief in a heavy piece of grey slate 2 feet 3£ 
inches long, 1 foot 1| inches broad, and 1 inch thick. It was 
brought from Gyantse Jong during the late Tibet expedition aud 
is now deposited in the Indian Museum at Calcutta. The inscrip- 
tion is in a perfect state of preservation but a few letters on the 
corners at the top and bottom of the slate have been broken 
away and lost. It consists of 23 uneven lines which, if properly 
arranged, would make up eight verses of four feet each. As each 
foot consists of 9 syllables, there are altogether 288 syllables or 
words in the inscriptions. It is written in the Tibetan language 
and characters, but there are two benedictory phrases in Sanskrit 
at the beginning and end of the inscription. 

The first 5| lines describe Upper Nyang, of which Gyantse 
is the capital, as a splendid dominion where all wishes are accom- 
plished at once, and in which the ten perfect virtues always 
prevail. The next 9| lines refer to the repair and new construction 
of various Tantrik images such as those of Guru Padmasambhava, 
Trinity of Father and Sons, the Three-fold Body of Buddha, etc., 
which were undertaken and accomplished by a ruler of Gyantse 
with the object of securing longevity for his wife the queen, for 
the increase of prosperity of his people, and for the propagation 
of the Blessed Doctrine. This ruler is named Chos-rgyal-gnis-pa, 
who is described as a virtuous man, a skilful disputant, a miracu- 
lous manifestation of Vajrapani, and victorious over all quarters. 
The remaining eight lines contain the prayers of the man who 
raised the inscription. It is very probable that Chos-rgyal-gnis-pa 
(literally : religious king the second) is identical with Chos-rgyal- 
rab-brtan (literally : religious king the firm) who, as a regent 
under the Sakyapa Hierarch, ruled over Gyantse and founded 
the fort and monastery there in the fourteenth century a.d. 
There are evidences that the inscription belonged to the Sakyapa 
sec%, and was prepared at a time when the Dalai Lamaic Govern- 
ment had not yet been established. 



A splendid dominion, productive of the ten perfect virtues, 1 
in which the extent of the earth is washed by the light of love 

I Ten virtues called in Tibetan Qe-cu ( ^ffj ? IJ£ \ and in Sanskrit Dam- 
kniala ( ^S^ftJ^T ) are : 

(i) ^fif £'fi|$Vy> WTOTfolTTcT fulfil, not to kill anything living. 

96 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [April, 1906. 


. which brings about the highest blessing of eman- 
cipation from rotatory existence,* in which religious kings, who 

are miracn lous 

rule in succession, and 

where success (the ultimate* object) is attained from fortune of 
the merit of good work—this dominion of Upper Nyang* (ftari), 
where all wishes are accomplished together, has Gyantse 6 
(Rgyal-nikhar-rtse-mo) for its capital. 

(ii) ^'§3r^3*QN'y, ^tIT^T* f**f<T, nob to take what has not 

been given. 

(Hi) W^'^BIWV, *KW fiTOHtR f^CfcT, not to fornicate, 
(iv) gV^T 7 *, W\m^ f^fcT, not to tell a lie. 


(v) ^«r^^5'^ WHIT* f^fcf, not to use harsh language. 

~* OS 

(vi) c;^SQ!iyi'q, *fmfjs,<j, T q Uxfa, not to talk foolishness, 
(vii) *Tsr*-gVy, §35^ fatf^ not t0 calumniate. A 

(viii) WrWSnfriV*, *f*rm ft*fcT, not to be avaricious. 

(is) *)3v<W*'ty;j, ^rnTT^ f%*f%, not to think upon doing 


l*]"g'*TSS'*J, f*7SITffg; f^fcf, not to entertain heretic 

notions. Cf. Mahavyutpatti, section 87, and Dharmasamgraha. 
section Ivi. 

S^V^Jf (love and kindness) may also signify ' Maitreya, the coming 

2iw "' « T l ' e - r i e i ? 1 _ actuall 7 8nch a Buddha in Gyantse. Percival Landon 
rSSo'Iwi !' i Central crim son-pil!ared hall (of the monastery at 

tS n«5 Rn^r I c ° n8 P lcuou8 object is the great seated figure of Maitreya, 
the next Bnddha to be re-incarnated (Lhasa, Vol. I., p. 210) 

*TCY3ra signifies " re-birtb," while £<V*<£*)<V' means "suromnm 

re-birtn« » T h T»I h01 ! meanS : . " the Li S he8fc Sood caused by deliverance from 
fe the rhJ.f r n f r - °7 A l X18t cf nce and emancipation from it are inseparable, 
sum %p. W?rr e ,° f * he , S ^yapa Sect as explained in Cser-chos-bcug- 
sum. See Sarat Chandra Das's article on Tibet, J.A.S.B., 1882, p. 127. 

Kel.gious^ Kings who are miraculous manifestations of Jina, called in 

Tibetan iTqQ-$*TQ^ra>Viqj, are Srong-tsan-gam.po, born a.d. 627, 

^h' S j'T g ' de 'i Sa ^' \?\ n A - D> 728 > *fa**ttl or, born A.D 864, etc. 
rnlp^ aS rr°-t M ^ ak yapa Sect who. under authority from Kublai Khan, 
ruled over T,bet, 1270-1310 a.d., are perhaps referred to here. 

Nyang, and (2) ^5*8^, Lower Nyang. The capital of the former is Gyantse 
while that of the latter is Shigatse. 

r\vJ G T y f a - nta v is a 8mau ^wn on the right bank of the Pena Nyang Chn 
rmSLi k 18 Bltn *^ d about two small hills which lie east and west and are 
weaVSn L? 8a n ' °- n the eastern hil1 is a lar ?o f °rt (Jong) and on the 
See '< R* -2 a ?£T m which fchere i9 a chor *™ called Pangon chorten. 
»ee Report on the Explorations in Great Tibet, by A. K, p. 31 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Qyantse Rock Inscription. 97 

Here there are heaped up light blue l images beautiful like 
the tarkois basins. It is explained on a margin of the Register 
(Kar-chag) that old ones were repaired and (the new ones that 
were) erected (are those of) Guru (Padmasambhava) in eight 
forms, 8 Dag-mar (Lohita Rudra), Dharma-sambhoj/t-nirmann 
kayas, 1 etc., consecrated* Lamas who combat against avidyfl 
(Cosmic Blindness) being born in the line of Manjughosa,* 
practitioners of charms, who are the essence of the Omniseient- 

I Here some of the letters have been broken ;iway. VS*I^ mean* 

'white stone/ If the reading is V*li, which seems probable, the 
meaning would be: 'light blue.' 80 the meaning is either 'light blue 
mages ' or ' images of white stones/ 

* Padma-sambhava generally called Pad-yung or Guru was the founder of 
Lamaism in Tibet. He has been deified and receives now more worship than 
Buddha himself. He was a native of Udyana. a follower of the Yogacarya 
School, and a student of the College at Nalanda. At the invitation of King 
Khrisrong-de-tsan he visited Tibet in a. d. 747 and founded the monastery of 
Sam-ye, which is the first Tibetan monastery, in a.d. 749. His eight form* 
are thus enumerated : — 

(i) Guru-padma-hbyun-guas, 'Born of a Lotus" for the happiness of 

the three worlds. 
(ii) Guru Padmasambhava, " Saviour by the religious doctrine." 
(iii) Guru Pad ma Gyalpo "The king of the three collections of scrip- 
tures (Tripitaka)." 
(iv) Guru-rdo-rje gro-lod, " The Diamond comforter of all 
(v) Guru ni-ma hod-zer~ M The enlight »ing sun of darkness." 
(vi) Guru-Sakya Senge, M The second Sakyasiihha. 
(vii) Guru Senge, ?gra-sgrog?, " The Propagator 01 religion in me 

worlds with the roaring lion's voice." 
(viii) Gurublo-ldan-mchog-sred. " The conveyor of knowledge to all" 

Cf. Waddell's Lamaism, p. 379. 
S jMV'S H&TCiUiL *' The body of law or the absolute body" 



Bnddha in the Nirvna. q^^S}, ^WTJTT^T^, ''the body of happiness 
or glory rt is Buddha in the perfection of a conscious and active life of bliss 

in heaven. U^Tfl, f*T*if(*H^TT^r, M the body of transformation and incar- 

nation " is Buddha as man on earth (ride Jaschke, under Jj ). 

* The reading is obsonre. ^C'^ft^ probably is the same as 

^fWfaWi consecrat ed. If the reading j 8 S^S'^tlS & would mean "of 
eight powers.' ' 

6 Maujngho?a (QFW^JJCW) is the god of wisdom whose chief func- 
tion is the dispelling of ignorance or cosmic blindneBB. " Born in the line of 
Manjughosa" signifies " very learned," and refers specially to the Lamas of 
he Sakyapa sect. 

98 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [April, 1906. 

merciful one, the Trinity of Father and Sons,* Ganapati and 

Gron-slial a — altogether twenty-seven in number. 

Chos-rgyal-gnis-pa 3 (religious king the second) was virtue 
accumulated, a miraculous manifestation of Vajrapani,* an up- 
rooter of bad controversialists and victorious over all quarters. 
He, with his son iu conference, for the longevity of her majesty 
the queen, for the increase of happiness and wealth of the people 
and for the propagation of the blessed doctrine, erected these 
images. Whatever power these have of doing good deeds by 
the same may the discordant conditions in all directions be- 
come quiet, may the strife among the eight classes of devils and 
the frontier war be appeased, may the imprecation 6 and magic 
circle be averted, and may good fortune be given to us. 

Here we have made these designs. For other sentient beings 
living to the end of the sky, may the two aggregates, viz., virtue 


Sons, that .s, Master and two Disciples " It probably refers to Khon- 
dkon-Kchog.rgya -po who founded the Sakyapa sect and to Je-kan-gah-dol- 

Sr n tw n ' g ^""IP^o were the founders of the two sub-sects," «i», 
nor-pa and Jonan-pa of the Sakyapa School. 

a *fE|3j"^, 5f-pqr, or Lord, is a class of demon-generals of the fiercest 
type numbering serenty.five. •Tffrfl^ (perhaps same a B W^i'^^V <9*) 
"Lord-face" is, according to Waddell, a demoniacal guardian of the 
Sakyapa sect (Vide Lamaism, p. 70). Here */aj$ and Qq may be taken 

S5"*T?-fc S °r Uiat , the , sente , nce ma 7 be interpreted thus :-" Ganapati 

S.J at ^ .(Wgonj-atogether twenty-seven individuals (shal, faces or 

individuals) m number. 

W vJ J3il < K"? gyal "? fi ^ P ^ f ^ el l gion8 kin g ^e second) refers probably to Cho?- 
2 y rlT* "^ p "-I bU1 o tl,e fort < Jon ?> andlhe monastery St Pal-khar-choi-de 
at Gyantge R ai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur, CLE., writes :- 

Chos rivli^k^? ° V yant ? e> is ver ^ 8tron K- and wa( » built by the famous 
Nvan? nf i • T n" Wh ° * M m thc fo «rteenth century over the Province of 
domafn of S»« N ?'*? ^ W ? U' e CapitilU This V^v\nL was a part of the 
W^,?Hh m ya \ ie ? rch3, ■ • • • " He (a well-informed Nyingma 
ahoni rhniilTi ( % ye ^n'u fartherm ore, that there existed two printed volumes 
the Palkh ,f M r . a btan (Chos-rgyal-rab brtan), the famous king who had founded 

GmSeti I ? yant8e ' bHt that the8e work8 and the hi8t ° ry °t 

byantse were new kept as sealed works [terchoi) by the Lhasa Government." 

shown th« iaf * S° r ( °( the chorten in the Palkh « r choide ) we Were 
bemVn tnl r < \ ^SJ^ rabtan (Chos-rgyal-rab-hrtan), under whose 

BZdLm J7T> S \ he ™ m l hmon9 > and who gave'a fresh impulse to 
w?th ?Z«Z I tl?^ The Kun ^ er of the chorten touched our heads 
Sl/Sf BWOrd ° f i ; h, i S . 1,,uatriona monarch, and said that by his blessing 
oro,nPvL • IT tr i^, ph over our enemies and enjoy longevity and 

Tibet I iL!,V h » Tf- f ~ (8arat BabQ 'a Journey to Lhasa and Central 
Hbet, edited by Rock hill, pp. 87, 88, 89.) 

Sakyap 'Set**'' * tatelat>7 deity ' generally invoked by the followers of the 


^Imprecation ( «JTj^ )— This is a kind of Imprecation whuh consists 

and'SnSn name and in,n ge of an enemy in the ground underneath an idol, 
ana imploring the deity to kill him 

Vol. II, No. 4.1 Grants? Bock Inscription. 99 


and wisdom be accomplished and the two defilements 1 quickly 
clear out. For the quietude of the unstable world may the three 
persons (Dharma-sambhoga-nirmana kayas) collectively come. 
By the blessing of the three may the approved infallible truths 
prevail. May the king with brother, sister, mother and son live 
a long life and may the kingdom go on smoothly. May there be 
happiness and prosperity as in the golden age.* 

All auspicious. 


Sva-sti || Phun-tshogs <ige-t>cu fcskrun-pahi muah 
iikdans las II Byams-brtshhi hod-kyis hdsin-mahi khyon 
byab-pall Mnon-mtho nes-legs dpal-la sbyor-mdsad-pahi u Rayal- 
wahi rnam-hphrul chos-rgyal rim-byon rgyal R Legrs-bvRS ks°d- 
nams dpal-las grub-pahi yulf] Hdod-^g^ lhun-grub S'aii-stod rig- 
hbyun-wa. Chos-rgyal pho-braii Rgyal-nakhar-rtse-rao-yi || Gyu- 
gshori-U&r ^adses rdo=dkar debs-]}*hugs rten n Snar-]jshugs dkar- 
chag-zur gsal shig-]jsos dan H Yar-fcsheris Gu-ru mtshan-fergyad 
Drag-dmar dan II Chos-lons-sprul-sogs d w ^^-brgyud ]}la-madari it 
Ma-ritr-la hkhon hjam-4wyans-rigs-hkhruns-pahi II Mkhyen-Jjrtsehi 
t>dag-nid snags-hchah yab-sras gsum il Tshogs-Jjdag Mgon-|>cas 
shal grans ni-su-bdun II Chos-rgyal gnis-pa ]>sod-nams lhun-grub 
dan II Gsan-bdag rnam-hphrul rgfol nan uithar-byed-pa II Phyogs- 
las rnam-rgyal sras-bcas bkah-^gros-nas l| Lha-gcig rgyal-mo sku- 
tshe brtan-phyir dan II Miiah-hbans Jjde-skyid dpal-hbyor-rgyaj 
byed darin Bstan-pahi mig-rkyen dge-wa rgyas-slacj fcsherisn 
Hdis intshon rnam-dkar indsad-pa ji-snedt uithusil Gnas-skabs 
mi-inthun phyogs-rnams shi-wa dahii Sde-brgyad hkhrug dan uitha- 
dmag zlog-pa dan II Gtad-khram hphrul-hkhon shi-wahi dge-legs 
stsol II Hdi-yi phyogs-su bkod-pa-las byas dan f| Gshan yafi nam- 
inkhahi mtbar thug sems-can-raams II Tshogs-gnis rab-rdsogs sgrib- 
gnis myur byan-nas II Srid shir mi-gnas sku-gsum lhun-grub sog II 
Brtag-pden mi-slu-rnam gsura-byin-rlabs-kyis li Mi-^wan sku- 
liiched yam dan sras bcas-kyiH Sku-tshe brtan-shin chab-srid hjam 
don hos i| Rdsogs-ldau bshiu-du bde-rgyas t>kra-£is iogll Sarva- 

manga-lara || 


svp&m 1 1 gswrc^^pr^f^gr 


i jra* probably is the same as ^3T3*T*IJ which is thus divided : 

cHTT^flr i I cWJT | ?fi*n<rc«D ^TTOff %fa II (DharmasaipgrahH, 

sect. CXV). 

4 gW%% y TQttmJl (Satya-ynga) i8 golden age. 

100 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

. \ . 

gq-q |J S^^S^roiBil^qai-fll-S^'^-cj^ | ] 



NO S0*%} \& ' NO 

^^q^q^*f& 1 1 . g*-q sfspwapaaf 3^-qpiflT^ 

NO no 




^fW^F ! ! ^^T'^FT^^-^gc^qpr^igc^ 

^^ N^ no ^ : 

•s. ^^ VO 

1 § is broken and destroyed. 

2 5*f*V' is destroyed, 

3 $> is broken. 


4 VS*1* ia broken and destroyed. Instead of V**|I we ehonld 
rather read ^'^lX 

6 WX is broken and illegible. 

» Is it a wrong spelling for 1^ meaning eight? 

Vol. If, No. 4.] Qyantfte Itwk Inscription. 101 


3VFH ^'^^J^Ff ST^Wf 1 1 q^f 


q-q^T|-aiq|Sr^a| | <^^gq|^q7|^awrg*r^c: 1 1 

W l 

^C^'^^^'^-Smr^*^ || 3wfM , «i^M^fl 

6 e T*rg<r 



Properly arranged. 

1 The last letter ( 3j ) is broken. 

2 This word is broken and illegible. 

8 5V ie altogether effaced. It is supplied by the contributor. 

102 Journal of the Asiatic Society nf Bengal [April, 1906- 

• sjEsfsjif wrofapr ^qm wffrsiS^ \ 


v^^qv^^vrspWGW^qppipi | 


^•q^qj^-^q^^^-^' 1 1 V- || 


g^^mwjjsrgar^-qs^rqFTi^qg^-dpi \ 

WW&&V**fi$*FW © 

"^^^Si-^|qprjjsi^-q-^c|| ?? 

Vol. II, No. 4] Oyantte Rock Inscription. 103 


^wr^H^rg-q^q-q^rg^t;- 1 

^w^r^^^^ ws^jpw 1 1 n 

a^qj^rwg^fjT^- j^^ I 


n ?v* 

gS'^Sc-* q'^E3T*p : 


gqpr^^^-^ wq^-^pr^ | j *s |j s^s* c tow | 

r • 



Vol. 1J, No. 4.]- -Notes on the Freshwater Faund of India. 105 


16. Notes on the Freshtcater Fauna of India. No. III. — An 
Indian Aquatic Cockroach and Beetle Larva.- — By N< Annan- 
dale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

: • ■ 


Little is known of the aquatic or semi-aquatic Orthoptera, 1 
which are probably not uncommon in tropical countries, and the 
only records of aquatic Cockroaches I can find are from Malaya 
find Borneo. The existence of a species of Epilampra, living in an 
Indian jungle stream, is therefore a fact of some interest. 

recorded certain Cockroaches * as having aquatic 
Siamese Malay States. It now appears that at least 
two species were included, probably both belonging to the genu?; 
Epilampra. One of these is in the habit of resting on logs float- 
ing in the Kelantan River, and of diving when disturbed ; while 
the other haunts the roots of trees and other sunken objects at 
the edge of jungle streams in the Patani States. In 1901, Shel- 
ford 3 published a note on two species, an Epilampra and a Panee- 
thiid, from the base of a waterfall on Mount Matang in Sarawak, 

both species being immature. 

On March 4th last, while turning over stones in a small 
jungle stream on a hill near Chakardharpur in Ghota Nagpur, I 
saw what I took to be a large Woodlouse swimming rapidly along 
the surface of the water, having evidently been disturbed by the 
removal of a small piece of rock. On capture this animal proved 
to be a Cockroach. Unfortunately it is a larva ( 9 ) and cannot be 
identified specifically; but undoubtedly it belongs to the genus 
Epilampra. When placed in a large jar of water, it swam very 
rapidly, using all six legs, to the side, which it attempted to mount. 
As was the case with the specimens observed by Shelford in 
Borneo, the tip of the abdomen, which was arched upwards, was 
held out of the water and bubbles of air rose from time to time 
from the thorax. The Cockroach, finding it impossible to climb 
up- the glass, attempted to dive beneath it. In so doing, however, 
the Insect was impeded by the air which had become entangled at 
the base of its legs and between them and the antetmfe, which 
, *wv c+w^/Vka/l Tiar»fcwfi.T»rIa hftlow thft hfillv- Armarentlv in order 

1 Acridiids of the genus Scelymena, which are semi-aquatic, have been re- 
corded from Java, Ceylon and Burma; many of the Indian and Malayan 
representatives of this group can swim well on the surface ; and at least one 
Malayan species can dive. An aquatic Phasmid (Prisopu*) is known from 
Brazil. Wood-Mason (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)i, 1878, p. 101) called at- 
tention to a Bornean form (Cotylosoma) wliieh he believed to be actually pro- 
vided with gills ; but Sharp (in Cambridge Nat Hist. V., p. 273, 1895) express©! 
doubt as to the function of the structures thus interpreted. Miall and Gilson 

Trans. Entom. Soc. 1902. p. 284) have described an aquatic cricket (Hydro- 
pedeticus) from Fiji ; an Indian Tridactylus, common among reeds and sedges in 
Calcutta, jumps into the water when disturbed and swims on the surface ; 
while species of the latter genus are known to leap on the surface film. 

2 Entomologist's Record, XII, 1900, p. 76. 

3 Report Brit. Association, 1901. p. 689. 

106 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [ April, 1906. 


belly upwards. Its progress 

swam along 
pwards. was 


extremely rapid, ana it soon became exhausted and remained still 
at the edge of the jar, with the tip of its abdomen on the surface. 


dinarily have done. 

americana would 

fact tha 

of the body was held out of the water. The last spiracle is of a 
slightly tubular nature and projects at the side from below the 
posterior extremity of the seventh tergite, being provided with a 
thick ring of chitin. In other representatives, but not in all, of 
the Epilampridse I find a similar modification, which in some is 

more marked than it is in the Chota Nagpur larva. This is spe- 
cially true of Epilampra pfeifferse, Molytria maculata and M. badui. 1 
In the last ( <?) the spiracle takes the form of a flattened, some- 
what trumpet-shaped tube, which is turned upwards distally and 
lies almost parallel to the outer edge of the eighth tergite. In the 
€hota Nagpur larva the other abdominal spiracles are present, but 
under ordinary circumstances they are hidden beneath the edges 
of the dorsal and the ventral plates, which close together so as to 
shut them off completely from the water. She] ford's suggestion 
that the Cockroaches he took beneath a waterfall in Borneo used 
the posterior abdominal spiracle for taking in air, and the pro- 
thoracic spiracle for expelling it, is very probably correct. It would 

*° te J estm g to kn <>w whether the intermediate spiracles are 
modified in any way ; but the material at my disposal does not 
permit me to investigate this point. Nor do I know whether the 
species of Molytria are ever aquatic. 

The specialization of the posterior spiracle in these Cock- 
roaches affords in some respects an interesting parallel to that which 
occurs, in varying degree, in many Water Beetles, Dipterous larva, 
and aquatic Hemiptera. It is a modification which in some cases 
escapes notice very easily. In 1900 * I stated as regards an aquatic 
Wow- worm, apparently a Lampyrid larva, taken in Lower Siam 



fit it tor an aquatic existence. I find, however, that a very similar 
larva, not uncommon in Calcutta among the roots of a floating 
water-plant— Pistia stratiotes— is devoid of ordinary spiracles but 


connected with a couple of very bulky 




i ne latter ramify and fre( ( 
of the abdomen and thorax, so 1 
that found in other aquatic lar 

1 Th « id ® ntificat ions are thoBe of de Saussure, who examined specimen* 
ie collection of the Indian M naA » m 

in the collection of the Indian Museum. 




Vol. II, No. 4.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 107 


is generally thrust into the air which is retained under the leaves 
-of Potia stratiotes, it is seldom possible to see it in use. The com- 
plexity and large size of the tubes are probably x^endered neces- 
sary by the fact that the Beetle is liable to be detained beneath 
the surface for considerable periods. It is unable to sink without 
assistance ; but when gorged with food it cannot rise readily, and 
is only able to crawl slowly up the stem or root of some convenient 
water-plant. Its ordinary method of feeding, moreover, causes it 
to drop to the bottom. Settling on the upper surface of the shell 
of any non-operculate water-snail which may approach its hiding- 
place, it inserts its minute head into the tissues of the animal from 
behind. The Mollusc retreats as far as possible into its shell and 
sinks to the bottom, carrying the Beetle with it. Here the latter 
feeds upon its victim at leisure. I have known an individual to 
perish, apparently because it could not rise to the surface after 

such a meal. 

I have little doubt that this Glow-worm is the larva of some 
common fire-fly, possibly Luciola vespertina ; I do not think it is 
that of L. gorhami, an even commoner species in Calcutta, the 
female of which is winged and abundant. The structure of the 
head, thorax and feet is essentially that of an ordinary larva of 
this genus. Possibly, however, the aquatic form may reach sexual 
maturity, in the case of the female, without leaving the water, 
and I have reason to think that the female does become mature 
with very little change of outward form. Specimens in my 
aquarium have, on several occasions, sunk to the bottom and died, 
after feeding for some months. Their bodies were distended, and 
dissection showed them to be full of eggs. Such specimens had no 
external genitalia, but were evidently about to undergo an ecdysis, 
their integument being loose and easily separated and a new 
integument being already formed beneath it. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 




Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. IV. — Hydra 
orientalis and its bionomical relations with other Invert e- 
brates. — By N. Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

To my description 1 of Hydra orientalis I am now able to add 
the following particulars, which I think establish its position as a 

distinct species. 

The fully expanded tentacles are at least three times as long 
as the body. The gonads only occur on the upper Iwo-thirds of 
the body. The sexes are distinct. The normal egg iri subsphen- 
cal and is set with slender spines which are bifid or expanded at 
the tip, being more numerous and relatively finer than those en 

the egg of if ^ 

are produced under certain conditions. 

Eggs without a thickened external shell 

I hope to publish elsewhere a more detailed account of the 
structure, life history and distribution of the Indian Freshwater 
Polyp ; but it will be convenient to deal with its relations to other 
animals in these notes. It should perhaps be explained that 
I use the term " eommensalism," in its wider sense, to include 
any well-established permanent or temporary connection between 
two organisms which does not involve positive injury to either. 
In manv such cases it is impossible, with our present limited 
knowledge of the bionomics of nearly all aquatic animals, to say 
whether the connection is beneficial to both, or only to one of the 
organisms involved. 


•Although symbiotic algae do not occur in the tissues of Hydra 
orientalis I have found, on several occasions, groups of minute 
organisms, evidently belonging to the same order of plants as 
• those which live in other species, attached to the surface of the 
bodv, generally towards the aboral pole. Probably these are not 
commensal with the Polyp in any sense of the word, but their pre- 
sence is interesting as suggesting the commencement of such i e- 
lations as those which exist between H. virulis and its green cells 
or between certain corals and their yellow cells. In H. mridis 
the ^reen cells migrate from the body of the parent into the egg; 
but this is not the case with the Turbellarian Convoluta roscoffiensis, 
in which the green colour of the organism, as Keeble and Gamble 
have recently proved, is brought about by infection with minute 
al^ae from the outside. First settling on the external surface ot 
an° animal such as Hydra, such algae may have originally penetra- 
ted into the tissues by some wound or aperture, only becoming 
symbiotic in the true sense of the word by gradual adaptation, 
carried on through many generations, to a new environment. 

Of animals living in more or less intimate relations with the 
Polyp, I have found two very distinct species of Protozoa, neither 

1 See the Journal of this Society for 1905, p. 72. 
* Proc. Boy. Soc. B. LXXVII, 1905, p. 66. 

110 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

of which is identical with either of the two mentioned by Saville 
Keut 1 as commonly found in association with Hydra in Europe, 
viz. , Trichodina pedictdus and Kerona polyporum. On two occasions, 
one in January and the other at the beginning of February, I have 
noted a minute Flagellate on tin* tentacles of the Calcutta form. 
On the first the tentacles were completely covered with this Pro- 
tozoon, so that they appeared at first sight as though encased in 
flagellated epithelium. The minute organism was colourless, 
transparent, considerably larger than the spermatozoa of Hydra, 
slightly constricted in the middle and rounded at each end. It 
bore a long flagellum at the end furthest from its point of attach- 
ment, the method of which I could not ascertain. When separa- 
ted from the Polyp little groups clung together in rosettes and 
gyrated in the water. On the other occasion only a few individuals 
were observed. Possibly this Flagellate was a parasite rather 
than a commensal, as the individual on which it swarmed was un- 
usually emaciated and colourless, and bore neither gonads nor 
buds. The larger stinging cells were completely covered by 
groups of the organism, and possibly this may have interfered 
with the discharge of stinging threads. 

Regarding the exact nature of the other Protozoon observed 

in association with Hydra orientalis there is no doubt. It was a 

Vorhcella which agreed in every particular with the figures of 

latems 7. monilata given by Saville Kent {op. cit. pi. XXXV). 

As this appears to be rather a scarce form in Europe its occurrence 

in India is interesting. I found several groups, of from eight to 

twelve individuals each, attached to the upper part of the body of 

a Polyp in January, 1906. In Europe the species has been taken 

on water plants, it is improbable that its association with Hydra 

an Calcutta was more than fortuitous. The fact that I have not 

taken it except thus associated proves nothing, as I have not yet 

made anything like an extensive Beard, for Protozoa in the tanks. 

Dada°» " recent ty been recorded from Paraguay by von 

On two occasions, while examining living Polypi at the be- 
ginning of January, I noticed a small Rhabdocoele which appear- 
ed to issue from the mouth. I did not see it, however, actually in 
.the alimentary canal, and possibly it may have come out from be- 
hind the body or a tentacle. 

Especially in the four-rayed stage, the Polvp not infrequently 
attaches itself to shells of Paludina, and, more rarely, to those of 
other Molluscs. The smooth shell of this genus seems to be 
peculiarly attractive to temporary or permanent commensals. In 
tne Calcutta tanks a Polyzoon,8 a variety of the common Euro- 
pean riumatella repens, forms its colonies during the winter 

2 i?, an ? al ° fthe In f™°ri<>, I, p. 110 
BtWtotfcecu Zoologica, XLIV (1905), p. 43. 

Tarietv of Plu^H v ***' Mag ' Nat Hi * L < 3 ) *« P- 161 >- *» d lU > P" 338 ' 
n* ti Li t*TJ c a - TepenS OCCurB on **»*"• shells in Earope (see Kraepe- 

Vol. II, Xo. 4.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. Ill 


months very commonly upon the living shell, although I have not 
seen them on that of any other genus and very rarely on any 
other support. Two other Indian Polyzoa, 1 Hislopia lacustris and 
Pectinatella carter i, have been taken on Palndina shells. The Pro- 
tozoon fauua of Palndina shells seems also to be large. During 
summer and at the end of spring, Opercrdaria nutans l is abundant 
upon them ; on several occasions, in January and February, I took 
colonies of Episiylis pltcatilis (which is found on Limnieus in 
Europe) in the same situation and on the operculum; while the 
less conspicuous forms, as well as Rotifers, observed have been 


It is doubtful whether this temporary association between 
Hydra and the Mollusc is of any importance to the latter. Even 

when the Polyp settles on its body and not on its shell (as is some- 
times the case) the Palndina appears to suffer no inconvenience, 

and makes no attempt to get rid of its burden. It is possible, 
on the other hand, that the Hydra may protect it by devouring 
would-be parasites ; but of this there is no evidence. In the 
Calcutta tanks operculate Molluscs are certainly more free from 
visible attack than non-operculate species. This is the case, for 
instance, as regards the common aquatic Glowworm, which de- 
stroys large numbers of individuals of Limnophysa, Limnteus, etc. 
If it has been starved for several days in an aquarium it will 
attack an operculate form, but rarely with success. Similarly 
Chaetogaster bengalensis attaches itself exclusively to non-operculate 
forms! In the one case the Polyp could do very little against an 



vertebrate enemies or against what appears to be its chief foe, 
namely, drought. As the water sinks in the tank non-operculate 
species migrate to the deeper parts, but Palndina and Ampullaria 
close their shells, remain where they are, and so finally perish, 
being left high and dry, exposed to the heat of the sun. 

On the other hand, the association is undoubtedly useful to 
Hydra. The mud on the shells of Palndina taken on floating ob- 
jects shows that it comes up from the bottom, to the surface, pro- 
bably going also in the opposite direction. Moreover, the common 
Calcutta species (P. bengalensis) feeds very largely, if not exclu- 
sively, on minute green Algse, as my observations on captive speci- 
mens show. It, therefore, naturally moves towards spots where 
smaller forms of animal and vegetable life abound. The Polyp's 
means of progression are limited, and, therefore, a beast of burden 
is most advantageous to it, for it can detach itself when in a favour- 
able habitat. If specimens are kept in water which is allowed to be- 
come fonl, a very large proportion of them will attach themselve 
to anv snails confined with them. Under natural conditions they 

1 In 1906 this species first appeared in abundance during the first week 
in March in the Calcutta tanks. I did not see it during winter. Unlike DlOft 

of its allies, it flourishes in small vessels of water kept without aeration* 

112 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

would thus be rapidly conveyed to a more favourable environment. 
In the tanks it is far commoner to find young, four-rayed Polyps 
on Paludina than individuals with five or six rays ; but the adults 
of the species are far less prone to change their position than are 

the young. 

Hydra orientalis, especially during spring, exhibits a distinct 
tendency to frequent the neighbourhood of Sponges and Polyzoa, 

such as Spongilla carteri and the denser varieties of Plumatella 
repens, Possibly this is owing to the shade these organisms provide. 


A Chi ironomid Larva which feed* on Hydra orientalis. 

The insect dealt with in the present note is common in the 
Calcutta tanks in the months of November, December, January, 
and February. It ceases to be so as the temperature commences 
to rise at the beginning of spring. Unfortunately, I have not been 
able to dingnose it specifically, but, judging chiefly from the charac- 
ters of the larva, I have little doubt that it belongs to the genn* 
■Ghironomus although the pupa closely resembles that of Tanyp** 

In many respects the life-history of this Indian species is 
very similar to that of the English forms described by il iall. ' The 
•eggs are set in a roughly globular mass of jelly from 5 to 10 mm. 
in diameter, without any very definite arrangement. The matf 
adheres to the under surface of a Limnanthemum leaf or some 
other floating object, but sinks if it is detatched. Its surface is 
sticky, and the minute particles of dirt which adhere to it may 
serve as a means of concealment. Embrvonic development is 
normal and occupies at least a week. 

The larva differs from those of the common European species 
in not having processes on the ventral surface towards the posterior 
extremity. At first it is quite colourless, but later it a-sumes, 
probably from its food, a pale-pink or greenish tinge. Its greatest 
length is about 6 mm. 

The pupa could be distinguished from that of snch a form as 
Tanypus maculatm by the long bristles which project from the 
dorsal surface of the last joint of the abdomen. The breathing 
trumpets are rather narrow and there are no respiratory filaments 
on the thorax. The suckers on the dorsal surface of the anterior 
segments of the same part of the body are large. The pupa clings 
to submerged objects with their aid ; but if they be detached from 
such objects, it can still remain fixed by means of the bristles and 
plates on its tail. 

The adult is a typical little Midge with a pale-green body and 
thorax. In the male the latter is without markings, but in the fe- 
male it bears longitudinal bars similar in extent and arrangemept 
to those which characterize Chironomm cvbi r-vtonm.* I* 1Sf 

4 v°*' IJi " t ' J *1 uatic In*ectr,p. 122. 



iptera from Southern Asia (1 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Note* on the Fresh water Fauna of India* 113 


however, much smaller than this species. In both sexes there 
are a number of dark cross-bars on the abdomen. 

The young larva is very active. It is frequently found wan- 
dering among colonies of such Protozoa as VurttreUa nebulifera and 
such Rotifers as the gregarious Melicertidre. 

As the larva approaches maturity, it commences to build for 
itself temporary shelters. These are of two kinds:— (1) a silken 
tunnel with its base formed of some smooth natural surface ; or (2) 
a regular tube, often adhering by a shoi't stalk on its base either t 
a smooth level .surface or to some rounded object, and covered on 
the sides and back with more or less distinct projections. I cannot 
detect any difference between the larva which make- the tunnel 
and that which makes the tube, and my captive specimens have never 
made the latter while under observation. I am inclined to think 
that the character of the shelter is partly a question of food- sup ply 
and partly due to the imminence or non-imminence of an ecdysis. 

It is easy to watch the making of a tunnel by a larva in cap- 
tivity, for it usually chooses the side of the aquarium as the base of 
its shelter. Having settled on a suitable spot, after stumping 
along the glass in all directions for some minutes, it becomes sta- 
tionary. Then, drawing its head backwards and forwards, press- 
ing its mouth against the glass and arching its head through the 
water some little distance above its back and to the glass again, it 
rapidly weaves the anterior part of the shelter. The threads are 
not drawn parallel to one another, but so arranged as to form ,t 
wide and irregular mesh. The larva can thrust its head through 
the structure at any point, but does so seldom. A* a rule the ends 
of the shelter are not straight but concave, as though a bite has 
been taken off them. This gives the occupant greater freedom of 
movement. When the anterior half has been completed, the larva 
turns round suddenly in the tunnel, doubling its body and straight- 
ening it again in so doing, and proceeds to spin the posterior half. 
Then it turns round again, and suddenly darting out from the en- 
trance to half its length, it pulls in, by means of its anterior limbs, 
a minute particle of extraneous matter, which it dabs on to the case, 
[t does this many times over, and then tarns round and does the 
same for the hinder end of its shelter. Both ends are left open. 
The elaboration of the shelter differs greatly on different occasions. 

I had frequently noticed that tunnels brought from the tank 

Tanypus is not recorded from British India ; bnt several Javanese spr.-ies are 
noted. The larva of one common Oriental Midge, Chiranomus cubtcul r oru ro, has 
been found in large numbers in the Calcutta water-works (Ind. Mus. Notes F, 
1903, p. 191, ph XV, fig. 6). Another larva, belonging to the same genus, 
inhabits the tissues of a fresh-water sponge (Spongilla tarteH} in the Calcutta 
tanks [I hope to give details of the habits of this form and of other incola? of 
the sponge ghortlv — N. A., 17-4-06.1 I found a third very abundant at, the end 
~t m hrn^kish oools at Port Canning Lower Boneal. It lived both in 

the tissues of a second sponge (S. lacustris var. bengaleasi*) and among the 
matted colonies of a Polyzoon. In the same pools the esrers of two species 
were common at the same season. In one t.he egg-maaa was shaped like a 
Leech, attached at one end ; in the other it formed long strings of rather 

irrecrular form . 


114 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April 

on the under surface of Limnanthemum leaves had a Hydra fixed 
to them. This occurred in about a third of the occupied shelters 
examined. The Hydra was always in a contracted condition and 
often more or less mutilated. By keeping a larva together 
with a free Polyp in a glass of clean water, I have been able to 
discover the reason of this, having now observed the process of 




mences to spin a tunnel. When this is partially completed, it 
passes a thread round the Polyp's body, which it also appears to 
bite. This causes the victim to bend down its tentucles, which the 
larva entangles with threads of silk, doing so by means of rapid r 
darting movements ; for although the stinging-cells of H. orientalis 
are small, they would prove fatal to the larva should they be shot 
out against its body, which is soft. Its head is probably too thickly 
coated with chitln to excite their discharge. Indeed, small larva? 
of this very species form no inconsiderable part of the food of the 
Polyp, and, so far as my observations go, they are always attacked 
in the body and swallowed in a doubled-up position. 

When the Hydra has been firmly Unit into the wall of the shel- 
ters and its tentacles fastened down by th- r bases on the roof, the 
larva proceeds, sometimes after an interval of some hours, to eat 
the body, which it does very rapidly, leaving the tentacles, which 
still retain their vitality, in position. The meal only lasts for a 
few minutes ; after it, the larva enjoys several hours' repose, pro- 
tected by the dangerous remains of its victim. During this period 
it remains still, except for certain undulatory movements of the 
posterior part of the body, which probably aid in respiration. Then 
it leaves the shelter and goes in search of further prey. 

Its food, even when living in a tunnel, does not consist entire- 
ly of Hydra. I have watched an individual building its shelter 
near a number of Rotifers, some of which it devoured and some 
of which it plastered on to its tunnel. 

The tubular shelters occasionally found are very much stouter 
structures than the tunnels ; but are apparently made funda- 
mentally of the same materials. Structures, intermediate between 
them and the tunnels, are sometimes made. 

They are often as much as twice as long as the larvae 
and have a much greater calibre. Although they can be straight- 
ened they are usully bent, more or less distinctly, in the 
middle so that they have a U or V-like form. The stalk by 
which they are fastened to external objects is situated below, at the 
junction of the two limbs. Although the tube is too densely covered 
with particles of dirt, short lengths of some thread-like alga and 
Protozoa,— for its structure to be easily seen, it has evidently a" 
extremely loose fabric, through which the larva can thrust its 
head at any point. It clings to the interior of I he tube (or of the 
tunnel) by means of its posterior legs below and of the 
bunch of bristles at the posterior extremity of its dorsal sur-. 
face above. TI.p It, *>.«.„«„ £. J Q 


ot a special muscle. Thus it can drag the tube slowly along 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 115 


amooth surface by means of its forelegs. It may live in one tube 
for at least two days, during a considerable part of which it remains 
quite still. During this period of quiescence it probably casts its 
skin ; but I have not been able to watch the process. 

On most tubes I have examined there have been colonies of 
the Protozoon Epistylis flavicom, which is common in the tanks on 
the roots of duckweed during the winter months. A close exa- 
mination shows that these colonies are not normal ones like those 
on the roots ; for they appear to be rather the extremities of such 
colonies, broken off and entangled in stout silk threads, several 
being fastened together to form each group on the tube. The tubes 
which did not bear the Epistylis, bore a Vortirella (probably V. 
nebuliferd) instead. I have not seen the larva feeding on these 
Protozoa, bat have very little doubt that it does so, for they dis- 
appear gradually from the tube, and when they have disappeared 
the larva recommences its wanderings. 

Thus it would seem that this larva, differing little in structure 
from its allies, has developed a very peculiar instinct, which 
enables it to obtain at once food and shelter from animals lower in 





plex and more unusual than that of the other Crustaceans (such 
as Dorippe facchino) which carry about with them living Coelenter- 
ates as a protection and not as food. 

As regards other enemies of Hydra orientalis I have little 
information. I have repeatedly noticed that individuals confined 
together with larvae of the Dragon Fly cortagrion coromandelianus 
(which is one of the commonest species in the tanks) have dis- 
appeared. Although I have not been able to witness an attack on 
the part of the Insect in this case, it seems probable that the 
attack is made ; for the larva feeds chiefly, if not entirely, by night. 
It is evident, therefore, that the nematocysts of Hydra do not 
protect their possessor entirely from the attacks of Insects, any more 
than those of marine Coelenterates do from the attacks of fish. 1 


The food of Hydra orientalis is by no 
Cladocera and Copepods are commonly eaten 
former; but Ostracods, and occasionally even i 
croups, are merely held for a few seconds 
Then dropped. Rotifers and minute 
eaten; but the small Turbellarians which are usually abundant in 
the tanks during winter, apparently escape attack. Perhaps the 
great part, and undoubtedly a very large part of the food consists 
of newly-hatched Insect larvae, chiefly Dipterous and Neuropter- 
ous. Young individuals, as I have noted, of the very Chironomid 





Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

which later preys on Hydra are very frequently eaten, possibly 
more frequently than any other species, and a common Ephemerid 
in its first instars fares but little better. 

Food is usually taken in the early morning, before the heat of 
the sun has become great. This is the period when life seems to 
be generally most active in the tanks. In Calcutta, Hydra does 
not feed at night, but remains between sunset and dawn, at any 
rate when in an aquarium, with partially retracted tentacles. 

Vol. 11, No. 4.] 

IN. 8.] 

Notes on M Pitches/ " *l< 


18. #o£e$ o>t " Packesi 


a^fi sit nilar 

Karwi Subdivision, United 

Provin ces. — By 

as played in the 
E. de M. HUM- 


A feature which cannot fail to strike the most unobservant 
visitor to the Karwi Subdivision is the village meeting-place. 

This is usually furnished with a number of rude stone benches, 
formed by a horizontal, supported on two vertical slabs* These 
are arranged roughly either in a circular or in a square formation, 
reminding one of nothing so much as the remains at Stonehenge. 
On the surface of these slabs will often be found scored the 
•"boards" of certain games. 

During the tour season of 1904-5, I collected the rules of 
some of these games, so far as I was able to ascertain them in t lie 
very limited time at my disposal. 

The following notes, which have no claim to be considered 
•exhaustive, embody the substance of the information so obtained. 



It is played on a board marked out as in the accompanying 
diagram (Pig- *)• 

Fig. 1. 

Kach arm of the cross i 





diagonal cross to indicate that a piece on one of these squares is 
#afe from capture. 

118 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Ben yah [April, 1906 

The game is played by four, but may equally be played by 
two, or even by three persons, each of whom has four M men," distin- 
guished by their colours or their materials. 

Each player sits opposite one arm of the cross, and his object 
is, starting from the centre of the board down the middle and up 
the left-band row of his own arm of the cross, to move his four 
" men" all round the board, finally bringing them down the right- 
hand side and up the middle row of his own arm and landing them 
in the triangular space in the centre. 

The first to do this wins the game. 

The moves are regulated by the number of cowries which fall 
with the slit uppermost out of seven, which are thrown from the 
hand without the use of any dice-box. The following table gives 
the value of the various throws: — 

If all 7 cowries fall with the slit uppermost, the throw counts 12 





„ 1 

If none 


' * 




J? n )) W 

PI M jj 

fJ M ?? 

" IJ fi 

m » ?* 

" J? M »1 







A " man " may be placed on the board only when either 10, 
25 or 30 is thrown. 

When a " man " is so started, he is placed on the square corres- 
ponding to the number thrown, counting down the middle and up 
the left-hand row. 

Once a "man" has been started, every throw can be utilised 

to the number thrown. 


If the square to which a "man" should be moved is occupied 
by one of the adversaries' " men," the latter is captured and must be 
removed from the board and begin its round exactly M if it had 
never been placed on the board at all. A piece is exempt from cap- 
ture while on one of the refuges marked on the board with a cross, 
or when it has turned into the middle row on his way home. 
A player may not take one of his own " men" pa st a refuge occupied 

by one of the adversaries' pieces. 
When " " " 


unless his player happens to throw exactly the number required to 

brinsr him there. 

F °T, instance > to a " man" placed on the fourth space from 
" home," a throw of 5 or more is of no use: a throw of 4 would 
bring him "home," while throws of 3 or 2 would not improve 
matters, though, if there were no other " men " on the board that 
he could move, such a throw would have to be utilised by moving- 

the " man " up accordingly. 

tsn ^ he V " man " rea ches the last square of all, he has to wait 
till either 10, 25 or 30 is thrown. When one of these numbers i»« 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Notes on H Pitched," etc. 119 


thrown, the player has to throw again, and, if one of these num- 
bers is again thrown, the " man" has to be removed andbe^in again 
from the beginning. 

The word for "throwing " the cowries is 'pakhina' ; i.e., to 
" cook " them. 

The above represents what I understand to be the rules of 
the game as ordinarily played. There are, however, variations in 
the rules, some of them too complicated to be understood in the 
very short time at my disposal. For instance, I was informed in 
one village that, if in the course of the game, after all the pieces 
were on the board, 10, 25 or 30 were thrown, the player did not 
move, but threw again. If any of tlie above numbers were again 
thrown, he had to throw a third time. If they did not turn up, 
he added the amount of the second to that of the first throw and 
moved accordingly. If, at the third throw, one of the three magic 
numbers again turned up, the whole score was cancelled, but he 
had another throw. 

Should, however, either 7 or 14 tarn up, then the whole score 
■could be counted. In that village, if all the seven cowries fell 
with the slit uppermost, it counted 14, and not 12 as given above. 
It is not unlikely that my original informants were wrong in this 

Auother variant is known as " Chonpa" or " Chaunsarh." 

It is played by four persons, each having four " men," coloured 
respectively black, yellow, green and red. The two former play 
in partnership against the two latter colours. 

The board is the same as that already described, with the ex- 
ception that the refuges mentioned in the case of " pachesi M are 
either not marked at all or are disregarded, if the board is one 
made for both games. A single piece may, and a pair may not, be 
captured on any square to which a hostile piece may be moved. 

The moves are regulated by throwing three dice: not, as in 
the case of Pachesi, by cowries. These dice are of bone or ivory 
and are about 2£ inches Jong, marked on their long sides with the 
numbers (1), (2), (5) and (6). 

They, too, as is usual in this country, are thrown from the 
hand, without the use of a dice-box. 

The M men," known as mard, or got, are placed as follows: 

On the arm of the cross occupied by the player who has 
taken the yellow "men/' are placed two yellow M men" on the second 
and third squares from the bottom of the middle row, and two 
green "men" on the first and second squares of the left-hand row 

respectively. Similarly on the arm of the cross to the right of 
him are placed two red and two yellow "men": on the arm 
opposite his, two black and two red "men" and on the arm to the 
left of him. two green and two black "men." This will be more 
clearly understood from the accompanying diagram (Fig. 2) 
which shows the board set out for the commencement of this game. 


Journal of, the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

[April, 1906. 




! _§ m 

I \m ] m 



Fig. 2. 

The first two u men," i.e., those which occupy the bra* two 
squares of the left-hand row on the adversary's arm of the cross, 
always move in pairs, while the last two move singly- » 
pair may he moved only when a pair is thrown. If the dice all 
turn up different, then only one, or possibly both of the single 
pieces may be moved for a total number of spaces corresponding 
to the total thrown. If two out of the three dice fall alike, then 
the pair may be moved for the pair thrown and the single piece 
for the single throw. A throw may be split up and used to move 
on two or more pieces. For instance, if a 6, a 5 and a 1, »*• 
thrown, then each of the two single pieces may be moved on t> 
places, or one may be moved 5 places and the other 7, and so on. 

When three " men" onmo is* n«mm fi,o camo mmum: if all three 


^.^ »„av, i.nvLi tm ii \jl mewe uiree men »» "~ — '" ', 

forward for double the number of spaces shown by the dice, ».«• 
if three sixes are thrown, then each of the three " men" can be 
moved forward twelve spaces. „ 

When a " man " has reached the middle row onhis way "home 
he cannot reach "home" unless the exact number require* is 
thrown. When, however, the last " man" has reached the second, 
third, or perhaps other squares in this row, the thrower is at liber- 
ty to score on two dice only, or even on one, as he mav find con- 

.. ...v.** ijaicc men uuine to occupy ine same space, i» »" — 

dice fawn up alike, then each of these three " men" can be moy 

Vol. II, No. 4.] 


•Votes on M Pachesi, 9 ' *tc. 


When a player has got all his own pieces, * 4 home," he uses his 

throws to help his partner. 



Another form of the game is known as u Rang/' It i& played 
by two persons. Of these one takes the black and the yellow : the 
other, the green and the red. They sit opposite each other and 
each takes two arms of the board. Whichever colour a player 
starts with, he must get all the men of that colour "home 
before starting those of the other colour. 

Ahtarah Gutti. 

Far more common, however, even than Pachesi is the game 
known generally as "Ahtarah Gutti M and also as " Bazi Mar/ 1 
"Tichha" or "Bangala." 

It is played on a board of 37 spaces, arranged as in the accom- 
panying diagram (Fig. 3). 

Fig. 3. 


Journal ofths Astatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

Each of the two players has 18 " men," represented, as usual, 
among the thrifty villagers, by pieces of kankar on the one, and of 
tiles on the other side. The middle space is left vacant, and the 
player having the first move must move a u man " on to that space. 

The moves are much the same as those of a king in draughts, 
i.e., a piece can be moved one space at a time in any direction, 
backwards or forwards, provided that the space to which it is 
sought to move it is vacant and is in the same rank, file or diago- 
nal as that from which it starts. Captures are made, as in 
draughts, by leaping over the piece to be captured in any direc- 
tion, provided that all three spaces are in the same straight line. 
Any number of pieces may be captured in succession in one move. 
In no part of the board is a piece safe from capture ; not even in 
its own bungalow, as the triangular excrescences at either end of 
the board are called. 

For obvious reasons it is considered advisable to occupy the 
spaces along the edges of the board, and particularly those at 
either extremity of the horizontal diameter of the original square. 

The game is decided when one player has succeeded in cap- 
turing all his adversary's "men." 


are seve 
a Dunki 

as in the accompanying diagram (Fig. 4). 

Kowwu Dunki. 

variants of this game. Of these, one, known 
is played on a board of 21 spaces, arranged 

-Fig. 4, 

Notes on '• Pachesi" etc. 


Vol. 11, No. 4. J 


The same game is played at Bargarh on a slightly different 
board, as shown in the accompanying diagram ( Fig 5). 

Fig. 5. 

The rules 
Ahtarah Gutti. 

are the same us those of 

Bagh Gutti. 

Yet'another variant is that known as " Bagh Gutti." 
It is played by two players on a board of 2"> space's, arranged 
in the annexed diagram (Fig. 6). 



Fig. 6. 


tiles. These are called bagh ("tigers"). The other player h 
20 smaller pieces. These he places, five on each of the Jpac 
numbered (1), (2), (3) and (4). 

12-4 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

His object is so to surround the " baghs " as to prevent them 

from moving in any direction : while their object is to capture all 
his " men." 

The player with the 20 " men " has the first move. He takes 
one piece from any of the four heaps and moves it on to any conti- 
guous space in the same rank, file or diagonal. He may move one 
space at a time in any direction, provided that the space to which 
he moves is vacant. 

The bagh then moves. He may move one space at a time 
in any direction, and captures, as in draughts, by leaping over the 
piece to be captured. 

He can, however, take only one " man " at each leap, no matter 
how many men there may be on the space over which he leaps. 
He may capture any number of " men " in succession. 


Another very popular game is that known as " Sujjua." 

It is played on a board of 24 spaces, as in the annexed 
diagram (Fig. 7). 

Fig. 7. 




uauctuy represented, one theone 
on the other side by pieces of brick or tile. 



in a 

row » W?° re adv ersary can succeed in 

When the game commences the board is clear and the players 
move alternately, each commencing by placing one of his own men 
on the board in any vacant place. After the first move, the player 

may either place another "man" on the board, or may move a piece 
already on it rmo D ^r»^« ~i. . i^_. • ,.' .. J •i./^.t 

Hi« « j. ,77 "t'ww t" «/ Lime m any tiireciic 

the space to which he wishes to move it is vacant. 

MoS " y resembles the old English 

Vol. 11, No. 1] 
Quite recei 

Note* on " 4 Pachesi'* etc. 

1 2& 


Karwi railway station, 1 found the " board n of this game market! 
on one of the vertical sides of a slab in the wall of the inner 
shrine. It was impossible to resist the conclusion that the game 
had been played on that stone before it had been used for the 

building of the temple, 

Another game, which appears to be inure popular than its in- 


wo persons 
ed as in tin 

Fig. 8. 

The game commences by each player placing five pieces «.t 
kankar or similar material on each of the five spaces on his sides 

of the board. . 

There is no distinction in size, colour or material between the 


men " of either player. 



it is to move takes np the five pieces from any one of his spaces 
and proceeds to work round the hoard from the space to the ru;nt 
of that from which he has just taken the pieces. He drops a piece 
on each space, » nether of his own or his adversary s, as he 

rwof*f*Pf1 s 

When be has thns exhausted his five "men," he takes up the 
pieces on the sixth space and continues the process, until he hap- 
pens to deposit his last " man " on a space, the next in order to which 
is vacant. When this occurs, he takes as many pieces as may be 
on the space immediately beyond the vacant one. His turn then 
is over, and his adversnry proceeds to move in the same way, but 

in the opposite direction. 

Thus the game, which is well-nigh interminable, goes on until 
all the pieces on the board are exhausted. Even then it does not 
stop, but begins again by each player filling up as many spaces as 
be then has multiples of five in his possession. If one player has, 
say, three, and the other two "men " over, then each has an interest 
in one square proportionate to the number of pieces placed by him 

on it. 

began to get complicated 

able fo discover how, if ever, the game did end. 

126 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [April, 1906. 

Kowwa Band. 

There remains a kind of " Solitaire," known as u Kowwa 

I had great difficulty in learning the rules of this game, as the 
man who gave me the diagram had forgotten them, and the pat- 
wart, the only man in the village who knew the cjame at all, had 
not played it for years. 

It is played by one person on a board of ten spaces, arranged 
as m the subjoined diagram (Fig. 9). 

Fig. y. 

; The object of the player is twofold. He has first to get all his 
nme men on the board, and then to get all but one off again. 
I he moves allowed are as follows :— 

(1) When placing the " men" on the board, they may be moved 

from any one space to the next but one in the same 
straight line, provided that it be vacant. It is pennis- 

(0\ wi! P ° ver an intei *vening « man." 

W When removing the pieces from the board, they are taken, 

as in draughts, by leaping over the piece to be captured 
on to a vacant space in the same straight line. 

Rang Mar. 

mani^tft I haV6 n0t f Ven mnch time to the study of card 

de^rv'pfl* f IS rf • S ? ch game P laved in the subdivision, which 
deserves mention It is known as " Rang Mar." 

it is played by three persons with an ordinary pack of cards. 

be divi^r^wf iam ° nd ? \ S taken out ' in orde r that the pack may 
uLvZn Q 7 $? 6> ^ d the cards are then dealt out to eaeh 
shades mZ it?* ^ pl ^ er who ha PP e ™ to hold the ace of 
PoSe P 7 ' andeach ° f the oth * rs must follow 8uit ' if 


verv mn oli ~. v ,;v; c " ei «»« i ne game tneu pruccc«o 
ery much as when "No Trumps" are declared at bridge. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Notes w " Pactum," etc. 127 


Each player plays for his own hand alone, and the game is decided 
by the number of tricks scored. 

" Points/' I presume, are settled by mutual agreement before 
commencing to play. 

I asked my informant what was the penalty for a revoke. 
He did not understand this at first, but when a pack of cards was 
produced, I showed him how, quite by accident, of course, such a 
thing might happen. 

He had evidently not given the subject much thought and was 
not at first aware of the advantage which might be gained by such 

an accident. 

When this was brought home to him, he remarked that, if 
such a thing were l " detected H that trick would not be allowed to- 

Vol II, No. 4.] The Hindu Method of Manufacturing Spirit 129 
' [N.S.] 

19. On the Hindu Meth< >J of Manufacturing Spirit from Hice, and 
its scientific explanation, — By J. C. Ray. Communicated by Dr. 

P. C. Ray. 

To the student of history and to the student of science alike, 
the method of manufacturing alcoholic spirit from rice, which is 
followed in some parts of Bengal, presents many interesting- 
features. The Hindus are proverbially conservative in their 
principles and actions, and any practice found described in an old 
Sanskrit author may be expected to prevail up to the present day 
even though the circumstances may have altogether changed. 
Moreover, the manufacturing process which is followed for profit 
and found remunerative is not changed with change of empires and 
altered economic conditions. It is a fact worth repeating that drink- 
in** was not absolutely prohibited in ancient India, and that on such 
occasions as rejoicings after a victory the soldiery freely indulged 
in alcoholic liquor, though Manu, the ancient moralist and law- 
giver of India, condemns the use of surds or distilled liquors. 
Three kinds of liquor were known during his time, mz. f Gouri 
prepared from molasses, Mddhvi from the sweet flower of Bassia 
latifolia, and Paishti from rice and barley cakes. Of these three 
the last one — Paishti— was reckoned as the most common. The 
surds were included under a generic term, madya, meaning every 
kind of alcoholic drink. The word Kohala occurs in Susruta, a 



means there a particular spirit made from powdered barley. 
Another word Jagala occurs in Susruta and in a much earlier work 
called Charak where Kohala is not found. Jagala means a kind of 
rice-beer. It is well known that Hindu physicians were at one time 


Caliphate. Hindu 

translated by 

Arabian scholars into Arabic. It is, therefore, probable that 
the Arabic word Alcohol — the same as the English word — had an 
Indian origin. 1 

From this brief historical sketch it appears that the art of 
fermenting starchy and saccharine substances was understood and 
practised in India. There is no reason to believe that the Indian 

1 The late Prof. Monier Williams in his Sanskrit-English lexicon derives 
the Sanskrit word Kohala from ho and hala (?) as in the Sanskrit word kutu\- 
hala % and gives the following meanings :— (1) speaking indistinctly; (2) a 
sort of spirituous liqaor ; (3) a kind of mnsical instrument. These three 
meanings are more or less assooiated with drinking parties. Viohaspati, an 
Indian lexicographer, derives Kohala from Ku -the earth and hala to defy — 
meaning that which makes a man defy the world. A better derivation is 
perhaps from Ku earth or earthly or bad, halt poison. Cf. Haldhala m hala + 
& + hala = venom. Kohl in Arabic means a collyrium or antimony reduced to a 
6ne powder, used for the eye. The origin is, however, unknown. English 
authors derive the word alcohol from al Arabic the and cohol from Hebrew 
meaning collyrium for the eye. But the mixed Arabic and Hebrew deriva- 
tion appears to be far-fetched. 

■ - 

130 Journal af the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

distillers have greatly deviated from the old lines. We may, 
therefore, take the method described below as essentially indi- 

II. Description of Method,— In Orissa, the bulk of the spirit 
cousumed by the poor people is manufactured from rice. The 
following description applies particularly to the method followed 
at the Central Distillery situated at Cuttack and controlled by 

Government * : — 

Husked rice called A'tap (i.e., sun-dried) is first of all softened 
in moist steam. For this purpose water is boiled in a large 
earthen vessel {hdndi) placed over a tire. Upon this h \ ndi, is placed 
and luted with stiff clay another having a pretty large hole at the 
bottom. The hole is covered with a piece of coarse cloth, and 
upon this rice previously washed carefully with water is laid. The 
mouth of this second hdndi is partially covered by means of a 
wicker-work basket. The steam from boiling water below rises 
through the moist rice above and softens the grains. The steam- 
ing is usually done in the morning and takes about half an hour 
for each charge of rice. The grains swell up. but are not allowed 
to form a paste. The steamed rice is then put in a heap when 
the heat and moisture complete the softening of the grains to their 
core. Towards evening the rice is thoroughly mixed with pow- 
dered Bdkhar—& mouldy vegetable composition prepared and 
sold by a low-caste people of the hills of Orissa in the form of 
small balls about the size of walnut. The proportion of Bdkhar 
to rice is about three chhittak* of the former to half a mannd of dry 
rice, u».j about one part in 100. The rice is then placed in a 
basket for about 24 hours. During this period the temperature 
of the rice slowly rises several degrees above the air temperature - 
On one occasion I found the temperature to rise 10° F. from 84°F. 
to 94°F. The rice is now spread on an earthen platform, about two 
feet high, in the form of circular cakes about a seer (2 lbs.) m 
weight and an inch thick. In a day the temperature again rises, 
and the rice grains begin to be gradually entangled in the fila- 
ments of a mould fungus. In three or four days the grains be- 
come so far entangled that the cakes can be lifted without destroy- 
ing their shape. They are now piled up one above another and 
left in this state for another period of four or five days- During 
this the mould becomes black and each trrain of rice densely coated 

-ir-Ul^ ,'4- mi . .1 . . - » - . 1 «ro+PV 

with it. 


poured in. On the following day an equal weight of fresh ana 
steam-softened rice is added. The rice for this purpose is more 
fully softened than that meant for cakes, by adding a certain 
quantity of water to it during steaming. The vats are jars of nn- 

urlazeri tv»H*»t>«- r.f M»nit»<, ^.t oo a„ Ar\ n tUmo ora halt* 


These are 

bnned under the earthen floor of a thatched shed. The proportion 
<>f water added is 20 gallons for each mound (82 lbs.) of ricecato'«i 
and fresh (uncaked), »>., about 21 parts of water to one of nee. 


■■•■ it-' 

Since lust year the preparation of rice-spirit has bwi discontinued.' 

Vol. II. No. 4.] The Hindu Method if Manufacturing Spirit. 131 


in them. The mixture of rice and water is kept in the rati for 
8 to 10 days according to .season, longer time being necessary in 
winter than in summer. After the fermentation that takes place 
in the vats has ceased, this being ascertained by noting the cessa- 
tion of bubbles of gas and clarification of the upper portion, the 
wort is distilled in earthen stills. These consist of two large jars, 
one forming the alembic and the other the receiver, their heads 
being connected by means of two tnbes of straight pieces of 
bamboo. The receiver is placed in a tub and kept cool by sprink- 
ling water upon it. The fireplace consists of a rectangular pit in 
which wood is burned. Lately following the advice of Govern- 
ment Revenue Officers the distillers at the Central Distilleries 
have replaced the pottery stills by copper ones with worms which 
cause a more rapid condensation of vapours. 

The whole process take- 20 to 22 days. It will appear very 
primitive ; though, judging by results, it is by no means unsatis- 
factory The average yield of spirit from a maund (82 lbs.) of 
rice at the C attack Central Distillery is about 4 gallons of Proof 
spirit. The maximum yield is obtained in January when it may 
rise to 4*5 gallons, and the minimum in October when it may be 
as low as 366 gallons. The average yield in January of the last 
three years ( 1901-U3) was 428 gallons, and the same in October ;-{*85 
gallons, making a difference of 0*43 gallons. These averages have 
been struck off from several hundreds of gallons of spirit manu- 
factured, and may be taken as normal averages. The tempei-ature 
of fermentation is not in any way regulated by the distillers, nor 
is the general modus operandi controlled by the Superintendent 
a | >pointed by Government. The distillers who are servants o£ 
absentee capitalists go by the rule of thumb and do not always 
evince mnch interest in securing good profit for their masters. The 
masters, too, have no permanent interest in the manufacture, as 
licenses to di 11 spirit are renewed every third year and given to 
the highest bidders. In the circumstances the servants are the 
actual manufacturers for their ever-changing masters, and havi 
HO interest in modifying or improvu : upon the traditional 



III. Explanation. — I am not aware if anyone has scientifi- 
cally explained the process detailed above, nor have I had any 
access to the literature of the subject. Indeed, the only special 
literature which I could consult during my investigation consisted 
of (1) the Report of the Bengal Excise Commission, 1883-84, and 
(2) the " Brewer, Distiller and Wine Manufacturer w published by 
Churchill. The Report does not enter into the scientific aspect of 
the question, nor does it deal with the manufacture of spirit from 
rice as prevails at Cut tack. Churchill's handbook describes the 

European process which bears no resemblance to the Indian 



la the brewing process of European distilleries barley is first 
soaked in water and allowed just to germinate at a suitable tem- 
perature. A soluble ferment or enzyme called diastase is formed 
in the grain; The barley is now heated at 122-212°F. in order to 

132 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal m [April, 190(j. 

atop germination. The barley thus treated is known as malt. 


other substances rich in starch) is reduced to a pulp with water 
and mixed with a certain proportion of malt. The mixture is 
kept at about 140°F. for about 1-4 hours when starch is con veil- 
ed by diastase into dextrin and sugar (maltose). After the mix- 
ture has cooled to about 60°F. yeast is added, and the mixture 
kept until alcoholic fermentation due to yeast is at an end. The 
weak solution of alcohol thus formed is next distilled. Malted 
grain alone is sometimes used, as it is believed to yield a larger 
quantity of spirit, with greater facility and in less time. As a 
general rule a mixture of malted and unmalted ^rain is used in the 

proportion varying from 1 to 2 to 1 to 3, 4, even to 15. The pro- 
portion of grain to water is roughly about 1 to 4, and ye; -t is ad- 
ded to the mashed liquid in quantity varying from 1 to Jf per 

cent of the mash. 

Now, in the Indian process, husked rice is used, and there is 
no possibility of germination of husked rice, and that at the tem- 
perature of 212°F. Yeast is never added to wort nor wash fresh or 
spent. All that is added to rice besides water consist B of Bdkhar. 
Its importance was not properly understood, though tlie country 
distillers know very well that it must be used wit h rice, or there 
would be no fermentation. Indeed, the rise of temperate* of 
steam-softened rice mixed with Bdkhar might lead one to guess 
that some sort of fermentation took place in the rice. In my pre- 
liminary experiments I kept for a few ■ tys steam-softened rice 
mixed with water only, and another quantity mixed with water 
and a very small quantity of wort from the distillers' vat, and 
found that there was no alcohol formed in the first case, and that 
a minute quantity was present in the second, the alcohol in this 
case probably came from the wort added. Boiled rice was mixed 

Rice did not dissolve 


and alcohol was not formed in any appreciable extent. So again 
with a view to iiscertain the necessity of caking, a eerie* of trial 
were made by me on a small scale. These showed t it caking oi 
rice is as essential as the addition of Bdkhar, and that no cnking 
takes place without Bdkhar. Every distiller knows that yield of 
spirit is low when cakes are not well formed. M is sometimes the 
case. I have examined the whole process and found it to be bused 
on scientific principles. 

(1) Bdkhar.— Bdkhar is a black and mouldy mixture of 
powdered rice, barks and roots of various plants. A cold 
infusion of powdered Bdkhar in water was filtered and chemically 
examined. It had slightly acid reaction and contained maltose. 
Starch was boiled with water into a thin solution, and a few drops 
of the infusion added to it. The starch was quickly turned into 
dextrin. On warming the mixture the starch was turned into 
maltose. Hence Bdkhar extract contains a diastase enzyme pos- 
sessing the power of converting starch into dextrin and maltose. 
1 ne presence of maltose in Bdkhar is evidently due to the con- 
version of a portion of the starch of rice used in the preparation- 

Vol. II. No, 4.' The Hindu Method of Manufacturing Spirit. 133 


lender the microscope, Bdkhar shows spores and a dense coat- 
ing of mould fungi interweaving fragments of barks and roots 
of plants and of powdered rice. Pills of Bdkhar were broken 
into pie«« - and kept moist with a iter for a dajr. There vras 

growth of fungi which were found mostly to bea species of Mucor. 

The hvphaB are ratlifcr thin, measuring about 0*006 mm. in 
breadth. The spores are black or brown, spherical in shape, with 
asperities all over and measure ;il>out 0*004 mm. in diameter. 
The mould on ripe rakes was also examined and found to be the 

same fungus (Mucor racemotus?) but with thicker hyplme. 

Sometimes Aspergillus and less often MuroHum make their 
appearance on cakes. The presence of these fungi is detrimental to 
good Oltttuni and is regarded as accidental. 

Formerly it was thought that the fungus (Mucor) grew on 

cakes from spores floating in t lie air, and the writer was once asked 

by an Excise officer to suggest means by which mould could 1> 

avoided or checked. It will be seen more clearly later on that 

it is purposely grown on rice from spores contained in Bdkhar I 
cannot say whence the spores are obtained. They may come with 

the barks and roots used. Probably Bdkhar -Uk&kera add a bit of 

old Bdkhar to fresh mixtures of rice and barks and thus keep up 

the culture of the particular fungus for their trade. 

The names of the plants used and the importance of each in 
alcoholic fermentation are questions not yet throughly gone into. 

The reason is that BrfHar-makera keep the ingredients eret, ;»ud 
no attempt has been made to siseertain their scientific names. What- 
ever they are, there is little doubt about the general nature of the 
composition. This will appear from the long list of vegetable 
ingredients used in making Pdchawi and appended to the Bengal 
Excise Commissioner's Report already referred to. It is said t hat all 
the ingredients are never used at one time. Nor does it appear 
necessary to do 80, The object of having them at all in Bdkhir 
is rather difficult to understand. For the fungus can be grown 
boiled rice by mixing with it a small quantity of ripe cake. 
Probably the barks and roots help the growth of the fungus, as we 
know how quickly mould appears on moist mixture of pounded 

barks and roots— more quickly and vigorously indeed than on 

boiled rice alone. It is well-known that the purer an organic 
substance is the less favourable it is for growth of moulds. 

The plants of the list may be broadly divided into fourgrou] 
iccording to their known general properties : — 


(t) Some possess 

Tribulus t*r>* >tris 

( Gokhur). Desmodium gaugeticum ( Salpau ), / ravin 
lagofodioidet (Chakulia), Solarium Jacqinnii (Kanta- 
kari), Jlemidesmiis iiuhcus (Anantamul), Atparagmi 
racemosus (Satamuli), etc. 
(it) Some posse > bitter principles, e.g., Andrographis fani- 

rnlata (Kalmegh), Oldenlandia herbacca (Khetpapra), 
Azadtrarhta indica (Nim), Justicia Adhah»1n (Basak). 


184 ; Journal of the Asiatic Society of BeuyuL [April, 1900. 

(in) Some possess tannin, e.y., Terminalia Chchula (Haritaki), 

Terminalia tomentosa (Piasal), Cassia fistula ( Sondal) t 
JJiospyros tomentosa (Kendu), etc. 
(iv) Some possess narcotic- principles. e.jf #J Datura 

(Dhutura), Plumbago zeylanira (Chita), S/r;/chn<>.< 
Nux-romica (Knchila). Cannalo's tattoo i Siddhi). etc. 

The last-named ingredients arc evidently addded in order 
to make weak spirit appear strong, though Dr. Warden, Chemical 

nment, am not tinil in 
any trace of the narcotic dru 
Excise Corn's Report). T 

used in Bakhar for Pdchatvi—a, country beer "from rice. Boiled 
lice and powdered Bakhar are mixed together and left to ferment 
in a closed vessel. The liquid that exudes from the rice ' 
Pdchawi. It is not distilled. So the narcotic drugs exert their 
effect, at least partially, on the consumers who arc generally low- 
class aboriginal tribes. Pdchawi is a weak liquor, and cannot in- 
toxicate a man unless drunk in excess. To the low-class habitual 

consumers of cheap liquor, it is an advantage to have an infusion 

of deleterious principles mixed with the weak Pdrhaai. Probabh 
this was the liquor used in India in olden tim< . ami distilled 

-pirit from it or rice-eakes came later in use. Mann — the ancient 

moralist — speaks of Surd as the dregs of rice. <ir. Likewise Apas- 
tamba, another ancient law-giver, forbids all intoxicating drinks 
and food mixed with herbs whicb servo for preparing intoxicating 
liquors. The use in Bakhar of ingredients possessing bitter prin- 
ciples also tend to show that it was at first intended for beei 
only. The bitter ingredients act like hops in English beer, pre- 
serving the beer, and giving it a bitter taste. The medicinal ingre- 
dients are added with a view to enhance the medicinal virtues of 

' the liquor. Old Sans- 
te the virtues of liqueur 


— « ...~.^. u v.*. ujuuii uictiiuiiie enumert 

and cordials made with particular drugs. 


product ot fermentation or putrefaction, and has no connection 
with Paishh— the Surd or distilled spirit obtained from rice-cakes. 
This definition of Paishti is taken from Mann and his annotated 
and fully applies to the rice-spirit dealt with in this paper. Tin- 
spirit— the Indian whiskev— as well ah tl.pT.wHnn ™™ from molass- 

es and saccharine flowers of Bassia, were condemned by Mann for 
the three higher castes, probably because the Liquors were made 
strong by distillation, and perhaps also because distillation could 
only be carried out hv th« VMM- i«T.r «»»+„ 1„„~ ~™^ a nf dis- 

tillers (the Saundika). Manu also mentions the use of Bakhar 



word .Bakhar or Bdkar I would take to be a corruption of the 
banskrit word Baikal, meaning bark of trees. The Bengali word 
ttakal is the same as Sanskrit Baikal and the distillers' Bdkar, the 
terminal I and r being interchangeable in Sanskritic languages. 
1 he more colloquial Bengali word Bukdl, which means the neces- 
sary adjuncts of a preparation, is probably derived from Bdkal and 
.sallied to the Arabic word ba U l meaning herbs. 

Vol. IT. No. i.] Ths Hindu Method of Manufuoturing Spirit. 135 


(2) Coking. — To turn to the process of manufacture, we sir 
that it consists of three stages, viz. 9 (1) forming of cakes : (2) 
brewing in vats ; and (3) distillation. 

The first step in the forming of cakes is the moistening and 
softening of rice and mixing \\i tli Bdkhar. The rice cIk^cii i< 
Atap. ».#., merely dried in the sun -without previous steeping and 
boiling in water while in the paddy. For it is superfluous to 
make the rice undergo the semi -softening proeeea considered neces- 
sary in rice used for food. The rice for caking is not boiled in 
water, as that w r ould partially dis-olve the starch and not only 
cause its waste but also interfere with the growth of Mucor fun- 
gus exclusively. This will be seen more clearly later on. 

An examination of softened rioe mixed with Bdkhar and left 
covered in a basket for a day, shows thai it contains small quanti- 
fies of dextrin but no sugar. Under the microscope, minute speck- 
of Bdkhar are seen adhering to the grains which are now half dry. 

Mucor begin to germinate, and as a consequence 

temperature of the rice rises. 


be seen just spi-eading out hyphaB. On the third day there will be 
seen vigorous growth, the cakes feel warm and begin to appear 
greenish-black or black. By this time sporanges have formed. 
Some burst ; spores come out and cover the cakes. The carboniza- 
tion that takes place in the hypha3 makes the cakes turn black. 
Along with this the hypha^ become hard and brittle. The cak<- 
when first laid out contain just sufficient moisture for germination 
of the MuCOT spores and subsequent growth of the by pine. In p 
lay the grains are more dried up. This produces two effect* : 
(1) any spores of fungi floating in the air and settling on the 
cakes do not get moisture enough to germinate on them; (2) 
growth of Mucor is stunted, the filament- -lender and the fungus 
comes to maturity rapidly. Tf rice is kept moist, there is greater 
vegetative growth of the fungus, and the grains of rice become 
spongy with the consequence that they do not easily sink into the 
water of vats. It will be presently seen that complete immer- 
sion in water is essential for alcoholic ferment at ion. As a further re- 
sult of excessive moisture, the lower grains of rice remain almost un- 

mw and an acidliauid exudes. These 





from surface inwards. From tin's we see that very dry 

drying proceed 

seco i » 

minimum in yield of spirit takes place in March and April— the 

two driest months in the year. 

Fully-formed c^kes. when coarsely powdered and heated with 
water at 122° — 140° F. for about ten minutes, dissolve partially. 
The solution contains dextrin, a very small proportion of sugar 
(about 2 %), and diastase. One part of cake can convert into dex- 



One part of cake can quickly convert into sugar 20 parts of starch 

36 * Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April. 1906. 

solution if heated to about 200° F Than results of experiments 
conclusively prove that Mucor growing on soft and half-dry rice 
changes its albuminoid into diastase and its starch into dextrin 
and sugar. 

Hence Bdkhar may be defined as a Mncot spore ferment, and 

fully-formed cake as malt. 

(3) Brewing.— Let us now turn to the changes that take 
place in vats charged with fully-formed rice-cakes and water. 
The grains of rice are disorganised and fall into pieces. The 
hyphaa are more or less destroyed and broken into minute frag- 
ments. Some of these fragments show the remarkable pheno- 
menon of budding. This is, however, rare. The usual case is 
that most of the spores submerged in water swell up and 
germinate, each sending out a thin filament The brownish spores 
germinate in twenty-four hotu-s, the moce black ..nes take much 
longer time. The filament produced is HUed with granular proto- 
plasm which soon collects into numerous minute pa reels. Dividing 
septa separate the parcels into cells which multiply with great 
rapidity by budding. These cells— M Ucor-Torulm-- have the power 
ot se ting up alcoholic fermentation in a sugary fluid just as Yeast- 
lorn a. In appearance, M uror- Tor ula strongly resembles Yeast- 
lorula, and may be easily mistaken for the latter. The only 
sure way of distinguishing between them is to mow them on 
boiled rice. Mucor-Tortda will germinate there and cover the 
nee with a luxuriant growth of cottony filaments, while Yeast- 
lorula will not of course give rise to the mould. Mncor-Torula 
is an elliptical or oval cell, generally 002-(KX)3 mm. wide, and 
twice as long. When fully formed, it allows a round and com- 
paratively large nucleus. 

In a wort two or three days old, there are seen myriads of 
Mucor-Tornlx and of course Bacteria. Ah a consequence of intra- 
1°. Ti ar + i eS ? U 'r tion ' tem Perature of the wort commences to rise 
?hTf 1 V rd i ay and conti "^s high till about the seventh. On 
the fourth day the wort looks like rice porridge, b.comes acid, 
ZS 1 *™ 8 ^°f 2 P er «**■ Proof spin! by volume. About the 

ntZn f- J * I *?"? beCOme le8s numerous tba„ before. The 

proportion of alcohol has by this time risen to 8 per cent, as Proof 
«Wl.- y V0lume - / The proportion of acid has a lso i ucreased to 
about I .> per cent, (as acetic acid). About the I nth day bubbling 
^lif tv * B C 1 ease8 ' and ^eupper portion of the wort becomes 
tT^CZ 1S c ¥ trin »^tgenerallv no sugar: and the dregs 
ftf'JS S? m C ° nS18t 0f minute Wments of the cellulose testa 
1™, V- f PfPortion of alcohol is now at its maximum, usually 
amounting to about 16 per cent, as Proof spirit by volume. 
lwao ^ Ch 1S bri eflythe history of brewing. The diastase enzym* 
resent in cakes brings about saccharification of starch, not only 
md 5 \JT *? ° ake8 but also of tha * of the fresh-boiled rice 

i™ «1™ * • ,. At n ° time there is m ™ h maltose in wort, show- 
ig aimost simultaneous conversion of .kU ,„*« ™ H™« and the 
latter into alcohol. 



nv nn«iW t l.- x- " »»« wuuweu me line 01 euquuj — ~ 

ny possible sy mblo tic action of the Mucor special and Hacteria 

Vol ti, No. 4. j The Hindu Method of ManufacturtTw Spirit. 137 
[N.S.] F 

which are always found together in Bdkhar, in cakes, and in wort. 
Leaving that intricate question aside, we Bee that the entire pro- 
cess of fermenting rice for spirit is carried on with the help of a 
Mvror; the vegetative stage being accountable for snecharification 
of starch, and the reproductive stage under the abnormal condi- 
tion of immersion in water for the subsequent conversion of sugar 
into alcohol. The Chinese are also said to use a species of Miieor 
in fermenting 

Aspergillus in the fermentation of rice for sake. It seems that the 
three Asiatic rice-eating people have taken advantage of mould 
fungi for manufacture of rice spirit. 

The Japanese are said to use an 


/ spirit. — According to Harmstadt, 100 

starch yield 35 lbs. of alcohol, or 7*8 gallons of Proof spirit. 
" The Brewer," etc. J.A.Churchill.') Ri 


contains 78 per cent. 

of starch. Therefore, 1 maund of 82 lbs. rice may be expected 

^ Proof 

We have seen that 


um is obtained in January 


45 gallons, and the minimum in October when it may be as low as 
X'66 gallons. The following table shows the average yield of Proof 
spirit, mean temperature, and mean humidity in the different 
months of the year at Cuttack : — 














• • • 

• * » 

• « • 

Average of t he 
last three 

year 8. 

■ • • 

. . • 

4 28 



4 18 






4 19 


4- 18 




88° F 

86 C F 
83 F. 
88°F . 
75" F 

Mnan humidity 








[The mean temp'Tature and humidity are taken from Blanford'a •Cli- 
mates and VVeather of India" (Macmillan)]. 

The formation of cakes and wort takes place in thatched 
sheds open at one side. There is great range of air temperature 
at Cuttack, the mean highest being 110°F., and the mean lowest 
51°F. As the temperature of fermentation in cakes and in worts is 
not in any way regulated, it is absurd to expect the same yield in 
every month of the year. The yield, however, does not vary with 

138 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. April, 1906. 

the air temperature alone. It varies also with the humidity of 
the air, as will be seen from the table. 



subject to the attack 

while high percentage of mois- 
ily unfavourable. There is, how- 
l determines yield. The rice is 
ils, while it is spread out to cake. 
The loss in weight is not inconsiderable in the hot and moist 
months when the grains are most attacked. In winter weevils are 
generally fewer, and in windy days may be almost absent. Th e 
loss in weight due to the ravages of weevils has not been estima- 
ted ; but judging from their number and the nature of attacked 
grains, it must be pronounced heavy. 

Besides the losses due to defective fermentation and ravages 
of weevils, a certain proportion of alcohol is always lost with the 
spent wash. The proportion varies within certain wide limits, 
bometimes the distillers stop distillation at an early stage when 
only about |th of the wort has been collected as distillate. I am 
aware that, if distillation be carried on to remove the last drop of 
alcohol contained in a wort, the spirit becomes very rich in fusel 
ml and unfit for human consumption. The fact, however, remains 
that a certain quantity of alcohol is wasted with the spent wash, 
i distilled small quantities of wort ripe for distillation and also 
quantities of spent wash, and found that 03 to 05 gallons of Proof 
Spirit for every 82 lbs. of rice fermented are usually lost. Out of 
nve samples examined I found, in one case, that the spent wash 

contained only a minute quantity of alcohol. Here are some of 
the results : — 


Wort examined on the 12th day (3rd May 1904) and consi- 
dered fit for distillation.— A small quantity was distilled, 
and it showed 11 per cent. Proof spirit. The total 


gallons. Hence it could yield, if all the alcohol were 

flTKI-tiirvi r^-CC OHO _._ 11 -n . . 


drawn at the distillery 


(2) Wort 

A rough chemical examination of the wash showed the 
presence of both sugar and starch i n i t . 

rwr nrGnA/M /« L^ J* j*j i i . . - ... .^. 

the distillery on 10th Mt 

1W4.--A small quantity distilled by me on the same 
day showed 165 per cent. Proof spirit, which meant 437 
gallons Proof spirit. The actual quantity drawn at the 
distillery was 3'92 gallons Proof spirit. Loss 0'45 
g fl? m \ . The numl >er of gallons of distillate collected 
at the distillery was only 54 out of 26 gallons of wort. 
i.e., nearly £th). Chemical examination of the wash 

showed presence of starch and dextrin in solution, but 
no sup-ar 

no sugar 

(3) Wort ripe for distillation.— Cakes and rice with water 

put in vat on 11th and 12th May 1904. A small 
quantity was distilled by me on 25th May 1904. and 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Tht Hindu Method of Mm*ufaeturin§ Spirit. 139 


showed 405 gallons Proof spirit. The actual ijuantity 
collected at the distillery was 5| gallons out of 26* 
gallons of wort and gave 3*81 gallons Proof spirit. 
Hence loss 24 gallons Proof spirit. 
(4) Spent wash from the distiHery. — One hundred and sixty 

four lbs. of rice (2 mannds) gave 53 gallons of wash. 
Distilled at the distillery on 24th May 1904. Distillate 
Q gallons 5 U.P , and 5 gallons 47 U.P. Total distil- 
late 11£ gallons = T# Vpartof the wort. Actual yield 8*83 
gallons Proof spirit. For 82 lbs. of rice 4*415 gallon* 
Proof spirit. A very satisfactory yield. A small 
quantity of the spent wash distilled by me gave only 

a minute quantity of alcohol. 
From results such as these, it appe;i 


alcohol present in a wash w r ere collected, the average yield from 


exceed 4*5 

gallons Proof spirit. 

There is, however, another factor that determines the total 
yield of alcohol. It is well known that acid fermentation of wort 
takes away a portion of available sugar from it and thereby 
causes some loss of alcohol. I have not had opportunities of com- 
paring the proportion of acid formed in different seasons of the 
year. Indeed, most of the experiments on which my conclusions 
are based, were carried out in the two hot months of April and May 
of this year (1904), when the maximum air temperature, varying 
between 105° 108° *& wan vp^v favourable for acid fermentation. 

The following figures will, however, show the relation between the 


1. Wort. Vat charged M llth and 12th May 1904. Wort ex- 

amined on 25th May 1904 

(a) Acid (as acetic acid) ... • 2 "384 / 

(6) A small quantity of the wort distilled, and the distil- 

late made upVith water to original volume 

Acid ... ... 0-03° ' 


(c) The wort could yield 4'05 gallons P. S. for 82 Ib& of 


2. Wort kept a month in a bottle after it had heen pmnouwpd ripe 

for distillation 

Acid ... ... 2*68 

3. Wort prepared on \6th May 1904. Examined tm tlw, ninth dog 

(2hth May 1904) when it was not yet rip 

Add ... ... 1-64°/, 

4. Spent wash (referred to above) of a wort of 



Acid ... ... MSP/ 

140 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

Therefore in the original wort of 26| gallons 

Acid ... ... 1-816% 

(b) The spent wash distilled and the distillate made up 

with water to original volume— - 

Acid ... ... 0028% 

5. Spirit distilled from wort : age seventh dag. Distillate made up 

with water to the volume of wort 

(a) Proof spirit 

(b) Acid ... 



• •t »•■ . . • 

6. Wort ripe for distillation. Distilled and the distillate made up 

with water to the volume of wort 
(a) Proof spirit 

(6) Acid 

• •• ••• g t • / O 

i i 'i i / ^ 
• •• ••• it i • i • 

n 7, 


7. Wort similar to above hi the distillate 

(a) Proof spirit 

(b) Acid ... 

• •• § * a • • • ll/ /O 

16 5°/, 

• • • II* • • • 

0O247 G 

8. Spent ivash from wort 26| gallons, of which 5%- gallons had been 

drawn away containing 3'87 gallons P.S. Spent wash exam- 
ined on 4th June 1904 — 

(a) Acid ... ... ... ... 2-96% 

(6) Sugar (as dextrorse) ... ... 1257* 

(c) Acid in wort, about ... ... 2*34°/ 

9. Spent wash from wort which had yielded 4 gallons P.S. Ex- 

amined two days after 

(a) Acid 

(6) Acid in the wort 


••• »•• ... .*• o 

. • » ... . • • 

10. Spent wash f 




••• •*• » « g • • • 

i the wort ... 



Prom these results it appears (1) that wort fit for distillation 
contains from If to 3-4% of acid (as acetic acid) ; (2) that the 
acid fermentation takes place more rapidly during the earlier 
stages of alcoholic fermentation ; (3) that the production of acid 
is rather slow after it has reached a certain limit ; ( 4) that only 
about 0-024% of the acid of the wort is drawn away with the 
spirit even when distillation has been carried on to collect the last 
portion of alcohol ; (5) and that spent wash, if distilled, would 
give only about 003 or 0'04% of acid to the distillate. 

The third inference is of great importance to the distillers, who- 
know from experience that yield of spirit is not perceptibly dim- 
inished if distillation of wort is put off for a few days. 

Now, assuming that a ripe wort contains lf% of acid (acetic), 
«na that the production of the acid could be prevented and the- 

V<>1. II, No. 4.] The Jl>'ndu Method of Manufacturing Spirit* 111 

sugar used up could be turned into alcohol, we see that this peiS 
rentage of acid means a loss of about 0'78 gallons of Proof spirit. 
In this calculation, 1 lb. of acetic acid has been taken equivalent to 
076 lb. of alcohol or 017 gallons of P.S. One per cent, of acetic 
tcid in 26| gallons of wort would therefore rough lv mean 2*55 lbs. 
of acid, or 05 gallons of P.S. This gives us an idea of the pro- 
bable loss of alcohol in wort. Of course the formation of acid 

does not necessarily mean actual transformation of alcohol into 
acid. For convenience of estimation the total acid is regarded as 
acetic acid. We know that there are various kinds of acids formed, 
M>me of which are derived directly from rice, that i>. its starch 
and sugar. We see, however, that if the loss as acid could be pre- 
vented, and the alcohol collected from spent > h, the average 
vield of alcohol per 82 lbs. of rice would be about 5 gallons of 


IV. Suggestions. — The study of rice fermentation enables us 
to suggest a few possible improvements in the method which m 

followed rather blindly, and to guard against defective fermenta- 
tion which is not an unusual occurrence. 

(i) We have seen how damp air affects caking by vigorous 
growth of Mucor and of other undesirable organisms drawing 
from rice their food but giving no return. It appears that the 
diastase enzyme is formed in cakes when the vegetative growth of 
the fungus is retarded owing to insufficient moisture. In my 
experiments I found that vigorous growth did not yield satisfac- 
tory result. In plenty of an organic substance, such as rice, in 
presence of water, Mucor induces putrefactive changes. The 
object of caking being understood, the spores of Mucor are to be 
given just sufficient moisture to germinate in the rice which m 
then to dry up slowly in order that the hypha* may more and more 
penetrate into the grains in search of moisture. An attempt 
should therefore be made in wet months to keep the air of caking 
<heds pretty dry by artificial heating. 

(ii) So again rapid diving of cakes in dry months is unde- 
sirable. This may be checked (1) by sprinkling water on rice 
when it is first laid out to cake ; and (2) by placing large tubs of 
water in caking sheds. Perhaps a wet and dry bulb thermometer, 
hung up in the sheds, will prove a useful adjunct. 

(iii) Better outturn of spirit in cold months is due to several 
cause the chief of which are low temperature retarding acid 
fermentation, and comparative absence of weevils. Practically 
nothing but thorough cleanlim ! of vats and sheds can prevent 
putrefaction. The vats should be more carefully washed and 
fumigated than they are done at present. The caking sheds can- 
not be kept closed, as absence of plenty of light prevents rapid 
maturing and carbonization of Mucor so essential in successful 
caking. To check putrefactive change of wort, a more effe- ual 
method will perhaps be the introduction of mashing as practised 

in Europe. 

(iv) Thorough cleanliness is also a remedy against attack of 

weevils. The difficulty of getting rid of the pest is enhanced by 

142 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1900 

the fact that caking sheds are never free from rice. Perhaps the 
best remedy is to have two or three caking sheds at considerable 
■distances from one another and to use them alternately. 

(v) The proportion of water added is 20 gallons for every 
82 lbs. of malted and unmalted rice, i.e., about 2 J parts of water to 
•one of rice. The researches of Dr. Charles Graham show how tem- 
perature, relative proportion of water to malt, of malted and un- 
malted grain, and time of mashing influence the composition of 
resulting wort. The results obtained by Mm may not be true 
when Mucor ferment is used, especially when there is possibility 
of symbiotic action between Mucor and Bacteria. Trials with a 
view to find the best proportion of water to rice can be made only 
at a distillery. 

(vi) Spent wash is at present thrown away and .sometimes 
left in tanks for use as food for cattle. If there is much dextrin 
(as when the yield of spirit has been low), the spent wash may be 
diluted with water and yeast or Avort added to recover a fresh 
portion of alcohol for use, say, in making varnish. Or acetous 

iron or copper. 


(vii) The primitive form of fireplace in distilleries occasions 
much waste of fuel. The simple expedient of a grating will consi- 
derably prevent this waste, and the waste heat of one fireplace 
may be utilised to boil wort of an adjacent still producing richer 
spirit at less cost, or to redistill weak spirit to make it strong. 

(viii) As Bdkhar is the ferment used, it is necessaiy to 
•ascertain its quality before use. Sometimes caking is defective on 
account of bad Bdkhar. When such is the case the distillers throw 
a quantity of Bdkhar into their fermenting vats. This introduces 
Mucor spores and remedies the evil to a certain extent, but the 
outturn of spirit is always below the normal, since bad malting 
cannot be cured in this way. From appearance experienced distil- 
lers judo-e of the quality of Bdkhar, but sometimes they make mis- 
takes which cannot be found out until too late. It 'is. therefore, 
desirable to test the fermenting quality of everv fresh batch of 
BoMur pills. For this bits of the Bdkhar may he powdered and 
mixed with small quantities of boiled rice. From growth of the 
fungus the quality of the Bdkhar may be easily judged. Or the 
powdered Bdkhar may be kept moist with water'for a day or two 
and then examined under a microscope. There will be enough 
Muror spores and hyphae seen from which the proportion of the 
ferment spores may be judged. For this a low power microscope 



1 1 . m © —j |7i*^vi J. H<*>« ^ It'll I (1I?HPIUC I" t*v>»- 

ledging my indebtedness to Mr. C. C. Mitra, Excise Deputv Collec- 
tor, and to Mr. A. N. Sen, Superintendent of the Central Distillery 
Outtack, for kindly supplying me with materials used in ferment- 


1<KW M A°1 ° f w- ex P erime n*9 described in this paper were rarrie.l out in 
1904. A few relatme to M^or-Tond* were done last Ve„r. 

Vol. 11. N". 4.] Silver iJinxidc and Sill' > Pt-roi quit rah- . 14J5 

| X.S.] 

20 Silver Di tide and Silver PerovymtraU — By E. R. Wat80M t 
U.A. (Cantab.), B.Se. (LotkL), Q/fy. Profeseor of Chemistry, Oivil 
Engineering College. Sibpw* 

In 1814 Rittev (Oehlens Neues Joum. 8 % p. r>61, 1804) obtained 

a black crystalline substance at the anode during the electrolysis of 
an aqueous golution of silver nitrate, which he regarded as silver 
dioxide, Ag 2 2 . Further investi ition of this product, however, 
showed that it certainly was not pure silver dioxide. It was found 
always to contain nitrogen. By some investigators it was- 

nitrate ( Wied 

p. 509) 

However, the majority of chemists who examined this product 
came to the conclusion that it was a definite molecular compound 
of silver nitrate and some peroxide of silver, and yet the result- 
obtained were singularly inconsistent, and each investi: ition 
resulted in the proposal of a new formula for this supposed mole- 
cular compound. By Fischer and by Gnielin and Mahla it WM 
regarded as a molecular compound of silver dioxide and silver 
nitrate with water of crystallisation, but they disagreed as to the 


4AgO.AgX0 3 .H 2 (Fischer in/oar* Prakt. Chem.,33, p. 237 \. 
l<'Ag0.2AgX0 3 .H 2 (Gmelin and Mahla in Liebiys Ann. 

Ohem . Leiprig 83, 289). 

Berthelot considered the substance as a molecular Compound 
of BilVer nitrate and a peroxide Ag 2 3 , and assigned the formula 

4Ag 2 3 .2Ag>'0 3 .H 2 (Dammer, Anorgani*che Ch mie % II. 2. 771). 

Sulc gave to the substance the empirical formula Ag 7 >'O t ,. 

and regarded it as a curious molecular compound of silver nitrate. 

silver dioxide and oxygen AgN0 3 3Ag 2 2 .0 2 (Zeitschr. Anorg. 

Chenu 12, 89). 

Mulder and Haringa {Bee. Trav. Chim., Leiden. W % L, p. 236) 
agreed with Sulc as to the empirical formula A*. XO n but 
preferred to regard the substance as a molecular compound of 
silver dioxide and silver pernitrate, the silver salt of a hypot Il- 
eal acid, pernitric acid, and they wrote the formula a 

AgX0 6 .3Ag v 2 . 

Tanataralso agreed {Zeitschr. A norg. Ghem. f 28 9 p. 331) thai 

the formula Ag 7 NO|j expre-ed empirically the composition of tlie 
impound, but gave the constitutional formula AgN0 B .2Ag s 0^ 
An examination of these records f -* ^— ^ « nnnci/,flTO 


electrolytic product; In the first 

able discrepancies, which suggested that probably the different 
investigators had not analysed the sam> il vnce and that t Hi 
anodic product might be, not a simple substance, but a mixture 
«r,r1 +h*i tho nvmnrt imiui nf the various components of the mixture 



trolysis of silver nitrate 

144 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1900. 

solution is the only method by which a polyvalent silver compound 
can be obtained in any quantity. Other methods have been 
•described for the preparation of silver dioxide. Wdhler states 
that he obtained silver dioxide as a black crust on a silver anode 
•during the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid (Liebiys Ann. Chem., 
Leipzig, 146, p. 263), but the method gives an exceedingly poor 
yield, and it is difficult to obtain sufficient even for analysis. 
Schiel has described the preparation of silver dioxide by the 
action of ozone on normal silver oxide, Ag 2 [Liebiys Ann. Chem., 
Leipzig, 132, p. 322); and Berthelot has given reasons for the 
supposition that an oxide, Ag^O^, is formed on the addition of 
alkali to amixtureof hydrogen peroxide and silver nitrate, but has 
never isolated the compound. But the description! of silver 
peroxide which are to be found in the text-books are all derived 
from the investigation of the product formed at the anode during 
the electrolysis of silver nitrate solution ( Fischer, he. cit. ; Gmelin 
.and Mahla, loc. cit. ; Wallquist in Journ. Praht. Ohem , 31, p. 17!>; 

Urotthus, in Gilbert Ann. 61, 1819, p. 60; Bottger Zeitschrift 

Chemie 1870, 82 smd Berichte 1873, 1896). The whole question 
■of the valency exhibited by silver in its per-compounds ;q>i>eared, 
therefore, subject to doubt. It appeared probable that the 
dioxide of silver, Ag a 2 , had never been obtained, and a whole 

series of formulae, viz., Ag 2 3 , Ag ? 4 , Ag % 8 , Ag lo 9 , Ag, 2 n . 
A £i<A3 and A g l4 17 n ad equal claim to represent the valenry of 
-ilverin its per-compounds. 

Black powders are obtained at the anode during the electro- 
lysis of aqueous solutions of other soluble silver salts, and these 
products seem, in many respects, similar to that obtained from 
silver nitrate. They have been investigated by Mulder and Tanatar, 
and, apparently, to these substances also, it is necessary to assign 
quite complicated formulae. 

For the product of the electrolysis of aqueous silver sulphate 
solution Mulder {Bee. Trav. Vhim., Leiden, 18, p. 91 ; 19. p. 115) 
proposed the formula 2Ag. 4 SO v ;,Ag i .O 2 .60 which must be con- 
sidered as deriving from the oxide Ag 14 0,, ; the electrolysis of 
-dver acetate solution gave a product to which lie assigned the 
indefinite formula a ( Ag 2 2 ). y ( AgO.OC.CH, ) z O. 

Tanatar obtained from silver fluoride a substance to which he 
assigned the formula 4Ag s 4 .3AgF. deriving from the oxide 
Agarose- On washing with hot water this was decomposed and 
there remained a compound 2Ag. ) O v AgF. 

From these considerations I was led to examine in the first 
place the composition of the product obtained during the electro- 
lysis of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate in order to see whether 
the product may be regarded as a definite chemical compound, or 
as a mixture in which the proportion of the constituents varied 
with the conditions under which the electrolysis was effected. ' 
was at first unable to obtain concordant results, but, soon found 

that this was due to a defect in the method of handling the 

P vuS?" Wil1 n0 * Stand wasllin g with warm water or contact 

with filter-paper or drying in the steam-oven, but if it be washed 

Vol. 1], No. 4. J iSilver iJio^ide and Silver Peroxynitrtfr. I f» 


by decant at ion with cold water, and be dried at the ordinary 
temperature in a desiccator over soda-lime, then perfectly consistent 
results may be obtained. This was already observed by Siilo 
(loc. cit.). 1 repeated the work of Side, reproducing all the con- 
ditions its perfectly as possible, and was able to obtain a product 
in all respects similar to that described by him. 1 then varied 
the conditions of electrolysis, viz., the current-concentration and 
density and also the solution-strength, and examined a number of 
products obtained under different conditions. I found that in all 
cases the product was the same and identical with the compound 
described by Sulc and whieli ha been termed by Tanatar 4 silvei 
peroxynitrate/ This disposed of the possibility that the product 
was a mixture and ill conjunction with the uniform crystalline 
appearance of the substance satisfied me that there WM produced 
a definite chemical ( »in pound of which the composition could be 
satisfactorily represented by the empirical formula Ag 7 NO n . 
The results of the earlier investigators Fischer, Mahla and 
Berthelot, and the divergence of their analytical results from those 
of Sulc, Mulder and Tanatar must be explained by the supposition 
that their method of handling the product before analysis ha- 1 
caused its partial decomposition. 

Silver peroxynitrate, when heated to a temperature of about 
150°, suddenly evolves oxygen, and there is left about 91/5 per cent, 
of a black residue. Sulc has investigated this reaction carefully 
and has shown that it may be satisfactorily represented by the 

equation _ _ H ^. 

2Ag 7 XO n - 2AgN0 3 + 6Ag a O + 50^. 

On the further application of heat, a certain amount of brown 
fumes are evolved and there is left pure white silver— 

2AgK0 8 = 2Ag + 2K0, + 2 

6Ag,0 - 12Ag + 30, 

This behaviour, when heated, is of importance when consider- 
ing the structural formula to be assigned to the ooumnl ] 
^hows that in some way one atom of silver is differentiated from 

the other six. This is shown both in the formula suggested by 

Sulc. viz. 

{ a) AgX0 8 . 3Ag a 2 '°a 

and in that ascribed to the compound by Mulder and IfaringH, 
v . — 

(6) AgX0 6 . 3AgA 

To both of these formulae, however, there seem considerable 


That of Sulc rests also on the behaviour of the substance when 

treated with aqueous ammonia (Z. Anorg, Chem., 24, 305), in which 

reagent it goes into solution with the evolution of nitrogen, but 

both the analytical data and the argument based thereon seem 

open to objection. He supposes that it is only the As?» t part of 

146 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

the molecule which reacts with the ammonia according to the 


3AgA + 2ffH 8 = :^Ag 2 + 3H 2 () + X . 

In the first place this assumes a knowledge of the^ behaviour 
of silver dioxide with ammonia— a knowledge which Sulc had not 
derived from experience as he had found himself unable to pre- 
pare this dioxide of silver ; and in the second place it is difficult to 
imagine what would he, on this hypothesis, the composition of the 
compound or compounds which remain in solution in the ammo- 
nia. I have prepared the pure dioxide of silver and I find that it 
does not react with ammonia according to the equation 

3Ag 2 2 + 2NH 3 m 3Ag a O + 3H 2 + N* 

I have not been able to confirm Sulc s analytical figures for 
the reaction of the peroxynitrate with ammonia, and until tbe 
nature of the other products of the reaction has been examined, it 
appears hazardous to draw any conclusions from this reaction. 

According to the formula (b) suggest. h I by Mulder and 
Haringa, the substance must be regarded as a basic salt, either ot 
Ag 2 0. 6Ag 2 2 and the hypothetical acid H NO* in which _ nitro- 
gen is nonovalent, or of Ag 2 2 arid the hypothetical 

ac i d 



formulae which mig 

to elucidate the 

constitution of this compound are 

(c) A g7 (NO s ) 0.. 

This is, to a certain extent, identical with that suggested bj 


(d) Ag T (N0 4 ) 7 . 

According to this formula the substance is regarded as a 


hypothetical acid KXO, in which nitrogen is 

silver according to these different views. 


(a) AgNO, v 3Ag 2 2 .0 2 ; derives f mm the oxide Ag 2 0,3Ag 2 
O ovAg I4 O n . 

(6) AgNO f „3Ag g 2 , deriving from the oxide Ag 2 0, 6Ag a U 2 
= A gu°i3 or from Ag 2 2 . 

(c) Similar in this respect to (a) deriving from Ag ]4 O ir 

(d) Deriving from the oxide Ag u Oi B . 

[t must he regarded as an a priori objection that it is neces- 
sary to assume that the compound derives from such complicate' I 
-xides as Ag l4 O l8 or Ag l4 O l5 or Ag u O n . This a priori objection 
would not apply to the formula 7Ag,0 2 ,N 2 7 = Ag^Ai- 

which is somewhat similar to the formula Ag 7 NO ll hitherto 

assigned. However, an examination of th analytical results, both 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Silver THomide and Stiver Peroxynitrate. 147 


of Sulc and of my own work, leave no doubt that the substance 
must be represented as Ag 7 NO n and not by the more tempting 
formula Ag^N^O^. 

I have examined the behaviour of the electrolytic product 
when treated with water. Even ftt the ordinary temperature of 
the laboratory (27° to 32° C ) a reaction slowly occurs with the 
evolution of oxygen. This reaction occurs more readily on boiling, 
and is complete in less than an hour. Oxygen is evolved, part of 
the silver goes into solution and there remains a black substance 
which I have examined carefully and which is pure silver dioxide 
Ag 2 2 probably obtained pure for the first time. The course of 
the reaction is represented by the equation 

Ag 7 NO n = AgNO g + 3Ag 2 2 + 2 . 

The dioxide of silver. — The insoluble substance which remains 
after long boiling with water of the peroxynitrate is undoubtedly 
pure silver dioxide, Ag 2 2 . This is shown by — 
. (1) the percentage of silver which it contains ; 

(2) the fact that on heating, oxygen only is evolved and that 
in amount required by the dioxide, Ag 2 2 , and there remains 

behind pure silver ; 

(3) the fact that on treatment with warm dilute sulphuric 
acid, the substance dissolves with the evolution of the amount of 
oxygen required by the equation 

2Ag 2 2 + 2H 2 SO* = 2Ag 2 S0 4 + 2H 2 * 2 . 

It is a greyish-black powder of Sp. G. 7 '44 approx. which m 
be heated to 100° C without change. At a higher temperature 

evolves oxygen and leaves silver. 


It dissolves in this reagent with the evolution of nitrogen, but in 
amount required by the equation 

6Ag 2 2 + 2NH 8 = N 2 + 3H 2 + 3Ag,O s 

and not, as would have been expected, in accordance with the 


3AgA + 2KFI 8 m N 2 + 3H 2 + 3Ag 2 0. 


which goes into solution in the ammonia. 

Soluble silver per-salts. — Both the peroxynitrate and the dioxide 
of silver, also the peroxy sulphate produced by the electrolysis of 
aqueous silver sulphate solution, dissolve in cold, strong nitric acid 
with the production of a most intense brown-colored solution, and 
in cold, strong sulphuric acid with an olive-green color. No doubt 
these colors are due to the formation of silver per-salts. There 

seems no doubt that the same salts are formed from the peroxy- 

nitrate as troin the dioxide, as the colors and absorption spectra 
of the solutions obtained from the two substances are identical. 

148 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

These colored salts gradually decompose at the ordinary 
temperature and more quickly on heating or on adding water, and 
there remain in solution just the ordinary colorless silver salts, viz., 
silver nitrate from the nitric acid solution and silver sulphate 
from the sulphuric acid solution. Up to the present, attempts to 
isolate these per-salts have been uniformly unsuccessful. During 
the decomposition of these solutions a certain amount of gas 
evolution occurs. This gas is no doubt oxygen. There is not 
formed any hydrogen peroxide during the decomposition. An 
attempt was made to study the rate of decomposition of the nitric 
acid solution by measuring the depth of color of the solution from 
time to time. It appears that the rate of decomposition of the 
colored compound is proportional to the concentration of this 
substance in the solution. Expressed in symbols 



where x = concentration of the colored compound in the solution 

t as time 

k = a constant 

or t = A lg» x + B 

where A and B are constants. 

These observations are not in agreement with the supposition 
that the colored compound has the simple formula Ag(N0 8 ), 

fj . 5w5T? d naturall y be first assigned* to it. The formula 
|Ag(JN0 8 ) 2 ] 4 or Ag 4 (ffO„), satisfies the requirement that the 



(N0 8 ), + 2H 2 = 4AgN0 8 + 4HN0 8 + 2 . 

This Requirement is also satisfied by Ag 2 (N0 4 ) 2 decomposing 

Ag 2 (N0 4 ) 2 = 2AgN0 8 -f O,. 

The question of the constitution of the soluble colored com- 
pound is, however, still under investigation. 


Preparation of 

.j -t . , ' otiver pernxynitrate by electrolysis of aqueous 
stiver nitrate solution.-ln Expt. I, the silver nitrate solution was 
contained in a platinum dish surrounded by ice and water. The 
dish served as the kathode, whilst the anode was a square piece of 
platinum foil In Expts. II. Ill and IV when stronger currents 
«,Jl!W y S ' *. P ero *y»»trate at the anode and the silver at 
™ «~ T 6d m needle8 which g*w to a great length, and it 

two ST 7 %T V 0rous cel1 to se P a ™ te the products of th» 
two electrodes. The silver nitrate was contained in a small beaker 




Vol. II, No. 4.] Silr4r Dioxide and Silver Peroxy nitrate. 149 


surrounded by ice and water, and the electrodes were rectangular 
pieces of platinum foil 4cm. x 2cm. the kathode being surrounded 
by a porous cell. In Expt. I, the current was continued for two 
hours. In Expta. II, III and IV only for half an hour. In all 
cases the anodic product easily separated from the platinum foil, 
and was washed with cold distilled water by decantation and dried 
at the ordinary temperature over soda-lime in a desiccator. 

The various samples of silver peroxy nitrate were all analysed 
in the same way. A weighed quantity was heated very gently in 
a small round flask until t lie first stormy gas evolution occurred 
The operation was performed in a flask because in a crucible it was 
difficult to avoid loss when the sudden gas-evolution occurred. 
The black residue was, after weighing, transferred as completely 
as possible to a porcelain crucible and gently heated until it 
turned completely white, i.e., was reduced completely to metallic 


Sa mple 

,3133 gms. gave 02861, gms. residue after gentle 

ignition, and 2499 gms. silver. 

Sample II.— 04772 gms. gave (V4368 gms. residue after gentle 
ignition, and 0*3801 gms. silver. 

Sample III. — 04365 gms. gave 0*3989 gms. residue after gentle 
ignition and 0*3472 gms. silver. 

Sample IV. — (a) 0*4915 gms. gave 0*4507 gms. residue after 
gentle ignition, and0%3931 gms. silver, 

(6) 0'43« t gms. gave 0*4009 gms. residue after gentle igni- 
tion, and 0*3497 gms. silver. 







strength of 










amperes per 

sq. era. 







Ag*jNO|i requires 

Per cent, 
residue after 

gentle igni- 




(a) 91.70 

(6) 91.88 


Per cent. 

79 66 

79. *8 




These figures show clearly that the composition erf the anodic 

product is independent of the concentration of the silver nitrate 

solution and of the strength and density of the current. 


product was, in all c; uniformly crystalline in octahedra: in 

I the crystals were separate or in small irregular aggregates. In 
II. Ill and IV, the octahedral cr\ tals were regularly arranged 
in* \ needle-like aggregates. It therefore appears that the product 
is not a mixture but a definite chemical compound. 

150 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

Action of boiling water on silver peroxynitrate. — For this 
and subsequent experiments, the peroxynitrate was prepared 
as in Expt. Ill in the previous paragraph. With one cell, 
about 18 gins, could be prepared in one operation of 30 minutes.' 
A weighed quantity of the substance was boiled with excess of 
distilled water in a beaker for 1 1 hours, the water being replaced 
as required. The insoluble portion was filtered off, washed with 
hot distilled water, dissolved in hot dilute nitric acid, and the 
silver in this solution estimated by precipitating and weighing 
as silver chloride. 

The silver in the filtrate was also estimated in the same way. 
; 0'6557 gms. gave 0*5968 gms. silver chloride from the insoluble 
residue : insol. Ag = 68*50 per cent. 

0-6842 gms. gave 0*6186 gms. silver chloride from the insoluble 
residue; and 01015 gms. silver chloride from the filtrate ; insol. 
Ag = 68*05 per cent. ; soluble Ag = 11*17 per cent. 

Ag 7 NO n requires insol. Ag = 6849; soluble Ag = 11*42 per 

In another experiment, the gas evolved during the reaction 

was collected and was recognised as pure oxygen from the fact 

that it was completely absorbed l>y alkaline pv.ogallol solution. 

*or collecting the gas the following apparatus was employed:- 

A flask of about 300 cc. capacity was fitted with a two-holed cork. 

in the one hole was fitted a delivery-tube with a stop-cock, and 

m the other a dropping-fmmel with a short, wide delivering-tube. 

I he flask was half-filled with distilled water, and boiled vigorously 

to dispel all air from the flask and water. The flame was then 

withdrawn from the flask and at the >ame time the stop-cock on 

the delivery tube was closed. A quantity of the peroxynitrate was 

then carefully introduced into the flask through the dropping- 



time. The 

~v iV ,„ „ x an into trie nasK at tne same time, nasn 

was then again heated, the stop-cock on the delivery -tube opened, 
and the oxygen, liberated from the reaction, was collected over 

The dioxide of silver, Ag 2 £ .— The insoluble residue, which re- 
mains after prolonged boiling of the peroxynitrate with water, 
is pure silver dioxide, Ag 3 2 . It is washed by decantation with 
not water and may be dried eithei at the ordinary temperature 
over soda-lime in a desiccator or in the steam-oven. It is a dull or 
greyish-black powder. Two determinations of the specific gravity, 

r«»j? JT;o° f the substa *ce in a specific gravity bottle, 
gave 7 46 and 7*42 respectively. The value may therefore be 
taken as approximately 7"44. On heating, the substance quietly 
decomposes with the evolution of oxygen, and metallic silver re- 
mains A g,0 2 = 2Ag + 2 . 

■m„J Z l J t rce ^ tage of silver in th e compound has been deter- 
mined by heating a weighed quantity and weighing the residual 

^3S peTcenf ^ ^ °' 6475 ^ "'^ ** ' ^ * 

Vol. IT, No. 4.] Silver Dioxide and Silver Peroxynitrate. 151 


Sample II. 

86' 88 per cent. 



mined by dissolving in warm dilute nitric acid, precipitating and 

weighing as silver chloride. 
0'3663 gms. gave 
Ag a 2 requires Ag = 87 11 per cent 

&o"94 per cent 

The total oxygen in the compound has been determined by heat- 
ing in a combustion tube in a current of carbon dioxide, and collect- 
ing the liberated gas over strong aqueous potash. This gas was 

pyrogallol solution. 

by alkaline 

0*0842 gms. gave 8*8 cc oxygen at 27° C ami 757*5 mm. pres- 
sure ; = 1307 per cent. 

Ag 2 2 requires = 12*89 per cent. 

The solution of silver dioxide in hot dilute sulphuric acid. — The 
dioxide dissolves readily with the liberation of oxygen in accord- 
ance with the equation 

2Ag 2 2 + 2H 2 S0 4 = 2Ag 2 S0 4 + 2H 2 + 2 . 

The estimation of the oxygen evolved was carried out in the 
apparatus previously used for examining the gas evolved on boil 
ing the silver peroxynitrate with water. The flask was half-filled 
with dilute sulphuric acid and boiled until all air w r as expelled. 
The flame was then withdrawn from the flask, the Btop-Oock on 
the delivery-tube closed, and a weighed quantity of the dioxide 
introduced through the dropping-funnel. The flask was then again 
heated, the delivery-tube stop-cock reopened, and the oxygen collect- 
ed over water. That this gas was oxygen was show r n by its 
solution in alkaline pyrogallol solution. 

0*2745 gms. gave 13*7 cc oxygen at 26° C and 757*5 mm. pres- 
sure ; O = 6*30 per cent. 

1 atom of oxygen in Ag 2 2 = 6 '45 per cent. 

The solution of silver dioxide in aqueous ammonia solution. — 
The oxide dissolves with the formation of a colorless solution and 
the liberation of nitrogen. The nitrogen liberated in this reaction 
was estimated in an apparatus similar in principle to that de- 

scribed by Sftle (Zeitschr. Anory. Ghem., 24, p. 305). The substance 
was placed in a flask fitted with delivery-tube and a dropping-funnel, 
with delivering-tube reaching to the bottom of the flask and ending 
in a capillary. The whole apparatus was completey filled with 
water and then strong aqueous ammonia was gradually introduced 
from the dropping-funnel. The nitrogen liberated was collated 
over water. At the end of the reaction, any gas remaining in the 
apparatus was driven out by water. The solution w r as effected 
at the ordinary temperature. 

04158 gms. gave 73 cc nitrogen at 28° C and 7625 mm. pres- 
sure ; N= I '92 per cent. 

04255 gms. gave 7*4 cc nitrogen at 28° C and 7625 mm. pres- 
sure ; N« 1*91 per cent. 

152 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

0*5770 gms. gave 10-1 cc nitrogen at 28° and 7625 mm. 
pressure ; N = 1 '92 per cent. 

These figures indicate that only one quarter of the oxygen 
contained in the dioxide reacts with ammonia with the formation 
of water and nitrogen, according to the equation — 

6Ag 2 2 + 2NH 3 = 3Ag 4 3 + 3H 2 + N 2 . 

and then the Ag 4 3 reacts with a further quantity of ammo- 
nia without the liberation of any gas to produce a soluble com- 
pound, perhaps of the form m Ag 4 O s , n NH S . 

According to this equation, Ag 2 2 would cause the evolution 
of 1*88 per cent, of nitrogen. 

It is usually stated in the text-books that silver dioxide reacts 
with ammonia according to the equation — 

3Ag 2 2 + 2NH 8 = 3Ag 2 + 3H 2 + N 2 . 

This, apparently, is based on the investigation of silver peroxy- 



o-u yvvu.iK.1 w uenu-auiu lu investigate tne soiuoie computus 
formed in this reaction, as it appears that in this compound also 

TAe solution of silver dioxide in strong nitric acid.— The dioxicb 
dissolves in cold, strong nitric acid with the production of an in 
tense brown-colored solution. 




parts of the spectrum except in the red of smaller wave- 
length, the yellow and the green. The color of the solution is 
: — 3r than that of iodine in alcohol or of ammonio-citrate of iron 
in water, and appears to be best matched by an oxidised solution 
of alkaline pyrogalloL A * * " '* * * -1 — "* 


gm. or the oxide gave a very 

opaque color to 10 cc of strong nitric acid. The substance could 
not be precipitated by either alcohol or ether, as both these sub- 
stances immediately destroyed the color of the solution. With 
dilute nitric acid the color of the solution obtained was never very 
intense, showing that only a trace of the colored compound was 
formed under these conditions. The color of the solution gra- 
dually fades on standing even at the ordinary temperature (27 - 
30 C) , and much more quickly on warming. The color disappeared 
at least 3,000 to 4,000 times more vapidly at 100° C than at the 
ordinary temperature. On the first addition of concentrated nitric 
acid to the peroxide, there is considerable gas evolution, and during 
the fading of the color of the solution there is a very slight evo- 
lution of gas. The fading of the color was accelerated when the 
free surface of the solution was increased. For this reason the 
attempt to isolate the substance by rapidly evaporating the solu- 
tion over soda-lime in a vacuum at the ordinary temperature was 

*+ a T j t r ? te at which the c °lwed compound decomposed was 
jstudiw by keeping a t.^Mube (Stmtaxmna the rtution surrounded 
by a beaker of water to keep the temperature steady, and noting 

Vol. IT, No. 4.1 Silver Dioxide find Silver P<roxy nitrate. 153 


the time when the color appeared equal in intensity to that of one 
of a series of standard solutions of ammonio-citrate of iron con- 
tained in similar test-tubes. There was some difficulty in that the 
ammonio-citrate of iron solutions hud a warmer brown color than 
that of the solution under investigation. One set of observations 
is piven in the following tuble: 

Time (t) 

of ammonio- 
citrate of 
iron match 
(x) (gms. per 





Temp. 31° C. 
Strength of nitric acid Sp. G. 1*357 at 85° F. 

154 Journal of the A$iaiic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

The curve (diagram) is plotted from this table, and for com- 
parison there is also drawn the logarithmic curve 

t = Alg o x + B. 

A and B having been chosen so that the two curves shall be 
coincident at t = l'5 mins. and t=12 5 mins. respectively. 
The agreement is fairly good. The curves 

t = — + B. 




all give much worse agreement. 

rtu • • . • . - 

This result is not in accordance with the simple supposition 
that the colored compound is Ag(NO s ) 8 but could be explained 
by the supposition that this salt lias the formula Ag 4 (HO s ), ftwi 

decomposes according to the equation 

Ag 4 (N0 8 ), + 2H 2 = 4AgN0 8 + 4HNO s + 


The formula Ag 2 (N0 4 ) 2 is also possible— 

Ag 2 (N0 4 ) 3 = 2AgXO R + 2 . 

A similar brown-colored solution was als( 
addition of strong nitric acid to tb*> nftmrvnta 
peroxysulphate obtained 1 

phate solution, and from 1 _„ 

by the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid solution with silver 
anode (Wohler. LMtig'i Atm, Chem., 146, 26H). I" cold, strong 
sulphuric acid, these substances dissolve to produce an olive-gre^ 
solution. The absorntion snftfttm m nf thia anliit.inn is vervsini» ar 

to that of the nitric acid solution, except that a little more 
red end of the spectrum is absorbed and less of the green. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Notes on the Szkandar Nama of Nizdmi. 155 


21. Note on the SIKANDAR NAMA of NJZAMl By Lieut.- 
Col. D. C. Phillott, Secretary to the Board of Examiners. 

In the story l of Alexander going on a secret embassy to 
Naushaba occur the lines : 


It seems to have escaped translators that by the expression, 
11 slippery cup " the author refers to the pit of the ant lion. 8 (One 
ant lion with three saliva glands of the sheep given daily to a fal- 
con in a fold of meat, is supposed by Turkish falconers to be a 

remedy for slow moulting.) 

I am indebted to Dr. Annandale, Deputy Superintendent of 



" which somewhat resemble dragon flies in appearance but have con- 
" spicuous, clubbed antennae and relatively larger and more dia- 
" phanous wings. They are common in all sandy localities in the 
" East, and a considerable number of specimens of two kinds were 
14 brought from Slstan by the collector attached to the recent arbitra- 
" tion commission. The pitfall of the ant lion is made in the follow- 
At ing way : Moving backwards, as it always does, the insect digs a 
M circular furrow with its body. The sand thus excavated is placed 
" on the large flattened head by means of the legs and is jerked out 
41 of the way. Other concentric furrows are then made in a similar 
" manner, within the first, until a conical depression has been formed 
" and the ant lion buries itself at the bottom, only its formidable 
" toothed mandibles remaining exposed. When an ant or other 
14 insect strays over the edge of the pit the loose sand slips away un- 
11 der its feet, and the ant lion further increases its difficulties by jerk- 


After living 

11 in this way for a certain period, the ant lion spins a cocoon of silk. 
11 with which it incorporates grains of sand, and pupates at the bot- 
" torn of its pit, whence it issues in due course as a winged and sexu- 
;t ally mature insect." 

1 Line 3, page 75, Bombay litho. edition, dated A.. H. 1265. 

2 In some Indian editions the reading is fci>i-iA> 

3 Modern Persians call the ant lion shir-i mur. 



Asiatic Researches, Vols. I — XX and Index, 1788 — 1839. 


Proceedings, 1865 — 1904, (now amalgamated with Journal). 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. 5.] Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
obtained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meetings, which 

are hehTon the fh fc Wednesday in each month except 

in September and October. 



(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 

and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours they are open to members. 

(d) To have personal access to the Library and other public 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from the 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal mid Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 




• * * • » m 

* * 


yf the Gnrpa Hill in the Dist, f Gaya, the 

>/ KukkutapSda — By Rakhal Das 

Banebji. Communicated by Dr. T. Bloch ... 77 

8' a Pe mm Riddles collected from d r{$h \ tl > 


n\ Seer ary 


Oyani \ Bock In npti * of Oho rgyal a ru 

tinder the Sakyapa li i n the fourteenth cent r 

A.D.—By M.uiv »padhyaya S rta C»J dra Vila a 


• •* ... • • • 


Notes on the I ter Fauna of India. No. Ill— An 

India, i aquai fcr >ach <nd Beet; L —By N". 

axdale, D.S<5 M M.Z.S 


» • « 

A ~ « ) F r Fa i of Jno \. IV.— Hydra 

oriental- a/< j bt'emom d relations with other 

Inverted —B V. Ana , D.Sc, CM ./ i.S. ... l ^ 

- " " 

n tact. 

milar games, as pi I in the 

K' r ■ Urn I P -gy E \r. 


On e W, -hi: Manufacturing tin fr * H 

an ' li ex- n. By J. li Q m 


I by Db, P. i Bat 


• * 

rJDiW and P ynii -By E. R. Watso 

)» B, Londo ), Offg. P fessor of 

Chemistry, Oivil Enu f Coll ... I 43 

#ote m the $ik no r >. of Ni$ B>j Ln r.-Coi 

DC. Phillott, Seorefarj, to B rd of Exa 








Vol. II, No. 3. 

MAY, 1906 






asm societt, 57, ip «n et. 


Issued 14th June. 1906. 


List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1906. 


His Honor Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.C.S.L 

Vice-President* : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya tl M.A., B.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Secretary : Lieut.-Col. D. 0. Philiott, Sec- 
retary, Board of Examiners. 
Treasurer: J. A. Ohanman. Fan 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological < ?etary: E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 

RaJ 1 Flistoi Seer ■ I. FT. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 

Anthropologi I Se ifcary: N. Annandale, Esq., D.Sc. 

Joint Philological -y. Mih imahopadhyaya Haraprasao 

Shastri, M.A. • 

Numismatic Secret - : R. Burn, Esq., I.C.S. 

Otl Members of Council : 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

H. H. Hayden, I |„ B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I. B.A. 

Mahamihopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhiis; v, M.A. 

C. Li le, Esq M. Y. 

Hari Xath De, Esq., VJ A. 

M orF. P. Mayi rd, I S. 

J. A. Cunningham, 1 B.A. 

Major W. J. Buehai n, I. M.S. 
J. Macfi lane, E i. 

MAY, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 2nd May, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asitosh Mukhopadhtata, M.A., D.L., 



their publications are informed that they may be sent either to the 




Les Societes 6trangeres qui honorent la Socio to Asmtfqne de Bemrale 
de ses publications, sont prices de les envoyer ou direct r-ment a ladn a 
de la Soci^te, 57, Park Street, Calcutta, ou a lagent de la Societe a 

.n*A~**~ If- "T> 1 r\ »1 T ■ K "■"*• Til 

Mr. Bernard Q 


Auslandische Gescllschaften welche die Asiatische Gosollschaft 
von Bengalen mit ihren Pnblicationen beehren, werden hierdurch ertucht 
dieselben entweder direkt an die Adresse der Gesellschaft, 57, Park 

/ 7 — 

15 Piccadilly, zu send on. 


j h&<lalr**&dv ■■■1 ««**»* fl^WTOflT members in 

a ordance with Rule 64A, was brought up for discussion. 

Mr. E. B. Howell, I.C.S., proposed by Mr. R. Burn, seconded 
by Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott ; Raja Prabhat Chandra Baruah, 
proposed by the Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhynya, 
seconded by Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree-Sankhyarotna-Veda- 
tirtha ; Maulavi Sakhawat Husain, proposed by Shams-ul-Ulama 
Maulavi Mahammad Shibli Nomani, seconded by Nawab AH 
Husain Khan ; were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

MAY, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 2nd May, 1906, at 9-15 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asctosh MrhwoPADHYAYA, M.A., D.L.. 
Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : 

Dr. A. S. Allan, The Hon. Mr. C. G. H. Allen, Dr. N. Annan- 
dale, Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Babu Girindra Nath Dutt, Mr. L. L. 
Fermor, Dr. W. C. Hossack, Mr. T. H. D. La Touche, Dr. H. H. 
Mann, Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., Lieut. -Col. D. C. Phillott, 
Mr. G. E. Pilgrim, Rai Bahadur Ram Brahma Sanyal, Pandit 
Yogesa Chandra Sastree-Sankhyaratna-Vedatirtha, Dr. C. Schul- 
ten, Mr. R. R. Simpson, Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra 
Vidyabhusana, Mr. E. H. Walsh. 

Visitors : — Mr. W. Bussenius, Dr. J. N*. Cook, Major F. C. 
Hughes, I. A., Captain R. E. Lloyd, I. M.S., Dr. F. Pearse, and 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Twenty- six presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported the death of Mahamahopa- 
dhyaya Mahes Chandra Nyayaratna, an Ordinary Member of the 

The General Secretavy read a letter from the Right Hon. 
Baron Curzon of Kedleston, expressing his thanks for being elected 
an Honorary Member of the Society. 

The Chairman announced the following appointments : 

1. Mr. R. Burn, Numismatic Secretary during the absence 

of Mr. H. Nelson Wright. 

2. Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, temporarily ap- 
pointed to officiate as Philological Secretary during the absence 
of Dr. E. D. Ross. 



The proposal to create a Medical Section in the Society, of 
which intimation had already been sent to resident members in 
accordance with Rule 64A, was brought up for discussion. 

Mr. E. B. Howell, I.C.S., proposed by Mr. R. Burn, seconded 
by Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott ; Raja Prabhat Chandra Baruah, 
proposed by the Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukliopadhyaya, 
seconded by Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree-Sankhyaratna-Veda- 
tirtha ; Maulavi Sakhawat Husain, proposed by Shams-ul-Ulama 
Maulavi Mahammad Shibli Nomani, seconded by Nawab AH 
Husain Khan : were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

xlviii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906.] 

Capt. R. E. Lloyd exhibited specimens of Bathynomus giganteus; 
Aidastomomorpha phosphorops and a new species of the same 
genus ; two new deep-sea Skates ; a gigantic deep-sea Holothurian, 
and a large specimen of Spongodes with commensal Crustacea, 
all dredged by the R.I.M. Survey Ship, " Investigator." 

The following papers were read : 

. Some Persian Biddies collected from Dervishes in the South 
of Persia.— By Lieut-Col. D. C. Phillot, Secretary to the Board of 

This paper has been published in the Journal and Proceeding* 
for April, 1906. 

2. The Proportion h/fceen Sexes in HelopklTIS thkivoka, Water- 
house. — By H. H. Mann, D.Sc. 

3. Preliminary note on the Rats of Calcutta.— By W. C. 

Hossack, M.D. 

4. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. V.—Some 

Animals found associated icith Sponirilla carteri in Calcutta —By 
N. Annandalb. No. VI— The Li fe- 1 h story of an Aquatic Weevil.— 
By K Axnandalk, and C. A. Pa'iva. No. VI L— A new Goby from. 
Fresh and Brackish Water in Lower Bengal- -By N. Annan dale. 

5. Elements of the Grammar of the Etmawar Language 

explained in English with English illustratio <.—By Pandit Tika 
Ram Joshi. Communicated by the Philological Secretary. 

This paper will be published as a special number of tha 
Journal and Proceedings. 

6. The Coinage of Tibet.— By K. H. Walsh, l.C.S. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings. 



Annandalk, N. — Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. 
V. — Some animals found associated with SpongiUa carteri in 
Calcutta. Calcutta Journ. and Proa, As. Soc. Beng., Vol. 1]. 

No. 5, 1906, pp. 187-196. 

Chtetoyaster spomjiUm, sp. nov., diagnosis of. N. Annandale, 
Calcutta, Journ. and Proa, As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 
1906, pp. 188-190. 

Chironomus sp. (larva), habits of. X. Annandale, Calcutta 

Journ. and Proa, As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 1906, pp. 190- 

Tanypus, sp. (larva), habits of. N. Annandale, Calcutta Journ. 
and Proa, As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 1906, pp. 193-194. 

Stsyra, sp. (larva), habits of. N. Annandale, Calcutta Journ. 
and Proa, As. S a Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 1906, pp. 194-196. 

Annandale, N., and Paiva, C. A. — Notes on the Freshwater 
Fauna of India. No. VI. — The life-history of an Aquatic 
Weevil. Calcutta Journ. and Proa, As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, 

No. 5, 1906, pp. 197-200. 

Aquatic Weevil, description and habit of. N. Annandale, 
Calcutta Journ. and Proa, As. Soc. Beng., Vol. 11, No. 5, 

1906, pp. 197-200. 
Annandale, N.— Notes on the Freshwater Fnuna of India, No. 

VII. A new Goby from Fresh and Brackish water in Lower 

Bengal. Calcutta Journ. and Proa, As. Soc. Beng.. Vol. II, 
No. 5, 1906, pp. 201-202. 

Ghtriu* alcnckii, sp. nov., diagnosis of, N. Annandale, Calcutta 
Journ. and Proa, As. Soc Bong., Vol. IF, No. 5, 1906, p. 201. 


1906, pp. 183-186. 
Key to Rats of Calcutta, 

A. Long-tailed Rut*. 

(1 ) Jfitf rattus alexnndrinui \ 

B. Short oi Medium-tailed. 

(2 ) Mus decumanus, 

(3) Xesokia bengalensis. 

(4) JScsokia nemorivaga. 

oa, As. Soc. Heng., Vol II. Xo. 5, 


The following new books have been added to the Library 
during April, 1906 : 

Co-operative Credit Societies, U.P. Annual Report on the 
working of the Co-operative Credit Societies Act — X of 1904 
— for the year 1904-05. Allahabad, 1905. Fcp. 

Presd. by the Govt, of United Province*. 


Benares. — Nagaripracharini Sabha. Proceedings of a public meet- 
ing, held on the 29th December, 1905... to discuss the question 
of a common character for Indian vernaculars. 

Benares, 1906. 8°. 

Presd. by t'l Sabha. 

Bombay. — Plague Research Laboratory. Report of the Plague 
Research Laboratory for the official year ending 31st March, 
1905. By Lieut.-Col. W. B. Bannerman. 

Bombay, 1906. Fcp. 

Presd. by Lt.-Col. W. B. Bannerman. 

Chaudhuri, B. L. Elie Metchnikoff and his studies on human 
nature. \_Galcutta, 1905.] 8°. 

Reprinted from the Calcutta Journal of Medicine, 1905. 

Presd. by the Author. 


Gait, E. A. A History of Assam. Calcutta, 1906. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Haeckel, Ernst. Last Words on Evolution. A popular re- 
trospect and summary... Translated from the second edition 

by J. McCabe. With 
London, 1906. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Jervis, Major T. B. Geographical and Statistical Memoir of the 

Konkun. The revenue and land tenures of the Western part 

of India, etc. Calcutta, 1840. 8°. 

Reprinted from the Journal of the Bombay Geographica 

Society, 1840. 



Jervis, W. P. Thomas Best Jervis...As Christian soldier, 
geographer and friend of India, 1796-1857. A centenary 
tribute, etc. London, 1898. 8°. 

Jong, A. W. K. de. Het Alkaloidgehalte van Cocablad. 

[Batavia, 1906.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Butenzorg. 
Kodaikanal Observatory.— If adras. Bulletin. No. IV. 

[Madras, 1906.] 4°. 

Presd. by the Govt, of Madras. 

McGregor, Richard C., and Worcester, Dean C. A Hand-List 
of the birds of the Philippine Islands. Manila, 1906. 8°. 

Publications of the Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, No. 36. 

Presd. by the Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila. 

"Yo*ng, Alfred H. Studies in Anatomy from the Anatomica 

Department of the University of Manchester. Vol. III. 
Edited by A. H. Young. Manchester, 1906. 8°. 

)/ the University of Manchester 

Series, No. I. 

yf Mancfie* 


Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 157 



22. Sanskrit Literature in Bengal during the Sena rule. — By 

Monmohan Chakbavarti, M.A., B.L., M.R.A.S. 

Under the last three Sena kings the study of Sanskrit in 

Bengal received a great impulse. The 

The Augustan political and literary history of the period 

Period of Sanskrit ig little known and less understood. But 

° " some of the main causes may be dimly 

guessed at. . 

During the eleventh and twelfth centuries a general revival 

of Sanskrit learning is noticeable in Hin- 
Causes. dustan. The courts of Kasmir, Kanauj, 

1 ' T i ll t^ ^ e \ ^ Cedi and Dhara were influential centres 
JSSSt^HiSdS- of scholars and Brahminical schools. 
stan. Mithila and Kalinga courts were also not 

much behind them. Pandits and their 
students travelled in numbers from one court to another, from 
one tol to the other. All this encouraged the study of Sanskrit 
in Bengal, where it had been not much attended to up to that 
time, presumably on account of Buddhistic influences. 

Furthermore, the different parts of Bengal, such as Suhma r 

Vanga, Varendra and Radha were united 
*i** ?i? et ^! eai i!i under one rule by Viiayasena and his two 

the liberality of ,„, ; . J ; , m m a—i^i* 

the later Sena successors. Ihe union of so many fertile 

ki n g S# tracts added wealth and splendour to 

the Bengal courts and permitted liberal 
endowments and gifts on the part of their king*. The available 
references, though very scanty, sufficiently indicate the taste and 
the liberality of the later Sena kings. Ballalasena, Laksmana- 
sena, Kesavasena, and Madhavasena (probably of the royal family) 
themselves composed verses and compiled other works with the 
help of court pandits. Of Laksmanasena's liberality the Taba- 
kftt-i-Nasiri recorded :—" The least gift he used to bestow was 
a lak of kauris" (Raverty's translation, p. 556.) The poet 
Dhoyika speaks of having received gifts of elephants and golden- 
handled fly- whiskers (the Pavana-dutam, verse 101). The Sena 
kings called themselves Parama-vaisnaua; and, probably, it might 
have been a part of their policy to encourage Brahmanas and 
Sanskrit studies in contradistinction to the Buddhistic tendency 

of their neighbours the Pala kings. 

In consequence a band of Sanskrit writers flourished in 
the latter part of the Sena rule. Many tols also seem to have 
been established in, and near Nudiah, the capital. To these tols 
may be reasonably traced the origin of the well-known Navadvip 
school, which has survived to this day and which produced in 
the 15th and 16th centuries a remarkable group of Naiyayikas 
and Smyti writers. In the Sena period, however, the authors 
confined themselves chiefly to rituals and poetry, the two sub- 
jects in which the kings took special interest. 


158 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

I now add a few remarks on these writers, taking them 
alphabetically : 


Guru of Ballalasena. The king compiled the danasagara 

Aniruddha the a * *" s instance. Said to have been famous 
Raj-guru. ' * n Varendra land. 1 None of his works 

has yet been discovered. But that he 
composed works on rituals is inferrable from the statement 
of Cropala Bha^ta, the disciple of Caitanya. In the Sat-kriya- 
sHra'dipafca, a ritual work for Vais^avas, Gopala Bhatta says that 
he compiled it after consulting the works of Aniruddha, Bhima 
Bhatta, Govindananda, Narayana Bhatta, Bhavadeva and others.* 
Mittra's " Notices n mention two ritual works of one Maha- 
mahopadhyaya Aniruddha Bhafta, viz., the C uddhi-viveha (No. 
299, II, 338) and the Haralata (No. 1001, II, .372). Aniruddha 
and the_ Httralata have been referred in the Suddhi-Katimudi of 
Govindananda Kavikankanacaryva of the second quarter of the 
16th century (Bibl. Ed., pp. 132 ; 30, 31, 33, 52, 87). 


The Danasigara, H. P. SistriV Notices," second series, Vol. I., p. 17° 

Hrors^'grlf hwttt tWft g 'nil [% n] 
*fNgH^ro$* *rf3rari n^fa: m<n n[« i] 

The Sat'hriyd.eara-dipika, " Notices," second series, I. 397. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Lit" at u re in Bengal. 1 ."»'.' 


(11) IS ANA. 

Elder brother <>f Halaymlha. No MS. of his work lias as yet 

come to light. But Halayudha in his in- 

Isana, writer on traduction to the BrOkmanu §arwatva iftji 

rites r ), a t Jsfina wrote a PatbJhaii or manual on 

rites relating to the ahnika* of Hrahmanas.' 

(II r) IDAYA\ I 
Mentioned by Govardhanacai va in the Aryfi»*apt<i-iati. as 

having revised that }> an. a He rails 

Udayana, the xjdayana and lialahhadra Hfya^odardbhy^m, 

?ardh P a U n P a which ma y ^ twin-pupils of his Of 

pupils who are brothers. Is he identical 
with the Udayana who composed the pro >sti of Meghe* vara 
temple, Bhuvanesvara, Orissa : The time of the inscription 
falls in the last decade of the twelfth century. 4 which is the 
probable time of Govardh ana's pupil. 


The only complete piece of hi* as yet known is the 

prakatti in the Deopara inscription of 
Umapatidhara, Vijayaseua (Ep. Ind. I. 307-311), Stray 

the poet. verses of his are, however, quoted in the 

anthologies. No lc— than ninety-two stanzas have been quoted 
under Umapati or Umapatidhara in SVidharadasa's Sukti-karn- 
ttmrta* twelve stanzas under Umapatidhara in Jalhana's Subhfoita- 

muktSvalu and two under that name in the SBrngadhara-paddJmf'.* 

The Brdhmana-sarrvaaa, Printed edition, Calcutta, first half of verse 24. 

^Hr* TfavjjiHit WTftwi fro^t«w I *HJ 

J.A.8.B., LXVI, p. 23; Ep. Ind., VI., p. 202 ; firat half of verse 33. 

* For the time of the inscription see my article, J.A.S.B. LXXII, 1903 

P. 20. 

* As the anthologies will be frequently referred to, their names arc 

abbreviated as follows 

(a) Sridharadisa's Swfctt-(in two places called 8aduht 
8.K. The payings are from the MS. Asiatic Society, Bengal (A). The 
tartar lectiones are from a MS. of the Sanskrit College Library (S), and one 
of the Serampore College Library (8r ). 

160 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906, 

He has been identified with one Umapati Up^dhyaya, author of the 
Pdrijata-haranctrnataka (R. L. Mitra, Notices of Sanskrit MSS., 
V., p. 205), but, I think, on insufficient grounds, as the latter 
flourished under a different king, Hindupati Hariharadeva, after 
the Yavana rule (Do., V., p. 206). 

The anterior time of Umapatidhara is fixed by his composi- 
tion of Vijayasena pras'asti. The posteri- 
His time. or limit is fixed by his mention in the S K. 

(a.d. 1206), and by the mention of his name 
in the Gita-govinda, Sarga I, verse 4. He probably lived in the 
reign of Laksmana^ena, as Sridharstdasa quotes a verse of his 
lauding his father Vatudasa, the friend and chief officer of that 
king. 1 Roughly speaking, he flourished in the third quarter of 
the twelfth century. 

Of the verses quoted in the S.K.* I find four are taken from 

the Deopara praiasti, viz., verse 7 of the 
His verses. inscription * S K., III. 4l>'4, fol. 139a), 

verse 23 (IN. 175, fol. 126a), verse 24, 
(IN. 5-5, fol. 1206), and verse 30 (III. 17'4, fol. 1256); while the 
familiar hymn to the god Ganeaa (Devendra-mauli-mandara) is 
attributed to Umapatidhara (I. 2 ( J 5, fol. 16a). The verse chinte 

Brahma-siro, which in S.P. is ascribed to Dhoyi (No. 1161), is in 
S.K. referred to this poet probably more correctly (IV. 2'2, 
fol. 142b) ; on the other hand the verse priydyah pratyuse, which 
in the S3L (fol. 73) is put under Umapatidhara, is ascribed in 
the S.K. to Dhoylka (II. 1353, fol. 996) ; and similarly Karabha- 
rabhasa, which in S.V. is credited to Bhallata (Kb. 669) is put 
under Umapatidhara in S.M. (fol 42a). In the S.M. fol. 416, 
Karabha-dayite is credited to Umapatidhara, while in S.V. and 
S.P., two verses with the same initial words are found (Nos. 

(6) Jalh.-ina's 8ubhSfita-muktdvaU~8.M. Dr. R G. Bhandarkar, Report 
on the Search for Sanskrit MSS. in the Bombay Presidency, 1897, pp. I-LIV). 

(c) Vallabhadas-.'s Buhh&fit-ivalt— 8.V. (Peterson's Edition, Bombay 
Sanskrit Series). 

(d) Sdrngadhara-paddhati—S.P. (Peterson's Edition, B. S. S.) 

V. 75 4, Sr. pp. 440-1 (omitted in A). 
2 The verses in the S.K. given below :— 

I. 6 4, I. H-3-4, I. 12-4, I. 18 2, I. 22 1, I. 264, I. 29 5, I. 37 2, I. 435, 
1.52 4,1.55 3.4,1.57-3, I fill, I. 67 2, I. 72 4. I 73 1, I 90 4; II- &*> 
II. 112, II. 12 2, II. 16 3-4. II. 201-2, II. 24 5, II. 35 5, II. 48 4, II. 63'5, 

II. 64 2, II. 814-5, II. 94 2. II. 102 1, II. 106 5, II. 107 2-3, II. 109-2, 
11.116 2-3,11. 1172, II. 125 4, II. 1443-4, II. 1481, II. 154 1; III. l'J, 

III. 55, III. 173-5, III 204, III. 264, III 33 1, III. 404, III. 435, 
Il"5?1' IV 2 ' 2, IV - 34 ' IV 42 - IV 65, IV. 204, IV. 214, IV. 255, 
\l' Jc 5 ; IV - 30 ' 5 ' 1V ' 41 5 - IV - « -6. IV 48 2, IV. 523-5, IV. 544, IV. 554, 
I '^/\J V <; 59 ' 3 - 4 > IV 68 3,1V 70 3, IV. 72 2; V. 13 3, V. 16 1, V. 183.4, 
V. 291, V. 61 3, V. 703, V. 73-3, V. 76 4. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 161 


666 and 667 of S.V , and 960 and 953 of S.P., 960 being claimed 
M Bhagavata Vya saiga). One verse, tenakhani, is found under 
Umapatidhara both in S.K. (V. 133) and in the 8.M. (fol. 

1846). P. quotes two more verses under this poet (Nos. 753, 


Thus, excluding the Deopara praiasti, we get one hundred 
more verses of Umapatidhara. All of them are not of equal 
merit. Two criticisms are, however, available, one by the poet 
himself, and one by Jayadeva. In the Deopara pruiasti, verse 35, 
Umapatidhara calls himself as "the poet whose understanding 
has been purified by the study of wnrda and their meanings. * 
In the Oita-gm "ia. it is remarked : — Vflcah pallavaya fy= I "ma pat i- 
dharah or Umapatidhara sprouts words (i.e., lengthens verses by 
addition of adjectives, &c). Four verses of his cited below 
supply some historical facts. The first three refer to some 
unknown king (probably some Sena king) in connection with 
Pragjyotis-endra, with Kdsi-janapadftfi, and with Mleccha-naren- 
dra ; the fourth mentions liberal gifts to a poet for a work named 
Cmidracuda-carita by a king Canakya-candra. 

(1) JWH^^^TpcTJJ??*?^ ^ff ?)^t^tf^^§^- 

III. 20-4, fol. 127« 

(2) 5TT3-T1 sn^JDWfa^faci %***wf 

III. 26> 1, fol. 129& 


(8) *rra ^^1^ srra *mrvt jttctw ^ttw^- 

%% f sifk *mi Ifcqfr^'^TrTj'nsi-ijT: (?) 

V. 183, fol 178a 

(4) fa*ra *rfar ^%^ wfdr cmsjirafw- 

162 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [May, 1906. 


V. 29' 1, fol. 1826. 



In the S.K. six verses appear under Srimat-Kesavasenadeva 
( and one under Kesava. 1 They are appa- 

^ojilvol^ 9 rently one and the same man ' Ke * avasena " 

deva probably belongs to the Sena royal 
family, and one verse of his (I. 54. 5) agrees in a general way 
with a verse of Laksmanasenadeva and of Jayadeva (s.v. Jaya- 
^ieva). Another verse of his is quoted here : 

1. •faf%W-A. & S. III. 523, fol. 1406. 



Author of the Arya-sapta-sati. In the S.V. (fol. 1276) and 

Govardhana th the ® P ' ^ Xo ' 466 ^' its verse 66 ( an y a - rnukhe 

Acarya poet.*' 6 durvado), is quoted under Govardhana. . In 

the S.K. six new verses, 1 and in the S.F. 
-one new verse (No. 3400) are quoted under this name. 

The lrya-sapta4ati consists of 54 introductory stanzas, 696 

m fl a__= ao „ fo stanzas in the main body arranged alpba- 

6ati Ar y a " 8a P ta - betically a to km, and six concluding 

stanzas— in all 755, all in the Jryfl metre. 
It was composed evidently in imitation of Hala's Gdtha-sapta-tat* 
in Prakrta and like its model is thoroughly amatory. The stanzas 
justify the remark in the Gita-govinda that the elegant works of 
Acarya Govardhana were distinguished by the erotic sentiment 

( Smgar-ottara-satprameya-rachanair = IcS rya - Gov a rdhana, sarga I , 
verse 4). 

The posterior limit of the poet's time is approximately fixed 
by the above reference in the Gita-govinda, and the anterior limit 
by the verse 39 of the poem, in which he acknowledged a king of 

I. 39 3. 

J S.K.— I. 54'5, 1. 65 -2, T. 72-5; III. 49'1, III. 52'3-4 ; under Kesavft, 

* Veraes in S.iC.-II. 8-4, II. 80-5, II. 103 1. II 142 5, IT 1455; V. 1*4. 

Vol. 11, No. 5 ] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 163 


the Sena family as his patron. 1 Tradition names Laksmanasena as 
the king in whose court he flourished. His time may be thus 
approximately put in the fonrth quarter of the 12th century. The 
poem was revised by his pupils Udayana and Balahhadra (s.i\). 
Five commentaries on it are as yet known, viz. (I) Ananta 
Pandit's Vyangartha-dipana, (2) Gokulacandra's Rasika-candrikil 
and the tikas of Gaiigarama, Narayaiia, and Visvesvara {tide 

Aufrecht's cafalogus caialogorum.) 

Of the six verses in the S.K. not to be found in the Arya- 

His other verses. 

Sit 1 1 1 

Trct *rsr gj^fu s^tt <^q ^smi^nrr 

II. 80-6, fol. 78a.. 

CIL-. 1 NT A XA -SA RA NA . 


ne verse is quoted in the S.K, under this name. He is 

probably to be identifier! with Snrana (*.t\). 


Author of the Oitagovinda. Little is known about him, 

Jayadeva, the and that little mostly traditional and con- 
lyrical poet. flicting. 

One tradition puts him in Tirhut. About it Colebrooke 

of ?i r rhoo r t aditi ° n ^ u "Jayadeva is by the Maifhilas said to 

44 be their_ countryman. In Tirhoot, a town 
" on the Belan river near Jenjharpur, bears the name of Kenddi, 

" supposed to be the same as Kenduli kilva He vilva is a family 

"of Maithili Brahmann>." 

Beyond the similarity in the name, nothing else has been found 
to support it. The tradition may have originated by confounding 
the Gita-go nda-k&ra with a later vernacular poet, Jaideb. The 
latter flourished in Mithili, by about 1400 a d. (J.A.S.B. 1888, 
]>. 12) ; and Dr. Grierson extracted one Hindi sonar of his in the 

J.A.S.B. 1884, p. 88. 

A second tradition claims him as of Orissa (see Candradatta's 

Second tradition S! 8 !2? »*«*««••««. sargas 39 to 41). 
of Orissa- According to it, Jayadeva was born in the 

village Binduvilva neat- Jagannathapuri 

fNf^faw^KJTlfatqft ST^Tsf^ II H II 

164 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

in Utkala, that lie married Padmavati, that he composed the 
Gitagovinda with the line smara-garala-khandanam written by 
Lord Krsna in the guise of the poet (chapter 39) 1 ; that the king 
of Orissa compossed another Gitagovinda which Lord Jagannatha 
rejected in favour of Jaydeva's with some miracles indicating the 
Lord's favours to him and his wife (ch. 40) ; that Jayadeva was 
once robbed and bad his hands and feet lopped off but that the limbs. 
were miraculously restored ; that in his old age he wished to have 
a bath in the Ganges, and the river goddess appeared before him 
in her watery form (ch 41). 

This tradition is not old and seems to have jumbled together 

Obiections facts of different periods. The Sanskrit 

Bhaktam&la was evidently based on the 
Hindi Bhaktamal of Nabhadasa, as edited and rewritten by Nara- 
janadasa in the reign of Shahjehrfn, a.d. 1628-1658 (Grierson, 
Mod. Ver. Lit. Hind., J.A.S.B. 1888, p. 27). The tradition 
cannot thus be traced back beyond the seventeenth century, and 
requires strong corroboration before it can be accepted as & 
narration of events taking place in the twelfth century. On the 
other hand it appears to confound the GVwjnrinda-kara with a 
Jayadeva who flourished in the court of an Utkala king (vide 
Alankdra-sekhara*), and to tag to it the fact of an Abhinava-Qita- 
govinda, which was composed by an Utkala king Purusottamadeva 

Gajapati, a.d. 14704497 (H. P. Sastri's Report, 1895-1900, p. 17). 

3^ftafi% hwt ^TTrft "W^l *fcT ^fcT: 

• • • 

• • • 

w^^ jTii^^?rf5rTi^fT 

8 QT^irai^fa3W<T>: nfcsfe y^m^'^iT^cn- 

3" 3fSTS<^*3q<T cR ^WTflVrfam*. Tjftl3*T : 


] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 165 


A third tradition refers him to Bengal, describes him 

in a verse * as a Pandit in the court of 

of Ben al " Laksmanasena, and locates his home in the 

8 " village Kenduli, District Birbhum. 

This tradition appears to be the most reliable of the three. It 

is accepted in all the existing commentaries 

Tho most re- on the Ottagovinda. In the oldest known 

commentary, the Rarika-priy& of Kumbha- 
karna under verse 4, sarga I, it is noted: — Iti faf-pan/itH-stasya 

prasuhlha ifi rwjhih. Of the king Kum- 

^^^^ v Mewad) various inscriptions have been found 

ranging from a.d. 1438 to 1459. So the tradition was current al 
least in the first half of the fifteenth century.. The verse 4 itself 
gives Jayadeva's name with Umapatidhara, Sarana, Govardhana 
and Dhoyi,* all of whom are Bengal poets probably contempo- 
raries of the king Laksmanasena ; and this juxtaposition is best 
explainable on the supposition of Jayadeva too being a Bengal 
contemporary. Furthermore, the stanza 1, sarga 1 of the Otta- 
govinda, is found echoed in versification and meaning in a verse of 
Laksmanasena and one of Kesavasena 8 ; and this similarity dis- 
tinctly indicates a connexion of the poet with the Sena royal family. 

The Alankdra-Sekhara of Kesava Misra, Nir. **¥• Pr , p. 17. 

This work is not older than the 16th century \.r> The author lived in 
the court of Mainkyachandra. and a king bearing that name began to rule 
in Kangra in a.d. 1563 (AS K, V. 160). 

Said to have been inscribed oyer the door of the king's sablia-hall. 

2 w usre*ammfeiw: tf^fefs fan 

sn^tTr *i w i£3 HJM- 5?i^*t ^^1 "^ i i 

i%— cj. h w^m»—v.i. * •m—v.i. 

166 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906^ 

Some of the MSS. have a verse towards the end (the last but 

" two of the twelfth sarga), in which Jaya- 

lv Parent! 8 X " deva ' a fath< r ris named Bhojadeva, mother 

' Rama (variants Bama, Radha), and his 

friends Parasara and others. 1 This passage is doubtful, as it is not 

found in many of the older texts and in older commentaries like the 

Rasikci'priyd,. In two MSS. of the Indian Government Collection, 

Calcutta, copied in Saka 1697 and 1698 (Nos. 3867 and 3868 
respectively) the line is omitted in the texts but commented on in 

MS. known 


The traditions name Jayadeva's wife as Padmavati ; and the 
•Wif e verse 2, sarga I, and verse 8, sarga X, seem to 

support this view. 8 But a different reading 


S.K., I. 552, fol. 276. 

» • 3«f<fl*?T— Sr. 

^JT^T^iN^ » 

sn^risj *rct<s% ftfwzi ^i ftg^TTTcn 

S.K., I. 54-5, fol. 27b. 

%*H*r^*J ii 


1 sftHfaT3 a SWf^T b ^T?TT^5^ <NW^WI 

•5RTW. TOW. b 3TT*T,*TVr. c ^W. d W - - 

WncfN3T5nj^TC?U'gUf?Tff I First half, I. 2. 
Wf^Wnrfa^fcT^ I Second half, X. 8. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 167 


of X, 8 omits Padmdvati-ramana ; and the latter reading, while 
pported by old (ikas like the Rasika-priya, is preferable accord* 

ing to versification rules 
refers to the tradition a 



According to the commentators, Jayadeva's home is indicated 

in the second line of III. 10. 1 The name 


is variously read as Tinduvilv 

Rasika-priya) Kindu vil va, Kinduvilla, Kendubilla, Kendubilva, 
Sindubilva. It is identified with Kenduli, District Birbhum, 
Bengal, on the north bank of the river Ajaya. An annual fair is 
held there on the last day of Magha in Jayadeva's memory. 

In the S.K., two verses of the Gitagovinda are quoted 

under Jayadeva, viz., XI. 11, Jaya-6ri- 
The time of the v i nyas tair° (I. 59-4, fol. 296) and VI. 11, 
ttitagovinaa. Angesv-abharanam (II. 37'4, fol. 606). The 

poem must therefore have been composed before a.d. 1206. 
By the mention of Dhoyi and other poets in I. 4, it could not 
likely have been written earlier than the rule of Laksmanasena. 
Its time therefore approximately falls in the fourth quarter of the 
twelfth century. Its verses are quoted (under Jayadeva) four times 

in the S.V., and 21 times in the S.P. 2 The verse I (3) 11, 
TJnmilan-madhu-gandha° is quoted (without the author's name) in 
the rhetorical work srihiti/a-darpana, as an example of the allitera- 
tion rrtt-anuprosa (X. 4). s 

1 ^rfincf ^re^<t%ir Trfr^ "rata i 

m TO^iT. b fa^f^, &c. 

* S.V.— Nos. 1313-4, 1357, 1613; &.P.— Nos. 80, 3380, 3431, 3460-1, 
5481-2, 3498-3500, 3502, 3548-3550, 3609, 3617, 3658, 3681, 3686-7, 3820. 

3 In the Appendix to my article on" The Eastern Ganga Kings of Orissa" 
" m- *■♦», fiS vi« (J.A.S.B. LXXTI, 1903, p. 146) I came to the con- 

darSna. " elusion that the Sdhitya-darpana was nn Opya 

work, and that its author Visvanntha flourished 
probably not later than the beginning of the 14th century. Since then I 
have seen certain extracts from the same author's Kdvyaprakdsa-darpana in 
the late V. R. Jhalkikara's edition of the Kdvyaprakdia (Bom. Sans. Ser., 
introd. pp. 30-1). They confirm my conclusions ; e.g., this filed says under 
5th ullasa — vaiparityam rucim-kurv-iti pdthah, atra cinlcU'padam Kdimir-adu 
bhatdyam-ailila-drtha-bodhakam Utkal-ddi-bhasdydrh * dhfta-bdndakadrava ' ity* 
ddi. The reference to a colloquial Oriya word (still in use) shows him to 
be an Oriya. Furthermore he mentions therein his Sahitya-darpana (2nd 
and 10th ullasas), CandrakaJd-ndtikd (8th ullasa) and a new work mama 
Narasirhha-vijaye (5th nllasa). The name of the last work indicates that he 
flourished under the king Narasimha. As his father, Candrasekhara, com- 
posed a verse in honour of Bhanudeva, this Narsimha cannot be earlier than 
Narasimha II., and cannot be much later as Visvanatha's grandfather's 
younger brother, Candidasa, wrote his Kdvyaprakdia-dipikd (quoted in 2T.. 
darpana) probably in the 13th century. Narasimhadeva II. ruled Orissa 
between a.d. 1278-9—1305-6 (J.A.S.B. LXXIL, 1903, p. 29/F), 

168 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

No other work of this Jayadeva has yet been found. In some 

of the Gitagovinda MSS. eight stanzas are 
J 0t ^ er va poems of added at the end under the heading Gahga- 
* * stava-praba?idhah whose last line runs: 

bhanantam=iha sadaram dhira-Jayadeva-kavi.° In the S.K. a 
verse is quoted under Jayadeva referring to Gaud-endra. There 
are at least two other Jayadevas, Sans*krit poets, earlier than 
the J 3th century; but none of them is known to have any concern 
with Gaudendra. Is this verse then taken from some unknown 
poem of the Gitagovinda-lcara ? In the S K. besides this verse l 
(and the two taken from the Gitagovinda), 28 more are quoted 
under the name Jayadeva ; they cannot be traced in the Prasanna- 
Raghava of the dramatist Jayadeva, or the ca?idr-aloka of the 
rhetorician Jayadeva. Possibly some of them may be from an 
unknown poem of our Bengal Jayadeva 

No poem was more popular in India than the Gita-govinda. 
The Popularity Numerous MSS. of it lie scattered in differ- 
of the Gita-govin- ent parts of India from Kasmir and Nepal 
^ a# m downwards. The search for Sanskrit MSS. 

has brought to light no less than thirty-seven commentaries 
(Aufrecht's Gat. Catalog.) ; and the earliest known the Rasika- 
jpriya goes back to the middle of the fifteenth century with the 
powerful king Kumbhakarna himself as the commentator. The 
poem has been imitated in works like the Rama-gita-govinda, 
Abhinava-gita-govinda and others. It has been several times trans- 
lated in the vernaculars, Bengali, Onya and Hindi. It ranks 
among the quasi-sacred works of the Vaisnavas ; and its songs were 
repeatedly sung by Caitanya and his followers in their processions. 
A remarkable testimony to its popularity is borne out by 
As testified by inscriptions. In an Oriy a inscription of Pan 
inscriptions. dated 17th July, a.d. 1499, the king Pratapa- 

rudradeva ordered that the dancing girls 
and the Vai^nava singers should learn and sing only the songs of 
the Gitagovinda, and should not learn or sing any other songs 

o e ^^° ldS T JagannStha and Balarama (J.A.S.B , LXII, 1893, 
pp. SK>-7). In another inscription dated 29th June, a.d. 1292/ 

1 ^%frR^?J?*W^ «jT^WriJJT 




8K, III. 11-5, fol. 123a. 
The reader will note the alliterations in each line. 

a stone recovered 

* i * j* % i n ix 

excavated in q.A . Vn« DlviBion ' B »™<H, from a tank which was being 

excavated m Samvat 1956 aa a famine work. The date runs in the original 

0ll0W8 : - 8 "^at 1348 var,e Atadha Sudi 13 ravav-adyeh* Srlmad- 


Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. lr:» 


the verse I. (pra° 1). 12, vediin-uddJiarate, is quoted in the very 
beginning as the invocation stanza of the prasasti. Such an honour 
shows that the work had already within a century become quasi- 

The Gttagovinda has been many times printed, but the only 
good edition available is that from the Nirnaya-sagara Press, 
Bombay. Lassen's edition (1836) is out of print. A critical 
edition is a great desideratum ; and here is a nice opportunity 
for a Bengal scholar. 


In the S.K. a verse of his is quoted highly lauding the gifts 
_, _ of a Gautjfendra * and thus pointing to his 

va Dharma- Jo g. £. hi a , „ , ^ Besides J&_ he 

Poet, o.A. quotes eleven more verses under this 

name, 2 and distinguishes him from Yoges- 
vara (51 verses quoted) and Karanja-Yogesvara (2 verges quoted). 


Author of the Pavana-dTitam. Already treated by me ( J.A S.R 

New Series, 1905, I. pp. 41-71 ; ib., l!06, pp. 15, 18 22). 


Elder brother of Halayudha ; wrote the Dasa-karmma-paddhat 
^ , ,. _ ,. _ (°dtpika) y a guide to the performance of 

Pasupati, a writer >, \ n '\ & . . . J i- Y 

on rites. • domr-tic ceremonies according to 

the Sukla Yajurveda, Kanva-saklia. He 
was Raja-Pandita, according to colophon. 8 His work should be 


4nahilavdtaJc-ddhi8thita'Mahd[_ rdjddhi** ^n/jd'Sri'Sdrafhgadeva*kalydna'i'ijaya 
rdjye. The date is apparently in the year, southern expired. The inscrip- 
tion records the erection of a Krsna temple I am indebted to Mr. D. tt. 
Bhandarkar for these informations. 

1 3T*T: OT37%¥ «5^JW«^: ^f^q^WTlui ^ 

- * 

?jg;: (N^ii* %fa*rq*: jfif ^ far ^i^jf^r n 

III. 16 4, fol. 125a. 

2 8.K.-U. 231, II. 33 4, II. 58'2, II. 624, II. 1201, II. ]34 3 ; IV. 
2 4-5, IV. 44-5, IV. 46 3. IV. 61 2 

fWlTTlt^^W«^fT^^f^ : *Wffr I Tlie colophon of the SrSddha- 
paddhati runs :— ^feT ^^VNl^fa^^T^ ««TF I 

170 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

differentiated from that of the same name by Bhavadeva Bhatta 

(Samaveda) or by Karayaua Pandita (Rgveda). 

In the introduction to the Brahmana-sarvvasva Halayudha 
noted that Pasupati had written aPaddhati or mannal on SVaddhas 
(v. 24) and another Paddhati on Paka-Yajna (v. 43). 1 No MS. 
of the latter had as yet come to light. The Sraddha-paddhali 
is found in the As. Soc. Library, a Bengali MS., fol. 42-52. 1 

In the S. K. one verse is quoted under the name Pasupatidhara.* 

P * At 'rib Whether he is identical with Pasupati 

a poet * or no ^' ■"■ canno ^ sa y- Umapatidhara has 

sometimes been shown as Umapati. In the 
8.K. are named several authors with °I)hara at the end, such 
as, Dharanidhara, Laksmidhara, S'ankuradhara, Saiikhadhara, 
Sagaradhara, Sancadhara, Suryadhara. 



A pupil of Acarya Govardhana, who witli Udayana (*.*) 
Balabhadra, pu- revised his Acarya's poem 2rya-sapta-hti. 
pil of Govar- Whether he is identical with Balabhadra, 
dhana. under whose name five (5) verses are 

quoted in the S.K.* cannot be. said at present. A sample is 
extracted below : — 

I. 29-4, fol. 196 



1 For verse 24, see I>ana. For verse 43 



S.K.-U. 10-5, fol. 496. 
3 S ' K> -- 1 - 294 5 II- 151, II. 28 1 ; IV. 19-5, IV. 50'3. 

Vol. IT, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal 171 



'"""Father of Laksmanasenudeva (a.d. 1160-61 — 1169-70). 
U The king Ballala- I» a.d. 1169-70 he completed the Dana- 
senadeva, as wri- sn,jara, a manual describing the various 
ter. kinds of gifts and the connected cere- 

monies. In a.d. 1168-69 lie started the compilation of the Adbhuta- 
sagara, but died before completing it on the banks of the Ganges. 
It was completed by Laksmanasena. The Adbhuta-sagara deals 
with omens and portents. 1 It gives the Saka bhuja-va»u-daia or 
1082 as his tir>t year. Aniruddha {s.v.) was his gum, or spiri- 

tual guide. . 

tr^.The 8.K. and the S.P. (Kb. 764) quote only one of his 

yerses : 

■f^rfar fsj^^^nuis^acr: far i 

a *fc ^wf^' *ww- fan -S-P. b ^fWWvw^— S-P- 

-' -i 

r KKif: -S.P. d ^mw^i—S.P. 



In the 8JL under Dhxrmildhikarana Madhn a verse is quoted 

praising Vatndisa (the anthologists father) 
The Judge as the right-hand staff of the king Lak?- 

Madhu. - manasena.* Presumably, therefore, he was 

a Bengal man, and as his title signifies a judge. Under the name 

identical with the judge. 

are quoted in the S.K* He may be 

l*For references to'.the MSS. of the Ddna-sdgara and the Adbhuta-sagara, 
see my article, J AS. B., N.S, 1905, I. p. 46, Note 1. In addition, one MS. 
nf thfi Adbhuta-sdjara is in India Government, and one MS., apparently a 

fragment, noticed in the " Notices" (N.S.), Vol 
of the Dana-sdgara is in the As. Soc.'s Library, 

One copy 

2 ^JT^ fa^f cR>fa c1«pT qHD^ft ftf^I 

* TOTWT*— S. b *m\— A. W— S. V. 76-1, fol. 201b. 
3 S.K.— II. 1*2, II. UT'l ; V. 7-2, V. 9*1, V, 15n, V. 662.3. 

172 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 


Under this name one verse is quoted in the S.K. 1 * He prob- 
ably belongs to the royal family. Five 
Madhavasena, a more verses are found in that anthology 

y p * under Madhava.* Whether he is the same 



The well-known Sena king (a.d. 1169-70—1200 ?) The S.K. 

The king Lak?- quotes nine verses of his 8 and the S.P. 
manasenadeva as one (No. 923). In the inscriptions he is 
poet, called Farama-vaisnava, and they begin 

with an invocation to Narayana. His verses, therefore, often refer 
to Krsna ; and where not, are amatory in nature. They are not 
wanting in elegance ; e.g., take the following three : 

(1) ^^^^*tf«%SrfafacT "^^T^V^T^T 

• ^Tf— Sr. b nrciT— Sr. c 5?rerT-Sr. 1 . 57-2, fol. 23^. 

(2) ^f^cTJWHTJTTCftTf^f^TJllT- 


r^rTTfcT *f?f *? ^Tft t;i* ^NlcT^T*: |l 

' fwf?f— Sr. V. 12*1, fol. 1756 

■ !■■■ 

"cpfl^ ST^njf f?^T^J ^ir ^Wtafl TT^m 

Aufrecht. IV. 48-3, fol. 1606. Aufrecht, Z.D.M.G. 36, 540-1. 

a 8K.-I. 48 5 ; II. 164 4; III. 62; IV. 22.2, IV. 35 3. Tr „.. 

tt ol 8 '*"" 1 - 552 (8V - J»yadeva), L 57 2; II. 16-2, II. 61*5. lb »° lf 
II. 82 34, II. 1053, II. 108'1 ; V. 12 1, V. 664. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 173 

(3) *HT fTJ ^[fH ^T^Tt?Tim 

34ZITOCT: * fa*T*f|-fVtf*nW?tfcT 

V. 664, fol. 1976. 


In the 8.K. under Vetala one verse is quoted, which laud 

highly Vatudasa. 1 He was therefore pre- 

Poet. a g sumably a Bengal poet. One more verse 

has been extracted in that anthology under 
Bhatta Vetala (iv. 34.3) and another under Raja-Vetala (iii. 
46.2), probably the same author. 


One stanza is quoted in the S.K. under this name, praising 

_. . -r^ i Vatudasa. 8 He is thus likely a Bengal 
Vyasa, a Bengal - fc ^ Al _ timmmm ~™^ ti^. a rrZL- 


rdja may mean a physician. 




In the S.K., one verse is extracted under Cirantana- Sarana 

Sarana, a Con- (*•**•)> on ^ under Saranadatta, four under 
temporary Poet of Saranadeva, and 15 under Sarana. 8 They 
Jayaaeva. seem to be varying forms of the same 


• rnfftW^W— A. V. 763, Sr. (not in A, except the name.) 
xnf%— A. b %^|J— A. € WT— Sr-. V. 76-5, fol. 202a. 



III. 14, 4-5, III. 165, III. 50*5, IV. 50'4, IV. 64*1 V. 13-5 (Sarana). 


174 Journal of 

— w- ^ 

No work of this poet has yet been discovered. But from a 
verse quoted in the S.K., he appears to have flourished in the 
Sena rule, and another verse by deprecating all the neighbouring 
kings indirectly lends support to it. 1 The poet's posterior limit 
is fixed by reference in the Gita-Govinda, I. 4, Saranah sldghyo 

duruha-drutehj i.e., Sarana is best in composing difficult verses. 
His time probably falls in the 4th quarter of the twelfth century. 
One sample is given here : 

f*TO^j wIt^t *CTfSU Jrmm^tsnflfiT 

•»• ^ - =5 

I.6T4, fol. 306. 



The anthologist, son of Vatudasa described as Mahn mianta- 
• cudamani (chief officer' and friend of the 

AntholoS^' thG kin S L ^?manasena> Vntudasa must have 

been a man of high position as verses 

*n*rf*, \., S. III. 545, f ol-1416. 

^«refef^cftefNnifcT ft<nm ^W ^'fa ' 

^T^V^t^rr^ TT% f^TTW ^fj^ft l 'm«w n 

*$'•*> Sr. b *m*I, Sr. III. 154, fol. 125a. M.M.C.— l-iv-06- 


*n^T^gQifcTi j^*^: TJJBt *i*n»li fafa: B fc *]> Fol. 1&. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 175 


lauding him by men like Umapatidhara, the judge Madhu and other- 
are quoted by his son at the end of the anthology (V. 76*1-5). 

The anthology is called Sad-tikti-karn-ftmrta only at two 
places, viz., at the end of first pravaha and at the very end ; 
otherwise everywhere else (introductory verse 5, and the colophons 
of the other pravShas) it is called Sukti-karn-fimrta. It is said to 
consist of five pravahas (currents), 476 vicis (waves) and 
2,380 verses, at five to each vid (ride the colophon at the end). 
But the three MSS. I have examined actually contain 474 vicis, 
2,363 verses. Two vicis have, in fact, been omitted in the second, 
pravaha, and less than five verses quoted in I. 95 (4), II. 3 (4), 
II. 129 (3), IV. 21 (4), IV. 68 (3) and V. 25 (4). Each verse 
ends, mostly, with the author's name; or where not known,, 
with hasyacit or Jcasy-api. In ten verses only the authors' names 
are wanting, probably dropped at the time of copying. More 
than four hundred and fifty authors have been named. Towards 

the end the date of completion is given as Saka 1027, Phalguha 20.' 
This does not admit of verification ; if a northern expired year, 
it is equivalent to 11th February, a. d. 1206. The year in the 
Laksmanasena era, ras-aika-vim'se, is ambiguous ; ras-asititame 

would have made it agree with the Saka year. If a mistake for 
rasaikatumhe, it may be the actual regnal year of the king Laks- 
manasena (1169 and 37 = 1206). 

In the colophon at the end of each pravaha, Srldharadasa 
calls himself Maha-mandalika or the divisional officer (officer in 
charge of a Mahilm andala) . The w r ork bears ample testimony to 

his taste and industry. Nearly two thousand four hundred verses 
have been compiled from more than four hundred and fifty authors 
named and others not named ; they have been fairly selected and 
sorted under different subjects ; and they bespeak a fairly wide 
culture with formation of libraries. Without his compilation it 
would have been impossible to write this sketch of Bengal writers. 


One verse under Sancadhara is quoted in the-5.iT., lauding 

Sancadhara a Vatudasa.* He is thus likely a Bengal 

Bengal Poet. poet. In the sn me anthology four more 


w% ^f3^fw«?ftTfa^ai^ff*5t • wt 

^Tcf «Pte*<n^-^ *^f?Rqraifea ^W I % Fol. 201 a*. 

V. 762, fol. 2016. 

176 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906, 

verses are extracted under Saficadhara and three under Safica- 
dhara 1 ; they are apparently the varying forms of the same name. 


The youngest and the most distinguished of the three 
m , T . „ ._ brothers (s.v. Isana, Pasupati). The 

on rituals. family are taken almost exclusively trom 

his Brahmana-snrvvsva. His father born 
in the line of Vatsya muni (Introd. verse 4), married Ujjala (v- 8.) r 
and became dharmm-adhyaksa or judge (v. 5). Halayudha was 
born of them (vv. 9, 10), and bad two elder brothers, Isana 
and Pasupati (vv 24. 43). Halayudha in his early years w; ap- 
pointed Rdja-pandita, (v. 12), in youth raised by Lak?manasena 
to the post of Mahamdfya (vv. 10, 12), and in his mature age 
confirmed as senior judge, Mahadharmm-ftdhikftra or Maha- 




Before taking up this work he had written the Mi 

sarvvasra, Vaima ra-sarvvasvu , Saiva-firtrasva and Panrlitn-sarvrasra 

(v. 19). 8 He composed t lie Bnihm'inn.sarwasva because the 
Brahmanas in Radha and Varendra did not know the Vedio 
rites. 8 He dealt with the rites laid down in the Vajaaaneyi- 
sariihita, Kanva-sakha. In the Cat. Catalog, two more works of 
his are named— Dvija-na >/»,<<,. ;md a f£M on the Srfiddha- 
paddhati. Excepting the Brahma m+anvasv * no other work of 
his has yet been found. In the'-S.^T. three verses are quoted 
under Halayudha.* He is to be differentiated from Halayudha 
of the Purana-sarrvasva (composed in a.d. 1475), and of the 

I. pp. 195-6). 


1 S.K.-T. 21-2-5 (Saficadhnra) ; IT. 34 45, V. 545, V. 76*« (S^ficS- 


ut<t l S 1 s5'& Z ' **■ V ' 723 - They have been quoted by AufrecM, 
Z.D.M.G., 36, 629-30. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] The Sexes in Helopeltis theivoea. 177 


23. The Proportion between the Sexes in Helopeltis theivora, 

Waterhouse. — By H. H. Mann, D.Sc. 

The study of the relative proportion of males and females 
among various classes of animals, and especially among insects, 
has led to comparatively important conclusions, and a good deal 
of information has been gathered in recent years on the subject. 


been examined in this sense either by breeding or by the number- 
ing of caught specimens. The fact that the Capsid bug, Helopel- 
tis theivora, is a serious enemy of tie tea-plant, and the kindness 
and enthusiasm of an Assam planter (Mr. J. J. Smith of Behalli, 
Assam), have enabled me to continue systematic and daily obser- 
vations of the relative proportion of the sexes now for over thre< 
years, and the figures thus obtained form the substance of the 

present paper. 

Helopeltis theivora, Waterhouse, the so-called 'mosquito blight* 
of tea, is the most serious insect-enemy of the tea-planter. It 
passes all stages of its life on the tea-plant, and at every stage it 
feeds on the youngest leaves and shoots by inserting the rostrum 
into the substance of tlie plant, and sucking out the juice. As a 
result, the leaves become covered with minute irregularly round 
patches of brown withered tissue, the growth of the shoot is 
stopped, and the young leaves (the commercial product) cease to be 
produced. An examination of the size of the spots sucked out by 
the insects indicates, to an experienced observer, very closely the 
age of the insect which has attacked the plant ; with adult insects 
the patches measure 2 to 3 millimeters in diameter, while they 
are usually on the outer parts of the bushes on older leaves than 

those generally used by the larvae. 

The sexes are thus described by Distant (in Blandford's " Fau- 
na of British India," Heteroptera, Vol. II, pp. 440-441 ) : — 

" Male. — Head and pronotum shining black, much resembling 
" the same sex of the preceding species (Helopeltis antonii), but 
11 with the scutellar horn more curved backward at apex. 

" Female. — Black, pronotum bright, shining, stramineous, or 
"ochraceous, with a subapical transverse fascia and the basal area 
"shining black; scutellum ochraceous more or less suffused with 
" black, the horn long, black, piceous at apex; antennae dark- 



"base; tibiae ochraceous, speckled with fuscous; head beneath 
" with a lateral luteous fascia on each side, more obscurely seen 
u above ; abdomen pale, creamy-oehraceous, the apical third black." 

" Length 6 to 7 millim." 

To this description one can add the following additional in- 
formation with regard to the male: The antennae are shining, 
piceous, ochraceous at the base. The pronotum is shining black 
wath a natch of ochraceous differing: considerably in size in different 

178 ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

specimens, but always much smaller than with the female. The 
insect, as a whole, appears distinctly smaller than the female. 

It will be seen that there is absolutely no difficulty even at 
first sight in distinguishing the sexes. The points which settle 
the sex to a casual observer, are : 

1. The size of the orange spot on the pronotum and scutel- 
lum. In the female it is much bigger than in the male, and 
in fact in the latter it is often hardly to be seen. 

2. The shape of the abdomen, which is always larger and 
stouter in the female. 

3. The size of the insect, the female being always distinctly 
bigger in every respect. 

4. The presence of the ovipositor in the female. 

It is obvious that the examination of the many thousands of 
samples could not be made by myself personally, but the ease of 
distinction prevents the possibility of any materia 1 error, and 1 
have checked personally a very large number. 

The method adopted in the present investigation was to em- 
ploy boys and girls to catch the insect- practically day by day 
throughout the year. In the two places from which results are 
here reported, there have been about 40 children employed for 
this purpose throughout almost the whole of the past three years. 
The catching is not an easy business, and it is usually some 
months before the children get 'expert at the work. Hence the 
earlier results are probably not quite so reliable as the later ones. 
But once they have become accustomed to the way of catching the 
insects, it is rare that an adult, male or female, escapes. They 
are about equally difficult to catch, and I have convinced myself 
that no material error is introduced on this account. They are 
found most abundantly in the early morning and late afternoon. 

During the hotter part of the day, as a rule, the insects hide 

The only error which may seriously affect the figures, is the 
tact that the numbers were, on the whole, declining during the 
three years^ owing to the measures taken against the insect. It is 
a factor which might influence the relative numbers of the sexes, 
m a manner of which we know nothing. 

n a ?*■ T tw ° sites for collection were situated at Behalli and 
tfedetti, places about three miles apart in the Darning district of 
Assam. Both of these are tea-gardens in which much of the 
tea was seriously attacked by the Helopeltis. It should be 
noted that the insect is present only in small numbers during the 
early part of the year, reaching a minimum in February, March 
and April. In June it commences rapidly to increase in numbers, 
wid during July, August, September, October, and November it W 
exceedingly numerous, while in December the number usually, 
though not always, rapidly drops. I give a special table of rain- 
tall each month at Behalli, in order that its distribution relative 
to ram may be ascertained. 

indicate^-l thrCe ^^ & ™ taken to g efcher » tne n S ures seem *° 

The Sexes in Hi:lopeltis theivora. 


Vol. II, No. 5.] 

1. That the males are always present in much smaller num- 
bers than the females. 

2. That the more adverse the conditions, the less is usually 
the predominance of females. This is indicated very clearly in 
the Behalli results for July, August, September and October in 
the three several years, when the attack was at its height. 











• • • 

• • • 

• • • 


19.. ".03 













In the fh -fc year the efforts at keeping the insects in check on 
these plots were hardly successful ; in the second they were more 
so ; while in the third the insects were never able to get out of 
hand. The same story is told by the figures given for the second 
place of observation (Bedetti). 

In explanation of the fart of the sudden drop in the number 
of insect- in January or February in each year, it should he noted 
that it is at this season ] pruning is carried out, and this results in 
the removal and destruction of many millions of eggs from the 
plants. Hence the drop in numbers is not entirely a seasonal 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906 

Behalli,— April, 1903— March, 1906. 




■ . . • ■ * 

May ... 

... • • • 

June ... 

• • • • • • 

July ... 

■ * • • • • 


• •• •• • 


. • • • • t 


• • • • . • 


• • • • • • 


• * • ■ ■ • 


• « • * • • 


. • ■ . • • 


••• • • . 

April ... 

■ • • ■ • « 

May ... 

» • • • • . 

June ... 

• • • • • • 

July ... 

■ • • • * • 




»#• »#« 


« * * • * • 


a * ft Ml 


• • i ■ • • 


• •• . . • 


• • • ••. 


• • • • • • 

April ... 


May ... 

• • • • • « 

Jane ... 

• • • - * • 

July ... 

# • • 


■ ■ • » • 1 


• • • 


• • * • • ■ 


* • • • • • 


• * • • m ■ 


• •• • »• 


*•♦ «•• 


••• ■•• 



1 ,402 









2 720 










42 + 







14.1 ss 
16,30* ) 




3 .226 












4 349 


5 943 





Males ae 


19 1 

20 5 




23 9 




21 9 



38 6 




37 6 


33 3 


37 l 

70 i 

62 3 




40 1 

35 7 
32 9 



18 5 


No. of 






not noted 

17 28 

29 12 

8 15 


1 43 




3 95 



16 03 




3 12 

2 89 


not noted 
















Vol. II, No. 5.] 

IN. S.I 

The Sexes in Helopeltis theivora 


Bedetti,— January, 1903 — March, 1906. 

Males sis 




Fern;, lea. 




• •• • • • 




February ... 

• » . ... 





. • . • • • 





• • • m • • 





• ■ • • . . 





t « ■ * 





• •> t » • « 





- . . ... 




September ... 

• • . ... 





• • • ... 




November ... 

• . . ... 




December ... 

•• • «. » 


5,619 . 



... a * • 




February . . . 

• I • ... 




M arch 

• • " • a • 





• . » ••• 


* • 


... a . 





■ •• ... 





... • • • 





... • • • 




September .. 

... • . . 






... ... 




November ... 

... • * • 



38 8 

December ... 

• •■ • • • 




34 7 


• . • . • • 



51 1 

February ... 

■ • a # • * 

... « ■« 







... ... 

... * * . 

. . . « > • 







• • • 


36 1 

September ... 

.*• ... 
... ... 




52 1 

November ... 

... . . 




December ... 

... ... 






••• ••• 




• # i 

February ... 


•*• • • • 


• •• 


Vol. II, No 5.] Note on the Rate »f Calcutta. 183 


24. Preliminary Note on the Bats of Calcutta. — By W. C. Hossack, 

M.D., District Medical Officer, Calcutta. 

The important part which, according to most authorities, the 
parasites of the rat play in the propagation of plague, has rendered 
it a matter of considerable practical importance to ascertain 
definitely what are the chief varieties of rats found in Calcutta, 
and their relative frequence. Thanks to rewards for the destruc- 
tion of rats, it has been possible to obtain a very large amount of 
material, and, by working on large series, to collect valuable inform- 
ation as to the variations normally found in the different species 
and varieties. The variations caused by immaturity are parti- 
cularly interesting and have a very practical bearing on the identi- 
fication of species, but the subject is too technical to be more than 
indicated here. There are three species of rat commonly found in 
Calcutta, and a fourth, though quite rare, is very striking from its 
very large size, viz., the Lesser or Northern India Bandicoot. 

Key to Rats of Calcutta. 

A. Long-tailed species (tail 115-130 per cent, of length of head 

and body). 

(1) Mus ruttus ale.mndrinm. — Med'mm sized or small. Ears 

long and wide and standing up from head, which is long 
and pointed. Slender body, feet long, slender and 
dark, head long and pointed. Median pads of hind foot 
cordiform and the external one generally showing a 
small extra tubercle. The tail is uniformly dark. This 
is a house rat; it corresponds to the Black Rat of Eu- 
rope.— Mammae, 2 pectoral, 3 inguinal. 

B. Short or Medium Tailed. 

(2) Mus dec in,, avus.— The Brown Rat of Kurope. Heavy- 

bodied, large rat with heavy tail, the length of which 
is 90 per cent, of length of head and body. The tail 
is distinctive, being white or distinctly lighter below, 
lhe feet are large, heavy and flesh-coloured, with cordi- 
torni median pads on hind foot like Mxs olezandrhius 
Jowl heavy and broad. No long piles or bristles 
on back, though longer hairs are present. M. decu- 
mnnus does not bristle or spit when caged. The 
mo. are are tubercular. Eyes small and ears round and 

,->x *r Sh 1 "? t - Mammae ' 3 pectoral, 3 inguinal. 

(3) besokm ben,jalemis ( Indian Mole Rat) —Heavy -bodied and 

ot moderate size, like asmall drcumanushxnt has lone piles 
or bristles on its back. The tail is only about 80 ,»er 
cent of the length of the head and body, and is uni- 
formly dark ; it tends to be rather attenuated and 
pointed at the end. Pads of the hind foot tend to be 
small and circular, not cordiform. The proximo- 

184 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

external is very small, and in 2 per cent, of specimens is 
wanting. The feet and nose are not flesh-coloured but 
rather purplish. The fur is very thin, bristly and harsh, 
and in drowned specimens the half-naked bristly, pig- 
like appearance is marked. When caged N. benyulensis 
bristles, spits and gnashes its teeth. Molars instead of 
tubercles show transverse laminae. Burrowing, stable 
and grain-shop rat.- Mammae, 4 pectoral, 4 inguinal, 
but very variable. 
(4) Nesokia nemorivagus (Lesser Bandicoot). — An extremely 

large and heavy-bodied rut. It may be confused with 
very large specimens of If. (h'rumamui, but has a deep, 
narrow, greyhound-like muzzle with very large ears. 
On the back are very long piles 5-7 cm., Ions*. The 
feet are black and very large, with pads M in N. bengal- 
enszs. The tail is nearly equal to the head and body and 
is uniformly dark, more finely ringed than in M. decu- 
manus. It has the same uivajji demeanour when caged 
as N. bengalmxis. Molars with transversa lamina 1 *■* 1S 
a burrowing, grain-storing rat, but is captured in houses. 

It is as well here to mention Crocirfura ccrrulea, the Grey 
Musk Shrew, commonly known as the musk rat. This i* not a rat 
at all but is one of the Insectivora, beinir closely allied to the 
moles and the shrews. It feeds mainly on cockroaches. It is very 
common in Calcutta, but in many thousands of trapped rats 1 
have only come across a single specimen. 

Under Mm a : ex<tndrinu< I include all rats in Calcutta of the 
rattus type. My specimens certainly include Jf. rufesc* *, " ll * 
I have still got to work them out. They show an extreme range ot 
variation in colour from almost black with dark belly to pale cmB* 
mon or brown with white belly, but M every gradation is ihoWB 
I am at present inclined to I link they are all the ie rat. Breeding 
experiments will be required to settle the problem. 1 - 

In this paper all I aim at is to give a rough idea of the ruts of 
Calcutta, and the external characteristic* by which they may be 
distinguished by one who is not an expert. Hence I have said 
nothing about colour, as it is an extremely variable characteristic 
and a most unreliable means of differentiation. In the live rat, 
the colour seems more or less the same in all of them, for even the 
most sharply defined white belly is almost unnoticeable unless 
the rat is sitting up at its toilet. All may be described as brown, 
but in alexandrinus the brown may be a light yellowish-brown, ant 
in the two Nesokias it tends to be a cold greyish-brown with »° 



1 Since this was written I have MOttred two specimens which were b 
and one which was almost quite white though the eyes were black, exam* _ 
of partial melanism 'ml Albinism retpectlrely. I h«ve almost completed , 
examination of rattu* series, and fi I that no distinction can be dra 
between rufescens and alprntidrinu^ as they intergrade completely. l 
•mailer specimens which agree with the tWriprioii of rufescens are m^P * 
young specimens of alexandrinus. May 16th, 1906 

Note on the Rats of Calcutta. 


Vol. II, No. 5 ] 

rufous tendency. Mus rattus nee I n ver be mistaken, as even when 
the long tail is mutilated, as it frequently is, the very large pro- 
minent eyes and the large outstanding ears are quite characteristic. 

Apart from its size, the bicoloured tail of decumanus will nearly 
always distinguish it. If the lower surface is only a very little 
lighter, then a glance at the large flesh-coloured feet will settle the 
species and an examination of the pads shows them large andcurdi- 
form or heartshaped just as in Mus rattus. The purplish feet and 
snout and the shorter much-tapered tail make the recognition of 
Nesolci't benyalensis also ensy. The long, black bristles, 4-5 cm. 
long, are unmistakable. The foot pads will settle any doubt, being 

sm ill, rounded and with the proximo external almost absent. 

The large black feet and slender muzzle at once separate the 
Bandiro >t from the largest brown rat. The following is a summary 
of the principal measurements in centimetres To get the length 
of head and body it is important to see that the rat is straightened 
out, particularly if ri<jor mortis is present. The centre of the anus 
is taken as fie junct on of body and tail. Calipers may be used, 
but a steel tape is very convenient, and. considering the normal 
variations, sufficiently accurate. The curves of the body should 
not be followed. In measuring the hind foot the claws should 
be excluded. The ear should be measured from the external root 
of the conch. My own have been taken from the lower edge of the 


ge Measurements in Centimetres. 

Length of 

head and 

Le»ij_'i li 


Leasrth of 

Hind Foot. 




M. alex-'mdrinns 




3 2 


2 1 

M . decum mas 


20 L' 



N. bengalensis 

18 2 




N. tiemoriv;igQ8 ... 



5 2 

I 1-8 

Belutire Frequency, — Figures in this instance tend to be rather 

unsatisfactory owing to two causes. In the first place pressure 
of plague work made it impossible for me to make accurate record- 
ed counts of am but a small proportion of the rats I examined. 
In the second place it was only late in my investigation that 1 
d accurately distinguish the different varieties. My own re- 
corded counts total 6 IS. My colleague, Dr. Crake, counted 1,000, 

but only distinguished long-tailed from other rats, making the 
former 11*2 percent. 


186 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

Relative Frequency of Eats in Calcutta. 

N. bengalensis. M. decumanus. M. alexandrinus. 

60% 26% 14 

N. nemori vagus 


I have collected 9 specimens of Bandicoot, but these were out 
of a series of over 2,000 examined, and three of these were sent to 
me from other districts than my own. 

The frequency of N. bengalensis is certainly overstated in the 
above table, and the explanation is that my most >i<luou> collector 
worked in a quarter where grain godowns abound. From observa- 
tions in other districts, I should say that taken all over the city 
Nesokia bengalensis and M. decumanus are about equally frequent. 

I have already generally indicated the reason for publishing 

this abstract. The preparation of the p)at< which are to accom- 
pany the full paper will take so long that it seems a<l\ i\able not to 
wait indefinitely but to publish this rough ummarj fit nee in 
the hope that it may be of some use to those * bo are working a * 
the connection between rats and plague. 

Vol. IT, No. 5.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 187 


25. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. V. — ^o t ,i 

Animals found ass dialed with Spongilla carteri in Calcutta. 

By N. Axxandalk, D.Sc, CM Z.S. (With one plate.) 
Several Insects and Crustacea are known to live temporarily 

or permanently in the canals of tiphydatia fluciatilts in Europe ; 

but very little has been published regarding the incohe or 
commensals of the tropical Freshwater Sponges. During the past 
winter and spring I have examined in Calcutta a large number of 
specimens of the common Spongilla carteri, in order to discover 
what animals live in association with it. Such animals prove to 
be numerous and of very varied kinds. Several species, of which I 
have little to say, may be noticed briefly. A small fish of the 
genus Gobius (which I will describe later) lays its eggs in de- 
pressions on the surfaee of the Sponge towards the end of the 

cold weather, and several of the higher Crustacea ' probably take 

shelter temporarily in the same position. To descend in the 
animal scale, I have found considerable numbers of at least one 
species of Planarian actually in the interior of the Sponge. These, 
however, I only found in this position after the rise in temperature, 
which heralds the commencement of the hot season, had caused 
the cells of the organism to perish, leaving, in many case s, ;» 
fairly coherent skeleton attached to the roots of floating water- 
plants which retained the gemmules in its mesh work. This skele- 
ton also gave shelter to numerous Insect larva, which nny have 
been an attraction to the Planarians, although most of them were 
too big to fall an easy prey to the latter. In Sponges of the 
species I have seen, at all times during winter and spring, minute 
Nematodes of the family Angnillulidae, while in one, which 1 
dissected in February, T found a larva of a Gordiid worm, lying 
close to the external surface in the substance of the Sponge, li 

was in its first stage, and its presence was probably connected 
with other inhabitants of its host; for larvae of the kind are 
known to attack Chironomid larvse, through the integument of 
which they make their way. In another specimen, at the begin- 
ning of April, I came across a worm of the genus Dero, which, 
although fully adult, was probably a chance guest also. It is 
evident that a loose, porous mass like the skeleton of Spongtlla 
carteri offers an attractive retreat to any animal of sufficiently 
small girth and of retiring habits which may chance to find it. 

There are several Insects and a Worm, however, whose 
connection with the Sponge is of a more settled though not a 

ermanent nature. I will first deal with the Worm, of which a 

escription follows. 

1 Rai Bahadur R. B. Sanyal in his excellent little book Hours with 
Nature says that in *ome parts of Bengal Freshwater sponges are known as 
H shrimps' nets/' because shrimps take shelter in them. The same natural- 
ist tells me thit a number of youm* snakes (Cerberus rhyncvp*) born in 
his aquarium in Calcutta, took shelter, the day after birth, in the natural 
canals of a snoncre at the bottom of the tank. 

188 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bemjal. [May, 1906 

Diagnosis : 

Chj:togaster bponoillx, sp. nor. 

A lar«e sucker surrounding tlie mouth ; no posterior 
sucker ; segments few ; body transparent, colourless ; integument 
irregularly, transversely striated on the brdy, with longitudinal 
rows of minute, irregular tubetcles on the " head "; chaetae short, 
feeble, retractile, arranged in 6 or 7 pairs of bundles along the 
ventral surface, with a narrow, flattened area between them, with 
4 or 5 chaetae in each bundle, those of the second segment twice as 
long ns the others; no chreta 1 on the 3rd-«>rh segment 8; total 
length of an individual which is not budding about 1 mm. 
Walls of pharynx comparatively thin; oesophagus as long as 
pharynx or longer, undivided, covered with landular cells; 
intestine short. An otocyst in the "brain." 

This Worm resembles Chxtoyaster bengalensis in the possessiou 
of the otocyst, whicli is a relatively huge, globular, transparent 
cyst. It differs, however, from the species previously described 
from Calcutta in the comparatively thin walls of its pharynx, 
its undivided (esophagus, andtlie lack of a posterior sucker— the last 

a character which may be considered by authorities on the group* 
to be of generic value. It is not improbable that both ( !h»toga*t# 
bengalensis and Ch. spongillm will be finally separated from the 
European and American species of the genus under some new 
generic name or names: but their affinities are shown to lie with 
this genus by the following important characters :— (1) The 
double ventral nerve cord ; (2) the discrete nature of the gangha, 
the arrangement of which does n< t conespond with the segmenta- 
tion of the body; (3) the absence of dorsal >eta> and the arrange- 
ment of those on the ventral surface, which are present only on 
segment II and on the segments posterior to V ; (4>) the presence 
of uncinate setae only. 

In specimens of Spongilhi earUri which had borne down the 
floating plants to which they were attached and had been partially 
smothered m the mud at the bottom of the ] nd. and in specimens 
of Spongilla deepens which were already dying and producing 
large numbers of gemmule I found Chxfoqas/er spnnqiUw » ,mD 1 d * 
ant during February. It frequented only those p.rts of the 
bponge which had been killed or were dying, its food apparently 
consisting of the organic debris left by their decay. Many thou- 
sands of individuals were found in such parts of the sponge, white 
the healthy, growing parts were quite free of them iMl 

Lately (April, 1906) I have found Chsetn^aster spongiV^ ptili 
sexually immature, on the external surface of colonies of P' ttMl "" 
tella repens var. emarginata, which were growing on submerged 
stones and water-plants in a pond in the Calcutta Zoology 
Uardens. Accompanying it were Naidomorpl. worms • of several 
genera, (including Dero, Pristina and Pterostyfarides), numerous 
Kotifers, and also a third species which must be placed piovisio"- 

l For descriptions an.l fibres of i «.e A. G. Bourne, in Q H „rt. Jonn,. 

inanv of the fn<lian ► peries of thi* 

Iffcr. Set. XXXir, 1891, p. 33a 




Vol. 1 1, No* 5.] Notes on the Freshwater Fatina of India. 


ally in the genus Chtet(><jaster. The last (Fig. IB) is remarkable 
for possessing in the brain a sensory organ which is densely 

d probably functions as an eye. The buccal cavity 
in tin's species is very deep, the muscular pharynx short; the total 
length is from 2 to 3 mm., and there are not more than eight 
pairs of setigerous bundles, the set*© resembling those of Citato- 
(jastrr bewjalensi* in arrangement, but being fewer in each bu 
Kxcept those just behind t lie mouth, they are not retractile 
vascular plexus is better developed than in the two other 
tonus 1 have examined, and extends forwards to the base of the 
buccal cavity. There is no nephridium near the second bundle, but 
that which opens at the base of the third bundle is larger than 
those posterior to it. Although the sexual organs are quite imma- 
ture, the clitellum is well developed. 

The food of this form with an eye consists, at any rate in part, 
of the Protozoa (Vortieella, Epistylis, titentor, etc.) which are abun- 
dant on the surface of the zoarium of the PolyzoQlL The worm 
hook> it-elf along with the aid of its Bete, the first bundle 


but being used to 


playing no part in progression 
retain living prey The ventral surface is closely applied to some 
more or less flat surface during progression, and the movements, 
in spite of the existence and use of the setae, recall those of a 
Planarian. Unlike the species which attaches itself to snails in 
the Calcutta "tanks" — 1 have not been able to find specimens 
this winter— this Kv I Chaetogaster can progress through the 
water without support, by lateral and vertical contortions of its 
body ; bat it prefers as a rule to craw 1. 


Fig, 1. Two species of Chsetogaster from Plumitella. April. 

4=Cn. *pongWa. B « Ch. t sp. (Both x about 35.) 

B « bud. C«cltellum; e^eye; o = otocyst. Both specimen* are in astute 
f conti ct on. 

190 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

Spongilla carteri produces comparatively few gemmules in 
Calcutta, where the Freshwater Sponges are not desicated during 
the hot weather as they are in Bombay but apparently perish 

March or the beerinninff of Anril. 

Moreover, these few gemmules 

are formed chiefly towards the interior of the Sponge, which may 
reach a diameter of at least six inches, and are mostly retained in 
the meshwork of the skeleton and germinate in situ on the return 
of cooler weather. A few, however, are set free and serve to aid 
in the dispersal of the species. I found gemmules of this form 
fairly abundant on the surface of a marsh in Chota Nagpur at the 
beginning of March, and they may occasionally be taken among the 
bacterial scum which appears on the water of the Calcutta " tanks " 
a little later in the year. A large proportion of the gemmules of 

'onyilla decipi 


becomes full of gemmules, and the gemmules are packed together 
in masses of a peculiar pneumatic tissue which irives them rery 
great buoyancy. I have no doubt that Chsetoyaster spongM® 
(which I have only found in half-dead sponges in an unfavourable 
position for the germination of the gemmules) plays an important 

P i? rt i^ h - berating the g emmule8 of both species, both by eating 
the debris which retains them in position, and by its movements 
as it crawls along the skeleton. Its mode of progression 
differs from that of Chtetogaster bengalensis and consists mainly in 
wriggling movements of the body assisted by the retractile chaetae, 
which, owing to their fineness, are well adapted for grappling with 
the spicules of the Sponge. A large number of living organisms. 
however minute, moving in this way must aid in dislodging freely 
movable bodies such as genm.ules in the meshwork of a Sponge 

Ohsetogo.ter sjpongillm reproduces its kind molificalh by bod- 
and subsequent fission ; but I have not found individual 
which were sexually mature, notwithstanding the fact that the 
clitellum as ,n Chsetogast.r benqalewis, is already visible U» 
young individuals newly separated from a budding parent. There 
seems to be a tendency, however, for the latter species to desert 
i™ Tu a * the . banning of the hot weather, and it is not 
improbable that it becomes sexually mature after doing so, and 
deposits eggs at the bottom which lie dormant until the tenipera- 
— ~ -unks again. The clitellum becomes more conspicuous at the 




Insect 8 
mt as t 



species ; but as they 

venture on sp 

^nTn^ 8 ' 3 e m08t .serous belong to the Dipterous 

«~"^ "te or Midges. 

Chirovi.mi ;. s m>. (larva). 

One type of larva (possibly including several allied species) 

Vol. II, Xo. 5.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 191 



the larv® of Kuropean Midges of the genus Chironomus. This 


mutely similar inter m. The head, wliirh is small, is hard and 
of a brownish colour. There are two eyes, the lower of which is 
double, on each Ride, and a short tentacle which in not 
retractile. The jaws, which are formed for biting, and the 
other mouth-parts exactly resemble those of Kuropean species. On 
the first segment of the body there is a pair of extremely short, 
stout, separate appendages, which are furnished at their free 
extremity with a bundle of coarse, curved spines. A somewhat 
similar, but longer pair of appendages occurs at the other extrem- 
ity of the body, and behind them, at the very tip of the abdo- 
men, is a pair of blunt, sack-like processes with a small bunch of 
hairs on a slight projection at their common base above. The 
last abdominal segment also hears on the dorsal surface (in some 
cases on a hump or prominence) a bunch of much thicker and 
longer bristles, which are connected with a special muscle. A few 
fine, scattered hairs occur on the sides of the body. There are no 
processes on the ventral surface of the abdomen. (The last is a 
feature in which almost all the larvee of Chironomus 1 have ex- 
amined in India differ from those of the European species, in 

which these ventral processes are oonspieuotu.) This sponge - 

haunting Chirow in* larva differs from the one which feeds on/fydra 

in at least four points: (1) in the extreme shortness of the interior 

limbs; (2) in the structure of the eyes, of which there in a single 
pair in the former; (3) in being considerably larger; and (4) 
in colour. Whereas the free-living species is nearly colourless, 

red hue. 


dividuals, has been shown to be due in other larvae of the genu^ 
not to the presence of ordinary pigment but to the production 
of haemoglobin, by means of which the larva breathes, its res- 
piratory system being altogether rudimentary. The smaller size 
of the free-living species may render a highly specialized device for 
oxygenating the blood unnecessary. 

As I have said, I am not sure that several closely allied 
species of Chironomus larva* do not haunt the Sjionge ; but even if 
this is the ca*e, they are as similar in their habits as in then 
structure, and they may be regarded from the standpoint of bio- 
nomics as a single form. Tn many cases it is evident that they and 
the Sponge grow up together, and large numbers of them may be 
found in the substance of their host at all times during winter and 
spring. The evil odour of the Sponge is apparently not offensive 
to them, and they are rather more numerous in the Bring Sponge, 
which has this odour, than in the dead skeleton from which th< 
smell has departed, kn young larva . they build short protecting 
tubes of a parchment -like substance, which is .-ecreted by ther 
salivary glands It appears unlike the threads of which the *" v 
of the common European CI nomus larvae is made, to be ; 
out in an amorphous condition, aud is pmbably moulded into sha 



192 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Benyal . \ May, 1906. 

the larva. 


in danger of being engulphed in its substance. The tube is there- 
fore lengthened, in order to avoid this catastrophe and to secure 
communication with the exterior. The process may continue until 
the tube is over an inch in length, its diameter increasing with the 
growth of its maker. Theinternal aperture becomes practically closed 
by the pressure of the growing substance of the Sponge, but the 
ternal orifice remains open. Very often the Sp< ge dies before 
the larva has reached the term of its larval life ; but this appears 
to make no difference to the latter, which lives on in its tube. 
The entrance to the tube may project some little distance beyond 
the worn surface of the larva's dead host. 

The larva does not eat the Sponge but feeds on minute 
animals which it catches by means of the curved bristles on its 
anterior limbs In capturing its prey it stretches the fore part of 
its body out of the entrance of its tube, to the interior of which it 
clings by means of its hind limbs and of the bristles at the posterior 
extremity of the abdomen. Thetub. iscovered with scattered spic- 
ules of the Sponge ; but I have been unable toa certain whether the 
larva fastens them there or whether thev belong to the substance 
of the host. Their clean condition, a they are apparently free 
from living cells or the remains of dead ones, would suggest that 
the larva plucks them out from the sponge and fixes them in posi- 
tion; but the tube is in extremely intimate contact with the sub- 
stance of the sponge, and can with difficult v be separated from it. 

At first sight it would appear that the presence of a foreign 
body such as the tube of this Ckir<mom>is larva in the interior of a 
iving organism would be necessarilv harmful to that organism ; 
but the fact that a Sponge has no definite organs or living tissues 
renders a theory of the kind improbable. Study of the facts shows 
tbat the tubes of the larva are, on the contrary, d tinctly bene- 
ncialto the Sponge, especially when they are present in considerable 
numbers. 8pongilU carteri is very fragile in life, but. M has been 
noted above the skeleton of specimens which have not grown 
sufficiently large " to bear down the plant* that rapport them, 
remains coherent after the death of the cells of the Sponge, 
serving as a nest for the gemmuk- which it retains. The tubes 
or the Lhironomns larva aid very greatly in ..reserving this 
coherence by binding the skeleton iogether, as the -ubstance out 
ot which they are formed is tough and persistent. The larva, 
therefore, would appear to be beneficial to the Sponge in a «ay 
very different from that in which Ch&torjaster spwiiUse aids m 
maintaining the survival of the species; but whereas the latter 
has only been found in Sponges which had sunk to the bottom, t^ 
tormer occurs chiefly in those which are floating near the surface. 

ine larva does not pupate in the Sponge. t 

l/ol. Alcock ■ has drawn my attention to certain instances ot 

leav!.TtS e ;n thCy »- ii,,k , n0t beCnuBe of the * ow » wei * ,,f ^t because th' 
leaves of the snpportmg plants Hie eat,., by insects 

See Aleck m Ann M„ 9 . Nat H,*t. [ 6) X 1892. p. 20*. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Not* $ on the Fresh water Fauna of India. 193 

[N.S. ] 

commensalism between marine Sponges and Hydrozoa, which are 
to some extent parallel to this between atubicolouslarva and 6 'pony ilia 

curterij the chitinous exoskeletnn of the Coelenterates playing, how- 

ever, a far more important part in the formation of the sponge 
body than do the tubes of the Chironomid. The case of the latter 
and its host should perhaps be described as one of incipient 00m- 
inensalism. The considerable variation noted in the habits of 
allied Indian larv;» would support this view. A very similar 
larva forms its tube indifferently either in the substance of a 
brackish- water Sponge or among the densely packed zooecia of a 
Polyzoon ; a third is common on the external surface of thezoarium 
of Plnmatella repen*. covering it§ tube with sand-grains ; while a 
fourth lives independently and fastens to its retreat Protozoa 
ind other small animals on which it feeds. The habits of all these 
species tend, in greater or less degree, towards commensalism, and 
probably the one at present under consideration has gone further 
than the others in this respect. 

Tanypus sp. (larva). 

Another Chironomid larva (Fig. 2B) commonly found in the 
substance of Sponyilla carteri so closely resembles those of the 
European members of the genus Tanypus that I think there can 
be little doubt that this is the genus to which it belongs. It dif- 
fers from the larva of Chimnomu* in the following characters : (1) 
the head, instead of being subspherical in shape is long, rather 
narrow, and flattened above, having a somewhat "snaky" appear- 
ance ; ( 2 ) the antenna? can be completely retracted into cavities 
in the side of the head ; (3) the fore limbs are joined together at 


length ; (4) both 

drawn into separate sheaths while the fore limbs disappear into a 
common tube which depends from the ventral surface of the first 
segment of the body some little distance behind the head. The 
claws attached to the hind limbs are large in this sponge- haunt- 
ing form, which I have found both in winter and in spring, and 
there is a single, undivided eye on each side. This b.rva does not 
form a tube but forces its way through the substance of the 
Sponge, pulling itself along by means of its conjoined fore limbs. 
When alarmed it withdraws its limbs and antenna* into their 
cases and remains still, as if it were dead Probably it does not 
feed on the Sponge, but, like its ally found in the same organism, 
on minute animals which it catches by means of the hooks 
on its fore limbs. This form is commoner in dead Sponges 
than is the Chironomus, and I have taken a species prob- 
ably identical with it living free among water-weeds. It is 
colourless and apparently breathes by transmission of oxygen 
through the general surface of its body, which is covered with 
a fine, soft integument It does not grow so big as the Chironomid 
larva' I have sometimes found a considerable number of 

1 94 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

individuals close together in a natural cavity of the Sponge. The 
pupa lives free in the water. 


He 2. Chironomid Larvae from St carteri. 
A - Chironmu8 gp. f x 10, B - 7 'on ,/>t* *p , x 20. 

A small Beetle larva (PI. 1, Fig. 3) occur> somewhat sparingly 
ie fenonorp wi. ;- — -_ A j - • j t8 mout h-parts 






f/ " T iV ia a preuaceous rorm ; but I 

identify xt. A remarkable feature is the fork 

extremity of the abdomen. This structure is joinreu »m»~-" 

at the extremity of each of its two branches a powerful hooked 

claw The object of the claw is to enable the larvn to cling 

tightly to any object, and the end of the abdomen is generally 

bent beneath the rest of the body like the "tail w of a lobster. 


I have 

is a 

usuany tound it near the centre or the base of the Sponge. 

Swtra sp. (larva). PI. 1, Fig. 2. 

One of the most interesting Insects found in the Sponge 
i> europterous larva very closely resembling that of the Europ- 

«, which is found during summer in the canals of 
iviatilis. Indeed, I cannot find any definite character 
wnereby the Indian form could be distinguished from the Euro- 
pea,, . but possibly the eyes are better developed in the former, 
lhe Indian larva is a small, whitish insect with h flattened. 

tyra fusca 
'hydatid fi 

almost triangulai 
and head. 


nen and 


ventral surface seven 

m. .. , itively narrow hh»«- 

1 he abdomen, as in the European form, bears on its 

T-C* *"»*-* Mia. • « 

rently function 


pairs of jointed append m 
»s gills. There is a pair of "very fine, 


Vol. II, Xo. 5.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 195 


bristle-like antennae on the head, and the eyes are large and 
dark. Each consists of a number of simple ocelli situated close 
together on a small circular area. The mouth-parts resemble 
those of the European form, but may differ slightly in details. 
They consist of a pair of tubular structures which closely resem- 
ble the antenna? in outward appearance, except that they are 
not jointed. Each is really double. Their function is evidently 
to obtain nourishment by suction ; but it is not known whether 
the European form feeds on the Sponge or on other animals or 

plants, and I have no observations on this point to offer as regards 
the Indian larva, 

I have only found this larva during the winter months. 
Unlike its European congener, it is not confined to the natural 
cavities of the Sponge ; for it forces its way into the actual sub- 
stance of its host. 

Its occurrence during summer in Europe and in winter in the 
tropics, is what might be expected from the analogy of other 
forms in the " tank " fauna. In Europe winter is the time 
of hardship for aquatic animals, owing to scarcity of food and the 
formation of ice ; whereas in Calcutta the high temperature to 
which water, and especially shallow, stagnant water, rises during 
the hot season, appears to be inimical to most forms of animal 
life, while life flourishes in the comparatively, but not actually- 
cold water of the cool season. In Calcutta few of the " tanks " 
dry up at any time of the year ; but the fact that they do so in 
many parts of the warmer regions of the world may have had an 
effect on the history of the pond fauna of a district geologically 
so recent as Lower Bengal. Regarded from a geological stand- 
point, the animals of this part of the country are, without exception, 
recent immigrants, and we find that some characteristic represen- 
tatives of even the Indian terrestrial fauna (e g., Qhamseleon calcara- 
tus ami Sitana porUiceriaua) have never managed to establish them- 
selves in the Ganges delta. Aquatic animals can usually adapt 
themselves to changed con dir ions, as we see by comparing the 
fauna of a Calcutta "tank " and that of a British pond and not- 
ing the many resemblances and identities ; but changes are 
brought about very gradually unless they are of essential impor- 
tance to the well-being of an organism, and it is not improbable 
that the crisis which takes place in the life cycle of so many of the 
animals of the Calcutta "tanks" towards the end of March, is 
not due solely to the actual rise in temperature which then occurs, 
but also in part to an inherited rhythmical tendency which pro- 
tected the ancestors of these organisms from perishing in a climate 
in which the extremes of moisture and dryness were more widely 
separated than they are in Lower Bengal. 

Si MMAfcT. 

At least two species of Dipterous larvee, a Beetle larva, a 
Neuropterous larva of the if en us 8i*yra, and a Worm probably 
belonging to the genu* OhMoga$ter 9 occur in the substance of 

196 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

living specimens of Sponyilla carteri in Calcutta, while several 
other animals seek shelter in the dead skeleton of the Sponge. 
The Worm appears to be beneficial to its host in that it assists in 
the dispersal of the genimules, while one of the Dipterous larvae 
strengthens the skeleton of the Sponge by building tough and 
persistent tubes in the substance of ita host. 

Explanation of Plate I. 

Fig. L — Vertical section of a specimen of 6 pong ilia carteri 

which has sunk to the bottom. The upper, lighter 
portion was living, the lower, dark pari practically dead. 
February 6th. (Natural size). 
G = gemmule. T = tube of Gkironomus larva. R = 
rootlet of plant to which the Sponge was attached. 

Fig. 2. — An undetermined Beetle larva from Spo>i<jill" carteri, 

x 10. 

Fig. 3. — Ventral surface of larva of Sisyra ep., from Spongilla 

carteri, x 10. *? 

All the figures are from specimens preserved in formaline. 



if India. 197 

26. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. VI.— The Life- 

History of an Aquatic Weevil. — By N. Annandale and C. A. 

So far as we are aware, no member of the family Curculi- 
onidee has been recorded as an aquatic Insect In the autumn of 
1905, however, one of u<; found a few specimens of a small Weevil 
among water-weeds in the Museum " tank M in Calcutta. At the 
beginning of March, 1906, another, considerably smaller species 
was noted under similar conditions in Chota Nj pur; but unfor- 
tunately all the specimens obtained were accidently destroyed. 
In the same month, especially towards the latter half, the Calcutta 
species was abundant, and we are now able to give a general ac- 

count of its life history, which is surprisingly similar to that of 

many terrestrial forms. 

Although we do not propose to attempt a generic identifica- 
tion of this AVeevil, it will be well to commence with a description 
of the species. 

Description of an Aquatic Weevil. 

The antennae are elbowed and the basal joint fits into a groove 
on the surface of the rostrum They are inserted at a point a 
little distal of the middle of the rostrum, than which they are 
longer. The first joint is equal in length to the sum of the 
remaining joints ; the distal joint is flattened and expanded. The 
rostrum is stout, slightly curved, and approximately equal in 
length to the head and pronotum together. The head is small 
and deflexed. its base being covered by the anterior border of the 
pronotum. The eyes are small and rounded, and are situated on 
the sides of the head, at lie base of the rostrum. The prothorax 
has the lateral margins rounded. The elytra are truncate proxini- 
ally, pointed apically, with two blunt tubercles on each, one near 
the base and one a little distance from the apex ; they cover the 
abdomen entirely and are very convex outwards. The coxae are 
subcorneal and prominent, the anterior pair heing contiguous, the 
intermediate pair slightly and the posterior pair very widely 
separated from one another. The femora are incrassate from a 
little beyond the middle point to the apex ; the tibiae are long, 
slender, curved toward- the apex, ending in a sharp claw; the 
tarsi are 4-iointed, and each joint is clothed below with a tuft of 
fine, white hairs. The head, thorax and elytra are finely punctured 
the sides of the pronotum being also vertically, sinuately Mriated. 
and the elytra deeply grooved longitudinally. 

6 9 

Total length ... 4 mm. 5 mm. 

Breadth of thorax ... 0. 75 „ 1 ,, 

Length of rostrum ... 1 » 1.5 ., 

Colour. — Silvery grey ; eyes black, rostrum piceous ; antenna*, 
tarsi, tibiae and base of femora ferruginous, the antennae rather 
darker than any part of the limbs. 

198 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 


The adults feed on the floating leaves of Limnanthemum. 
They also eat the stems of the same plant, crawling down them into 
the water. Their bodies are lighter than water and consequently rise 

to the surface if dislodged. Their powers of swimming are feeble and 
their movements on the surface are directed solely to securing hold of 
the nearest leaf or other floating object Under water each antenna 
carries a bubble of air. which may be useful, as Miall ' suggests, in the 

case of certain true Water Beetles, in enabling these organs to per- 


form their delicate sensory functions. The dorsal surface of the 
abdomen is flat, leaving an empty space beneath the convex elytra, 
the edges of which fit very closely to the lateral margins of the 
dorsal surface of the abdomen. The wings are closely applied to 
the elytra above. The space thus formed is filled with air. The 
beetle may sometimes be seen holding on to the edge of a Limnan- 
themum leaf, with the tip of the abdomen out of the water. 
Doubtless it is taking in fresh air into this space ; but the spiracles 
are not in any way modified to assist in the operation. Hubbies 
of sir are not set free under water. 

The sexes couple on the upper surface of the Limnanthei^u^ 
leaves in March. Union lasts for some hours, and then the male goes 
off in search of a fresh mate. The female descends beneath the sur- 
face, clinging to a stem. At intervals she bites small funnels in 
the substance of the stem, and in some of these she deposits eggs 
one egg in each funnel. We have not found more than one egg m 
each stem in the "tank," but captive females sometimes lay 
several in a stem. The egg is elongated and rounded at both ends. 
It measures about 0*8 mm. in length, and 03 mm. in tranver^e 
diameter. The female has no ovipositor, but the posterior extrem- 
ity of her abdomen is slightly tubular in shape. She pushes the 
egg along under the bark so that it lien with its major axis 
parallel to the external surface of the stem. The young larva IS Of 
a dark reddish-brown colour owing to its large salivary glands, 
which are of this colour, showing through the transparent skin. 
It is rather more slender than some Weevil larvae but otherwise 
normal. The eye is small and very inconspicuous. Tl«er*> i* 
a black spot on the last segment of the abdomen. The 
respiratory system is similar in all respects to that of a, 
terrestrial species. Indeed, there is no necessity for any structural 
adaptation for life inside the stem, which is naturally full 
of air, its tissues, like those of the stems of many water-plants, con- 
taining closed spaces which render it buoyant. What has occurred 
is a modification of instinct which has allowed the Beetle to make 
use of the air-spaces in the plant; but this modification or 
instinct has not been accompanied, as it has in the case of the 
larva of the European Dmacvi cra$$ifH $* by the development ot a 
special organ for piercing tho walls of the' air-spaces. The larva 
eats away these walls with its jaws, as it forms the larger cavity 
in which it lives, and so is well supplied with air by the same 

action which gives it nourishment. 

1 Nat. Bitt. Aquatic Insect*, p. 34. * wL op. cit., p. 95 


] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of 


Immediately after emerging, the larva begins to eat, moving 
through the stem either upwards or downwards as chance may 

direct it. 

By feeding on the tissues of the stem it soon forms 

which increases in width as it does. This 

a vertical tunnel, 

tunnel reaches the length of about an inch and half, but behind 

the larva it is filled with excreta. The funnel 

in which the egg 

was laid disappears with the growth of the plant. 

After undergoing several ecdyses the larva becomes of a 

Fig. 1. The Metamorphosis of an Aquatic Weevil. 





■-J-* ^ R^LiSTSlteoS)! X F 6 i«duU male (kS). 

= egg(xl6). - j - - / if?\ _ 

Sb S^53S«- D ^KJI h &A.7K- » from dn.d .p.oim.n.. 


Journal of the Asia fir Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

pinkish colour, owing to an accumulation of fat which conceals the 

alivary gland 

At this stage it is about 6 mm. long. 

Its girth is 

now sufficiently great to affect that of the stem in which it lives, 
^md the latter bulges out round the chamber in which it pupates 
The pupa is perfectly normal. It lies in the stem with its ventral 
surface directed towards the thinnest wall of the stem, and through 
this the adult eats its way. 

Although many eggs were laid in our aquarium, we have been 
unable to watch the metamorphosis, as the ova of a captive speci- 
men did not develop. The foregoing notes are therefore derived 
chiefly from observations on a large number of infected Limnanthe- 
nunii. plants brought from the Museum 


We have found both Chironomid larva? and Planarians in the 
tunnels made by the Weevil, but are unable to say whether they 
had entered the tunnels merely for the sake ot shelter or to feed on 
the proper occupants. 



and examined 


Vol. II, No. 5.] Notes on the Freshtcater Fauna of India. 201 


rf India. No. VII.— A new G<>hy 

from Fresh and Brackish Water in Lower Bengal.— By N. 

Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

The Fish described in this note was obtained in large numbers 

at Fort Uanning (J 
taken in Calcutta. 



assistance in its determination and description. 

Gobius alcockii, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis : 

D 5 J* Al. L. lat. 26 to 28. L. trans. 9. Body compressed 

moderately elongate ; the height 6 times in the total length includ- 
ing caudal fin. Length of head 3| times in total length including 



interorbital breadth ; eyes large, feebly protuberant ; cleft of moutl 

small, oblique ; several rows of teeth in both jaws, canines well 

developed ; snout obtuse, rounded. Two rows of tubercles below 

the mouth on each side and a less distinct A-shaped series on the 

i • T __J _Pi_1__ _'l__— 1 ■■ -— ■*■■ v» c* t«T A I 4_'Ar\Q T»0 - 

lower proximal part of the cheek. Dorsal fins well separa- 
ted, barely as high as body, their spines without filamentous 
prolongations ; tail fin rounded. Scales relatively large, conspicu- 
ously ctenoid. Colour white (in life translucent), with two 
broad, black, vertical bars on the head and four or five on the 
body ; the top of the head suffused with black or wholly black j ttie 
dark markings produced by an aggregation of relatively large, 
star-shaped pigment-cells which are separated more or lees distinct- 
ly from one another. 

16 mm. 

f a spawning femal 

The most remarkable points about this little Fish are its small 
size and its juvenile appearance, which has evidently caused it to 
be passed over undescribed. A t least one other species of the same 
family, the Philippine MisHchthys luzonemis (which is said to i>e 
the smallest known vertebrate) is as small. 

TT,« S n*r.imens taken at Port Canning were netted amon 

The specimens 


weeds overgrown wan r uiy z.u«, «.««. .^~ a — v-*-- » , . r „i_ n f t . 
b^gaU^fia brackish pools ; while *~fB£&2tt 
was found among the roots of a plant of ^ M »" «™" . wag 

"tank " in the Zoological Gardens at Ahpur. 1 hi «P^ men JJJ 
engaged in spawning. The eggs which were ratheij fci ge fo^ 

size of the parent, measured 9 mm i oy " { he J ma j oHt . y 

and were somewhat irregular and vanalde in on«»j t^e ^O^ 

having a more or les s P^^Jninonning a cavity su-h 
to rootlets near ^ <^t« of^theb n. h b i £ ^ J 

as is often produced » JJ^iSrttaS3 by Insects. The femal- 
ing and falling ^away afto be mg atte °**^ h<J d fo]lowinir 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906.] 

from the size and appearance of the eggs, I have little doubt that 
Gobius alcockii is the Fish which also spawns in depressions on the 
surface of Spongilla carteri. 

Fig. 1. Gobius alcockii ( * 9). 
With a lateral scale (highly magnified) 

Journ.^Proc . As. Soc Bengal , Vol.11. 












^ '% 


.' • 


A.C .Cfiow<aiia-y del * Litl1 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865—1904, (now amalgamated with Journj 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings, [N. 8.1 Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784—1883. 
Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 




(a) To be present and vote 'at all General Meetings, which 

are held on the first Wednesday in each month except 
in September and October. 

(6) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member- 

(c) To introduce visitors at the Ordinary General Meetings 

and to the grounds and public rooms of the Society 
during the hours they are open to members. 

(d) To have personal access to the Library and other public 

rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out books, plates and manuscripts from tht 


(f) To receive gratis, copies of the Journal and Proceedings 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 




Proceedit js for May, 1906 

• • 

• • • 

Mo> mohan Chakravarti, M.A., B.L., M.R.A.S. 


... xlvii * . 

Sanskrit Literature in Bengal during the Sena rui — By 

• • • 


The Proportion betu % the Sexes in H elope lt is tiieivora 

Waterhouse, — By H. H. Ma *, D.Sc. 

• « • 

« ♦ » 


Preli inary Note on the llats of i itta. — By W. ,0. 

Ho sack, M.D., District Medical officer, Calcutta 

» • 


Notes on the Fresh v r Fauna of India. No. V — Some 
animals found as.- Hated h Spoi Ha <rten f» 
Co ntta. (With one plate).— By N. A: ndalk, D.S< 


* » 


* » • 

♦ # • 

No the Fr er Fauna of In k VL — Th Life- 

History of an A k W( : L—By N. Ahkani Mil and 

0. A. P 

• « * 

* • » 

% • i 

- • 




VII.— A new 



By a. Anna dale, D.Sc, CM.ZS. 


* • * 




if " E 


Vol. II, No. 6. 


JUNE, 1906. 








Issued 9th July, 1906. 


List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1906. 

President : 

His Honor Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.C.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon ble Mr. Justice Asatoth MukUopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 
F,R.> E. 

T. H. Holland, Esq W.QB n F.HS. 

A, Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

S ore^ try and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Secretary: Lieat.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 8eo 

retary, Board of Examiners. 
Treasurer: J. A. Chapman, Esq. 

iddit nal Secretaries : 

Philological oretary E. D. R, », ! |.. Ph.D. 

Natural History 9 v ■. 1. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 
Anthropologic 3a : NT. Annandalt Esq., D.Sc 


Joint P »gi IS ry M tiamahopadhyaya Hai prasad 

S h I . A . 

Numi.< ic S< ary : R. Burn, Esq., £.0.8. 

\tembi >f Oounctl 


' H. H. Hayden, Esq., li,A, F.G.S. 
E. Thornton. Esq., 1 BXB.A. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chaudi Vid i >hufaoa, MA 

C. Li le, 8 }.. M.A. 

Hari Xath De, 1 M.A. 


3. A. Cunniiigham 
Major W. 3. Btichi 
3. Macfarlane, 

June, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 6th June, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., in the chair. 
The following members were present : 

Dr. N. Annandale, Mr. I. H. Burkill, Mr. J. A. Chapman, 
Mr. L. L. Fermor, Rev. E. Francotte, S.J., Mr. H. G. Graves, 
Mr. D. Hooper, Dr. M M. Masoom, Captain J. W. Megaw, I.M.S., 
Mr. R. D. Mehta, Lt.-Col. D. C. Phillott, Major L, Rogers, I.M.S., 
Mr. R. R. Simpson, Major J. C. Vaughan, I. M.S., Mr. E. 

' Visitors :— Rev. G. W. Olver, Mr. W. W. R. Prentice. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Forty-two presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced that Major-General M. G. 
Clerk, Lt.-Col. D. S. E. Bain, I.M.S., Mr. F. P. Dixon, and Lt.-Col. 
A. Alcock, F.R.S., had expressed a wish to withdraw from the 

The proposed creation of a Medical Section in the Society 
of which intimation had already been given by circular to all 
members, was brought up for final disposal. The votes of the 
members were laid on the table, and the Chairman requested any 
Resident Members, who had not expressed their opinion, to take the 
present opportunity of filling in voting papers. Two such papers 
were filled in, and with the 80 returned by members were scrutinized. 
The Chairman appointed Messrs. L. L. Fermor and E. Vredenburg 
to be scrutineers. The scrutineers reported as follow :— For 73. 
Against 9. 


Panedya Umapati Datta Sharma, Principal, Sree Visuddha- 
nand Saras wati Vidyalaya, proposed by Lt.-Col. D. C. Phillott. 
seconded by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastn ; Kumar 
Manmatha Nath Mitra, Zemindar, Calcutta, proposed by Maha- 
inahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sl.astri, seconded by Babu Panchanan 
Mukhopadhyaya ; Sri Surendra P. Sanyal, Private Secretary to 
Raja Bahadur, Majhauli, U.P., proposed by Mahamahopadhya^ * 
Haraprasad Shastri, seconded by Lt.-Col. D C. Phillott ; and 
Mr. C. C. Young, Engineer, East Indian Railway, proposed by 
Major L. Rogers, J.M.S., seconded by Dr. W. C. Hossack ; were 
ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

Mr. L. L. Fermor exhibited some Indian stony meteorites 
recently acquired for the Geological Museum. 

They were as follows : 

(1) Two aerolites, weighing 1574 35 and 10006 grammes, re- 
spectively, which fell on 29th October, 1905, at Bholghati, Morbhan j 

1 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906.] 

State, Bengal. (The larger stone is the property of the Morbhanj 
Museum). They were seen to fall in i e daytime when the sky 
was clear, and the observer distinctly states that they were not 


(2) Two portions of an aerolite, weighing, respectively, about 
14,700 grammes, and 30866 grammes, which fell on the 27th 
April, 1905, at Karkh, Jhalawdn, Baluchistan This fall took 
place in the daytime when the sky wvifl clear, and was first noticed 
as a meteor or fire-ball having a tail of smoke. The larger 
specimen shows beautiful pittings and flow markings on the crust. 

(3) An aerolite weighing 1078*8 grammes which fell, it is said, 
during a thunderstorm, in August or September, 1878, near 
Haraiya, Basti district, UP. This meteorite is notable on account 

of its crust which shows delicate linear ridges radiating from the 
middle of one side of the stone. These ridges were produced by 
the action of the air on the fused exterior of the pieteorite as it 
sped rapidly through the atmosphere ; they enable one to orientate 
the stone with regard to its line of flight. 

The following papers were read : 

1. Note on a rare Indo-Pacific Bamach.—By >\ Asnanixvle, 
D.Sc., C.M.Z.S. 

2. Contributions to Oriental Herpei logy. No. IV.— Notes mi 
the Indian Tortoises.— B,j N. Annani-alk, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

3. Bau-dti and Merfits of Raj) "~ ~* ~ "" "" 
Communicated by Mr. R. Bi rn. 

4. An old reference to the Bhot/'c- _ # __ 
{ retired ) . 

5. The Common Hydra of Bengal ; its si/*/' latic Position and 
Life History.— By X. Axnandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

6. Revemw Regulation* of Anrangzih (with the Persian T' f 
of unique FarmSm from a Berlin 1 
Sarkar, M.A. 

7. The Bard, at KhalrV -< in Western Tibet.— By Rev. A. B 
Franc ke. 

Tin's paper will be published in the Memoir*. 

8. Parasites from the Gharial (Gaviahs gangeticus, Qeoffr.) 
By Dr. von Lin-stow, Gcettinyen. Communicated by Dr. Asnandaib. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings, 

9. ShaisiaKhan in Bengal, 1664-66.— Bu JadC Nath SaroR, 

10. Somr current Persian TaUt told by Profemondl >';"'#: 

lell ..•,.— By Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phill.-tt, Secretary^ Btor* °J 
Examiners, Calcutta. 

This paper will be published in the Memnfc 

* * * 


The following new hooks have been added to the Library 
during May 1906 : — 

Ahem, George P. A Compilation of notes on India-Rubber and 
Gutta-Percha. Manila, 1906. .8°. 

Department of the Interior, Bureau of Forestry, Bulletin, No. 3. 

Presd, by the Bureau. 

Annandale, N. Preliminary Report on the Indian Stalked 

Barnacles. [London, 1906.] 8°. 

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 1903. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Australian Museum. — Sydney. Nests and Eggs of Birds found 
breeding in Australia and Tasmania. By A. J. North. 

Vol. I, etc. Sydney, 1904, etc. 4°. 

Pre sd. hy the Museum. 

British Museum. — Natural Hidory. Catalogue of the Fossil 
Plants of the Glossopteris Flora in the Department of 

Geology. ..By E. A. N. Arber. London, 1905. 8°. 

Prt K by the Mu* m. 

Cabaton Antoine. Les Chams de Tlndo-Chine. Paris, 1905. 8° 

Ext rait de la Revue Coloniale. 

Dinkard. The Palila vi Dinkard. Book VI 1 Lithographed by 

Manockji Rustamji Unvala. Bombay, 1904. 4°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Parsee Punchayet Fund* and 

Properties, Bombay , 

PergUSOn, John. Bibliotheca Chemica : a catalogue of the 

alchemical, chemical and pharmaceutical books in the collec- 
tion of the late James Young of Kelly and Durris. 2 vols. 
Glasgow, 1906. 8°. 

Presd. by the Trustees to the Family of the Late James Young. 

Foster, William. The Journal of John Jourdain, 1606*1617, 
describing his experiences in Arabia, India and the Malay 

Archipelago. Cambridge, 1905. 8°. 

Hakluyt Society's Publications, Second S< ies, No. XVI. 

Presd. by the Govt, of India, Home Dept. 


Frazer, J. G. Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship 
London, 1905. 8°. 

Haas, W. R. Tromp de. Uitkomsten van de in 1905 verrichte 
aftappingsproeven met Hevea Brasiliensis in den Cultnurtain 
te Tjikemeuh verkregen. [Batavia, 1906.] 8°. 

Jong, Dr. A. W. K. de. De Verandering van het alkaloid der 
Cocabladeren met den ouderdom van het Blad. 
[Batavia, 1906.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzorg. 

Kern, H. Gedenkteekenen der onde indische Beschaving in 
Kambodja. [Batavia, 1904] 8°, 

Overdriik uit Onze Eeuiv, 1904. 

Presd. by the Author* 

Macdonald, George. Coin Types, Their origin and develop* 
ment. Being the Rhind lectures for 1904... With.. .plates. 
Glasgow, 1905. 8°. 

Margoliouth, D. S. Mohammed 
New York, London, 1905. 8°. 

Maule, William M. The Charcoal Industry in the Philippine 

Islands. 2. La Industria del carbon vegetal en las islas Pili- 

pinas. Manila, 1906. 8°. 

of the Interior, Bureau of 

Presd. by the Bureau 

Mehmed TschelebL Ein urspriinglich Tiirkisch verfaszter 
schwank in neupersischer iibersetzung. Nach einer handschrift 
herausgegeben und ins deutsche iibertragen von L. Pekotsch... 
Nach der Tiirkischen vorlage und einer Arabischen version 
untersucht und mit Textkritischen Anmerkungen versehen 
von Dr. M. Bittner. Wien, 1905. 8°. 

Mills, Dr. Lawrence Heyworth. Zoroaster, Philo and Israel, being 
a treatise upon the Antiquity of the Avesta. 
Leipzig, 1903-04. 8°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet Funds and 

Properties, Bombay. 


Missions Scientifiques au Spitzberg. Missions Scientifiquea pour 

la Mesure d'un Arc de Meridien au Spitzberg. Entreprises 
en 1899-1902. Sous les auspices des Grouvernements Suedois 
et Russe. Tome I, II Sect., B ; Tome I, V Sect. ; Tome II, 
VII Sect., A; Tome II, VIII Sect., A, B, B 1 -*, C ; Tome II. 
X Sec. Stockholm, 1904. 4°. 

Presd. by Mesure d'un Arc de Meridien au Spitzberg. 

Modi, Jivanji Jamshedji. Asiatic Papers : papers read before the 
Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 
Bombay, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Par see Panchayet Funds and 

Properties, Bombay. 

Murray, John. Handbook for Travellers in Asia Minor, Trans- 
caucasia, Persia, etc. Edited by Major-General Sir Charles 
Wilson. With maps and plans. London, 1905. 8°. 

Parts. — Bibliotheque Nationals Catalogue des manuscrits Persans. 
Par E. Blochet, Tome I, etc. Paris, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Sara sin, Paul and Fritz. Reisen in Celebes. Ausgefiihrt in den 

Jahren 1893-1896 und 1902-1903. 2 vols. 
Wiesbaden, 1905. 8°. 

Schroeder, Albert. Annam. Etudes Numismatiques. Text, 
and plates. Paris, 1905. 8°. 

Srlnivasa Dasa. *J?Pfa*ffiftfTOT (*^far) [Yatindramatadlpika... 
With commentary called Prokasa by Vasudera S'astri.] 
[Poona, 1906.] 8°. 

Ananddsrama Sanskrit Series, No. 50. 

Tchang", Mathias, S. J. Synchronismes Chinois. Chronologie 
complete et concordance avec Fere chretienne de toutes les 
dates concernant l'Histoire de l'Extreme-Orient, etc. 
Chang-Rat, 1905. 8°. 

Varietes Sinologiques, No. 24. 

Tisdale, Rev. W. St. Clair. The Original Sources of the Qur an 
London, 1905. 8°. 

Turner, Samuel. Siberia : a record of travel, climbing and ex- 
ploration... With an introduction by Baron Heyking. Illus- 
trated, etc. London. 1905. 8°. 


Verbeek, R. D. M. Description Geologique de L'lle D* Ambon. 
Text and Atlas. Batavia, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by Bis Excellency the Governor-General^ 

Netherlands, India. 

Wilbrink, G. Tweede Verslag van de Selectie — Proeven met de 
Natal — Indigoplant. Druhkerij\ 1906. 8°. 


Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzorg. 

Wright, William. Elementary Arabic : a Grammar by Frederic 
du Pre Thornton, being an abridgement of Wright's Arabic 

Grammar... Edited by R. A. Nicholson. Cambridge, 1905. 8°. 

Vol. II, No. 6.] 


Notes on the Indian Tortoises. 


28. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology. No. IV. — Notes on the 

Indian Tortoise*. — By N. Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 
(With one plate. ) 

Although the Indian Museum possesses an almost complete 
collection of the known Indian Chelonia, there is comparatively 
little to be said about the specimens ; few have been added 
during the last twenty years, and the late Dr. J. Anderson, who 
was mainly instrumental in getting the collection together, de- 
scribed the greater part of it in considerable detail. More recent- 
ly, however, Mr. G. A. Boulenger's Catalogue of the Chelonia in the 
British Museum (1889) and Reptilia and Batrachia ("Fauna of 
India/' 1890) have cast so much new light upon the group that 
notes may be useful on certain species. It is probable that con- 
siderable additions might be made to our knowledge if specimens 
were collected in the more remote districts of the Indian Empire, 
notably in Upper Burma and on the North-West Frontier. In the 
cases of land tortoises it is easy to transport living specimens, 
while even the skulls and shells of aquatic species would be 
valuable. In this connection I must express my thanks to Messrs. 
Vredenburg and Tipper, of the Geological Survey of India, and 
to the Political Agent at Kelat, for obtaiuing and sending to the 
Indian Museum from Baluchistan, a large series of one rare and 
important form. Similar consignments from other parts would be 
most gratefully received. 

It is unnecessary to mention the marine species. 


Trionvx gangeticus, Cuvier. 

We have several well-authenticated and t} r pical skulls from 


Emyda granosa (Schoepff). 

The typical variety appears to be widely spread in Upper 
India, to which it is probably confined. 

var. VJTTATA. 

E. vittata, Boulenger, Faun. Ind , Rept., p. 17. 

I cannot regard this form as more than a variety of E. granosa, 
its one constant diagnostic character being its coloration. Al- 
though it is common only in Ceylon and in Central and South- 
ern India, it extends northwards into southern Bengal ; I have 
examined specimens from Singhbhum. There are skeletons 
labelled as belonging to this form in the Museum from Chota 
Nagpur and Sind ; but their varietal identity is uncertain. 

204 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 


Testudo elegans (Schoeptf). 

There is a young specimen in the Museum from the Calcutta 
Botanical Gardens ; but Boulenger is probably right in stating the 
distribution of the species as u India (except Lower Bengal), " for 
many imported Reptiles have been found in the Botanical Gardens, 
and T. elegans appears to shun damp localities. 

Testudo pseudemys, Boulenger. 

T. pseudemys, Boulenger in Annan dale and Itol>inson, Fascic. 
Malay., Zool, 1, p. 144, Fig. 1 and PL IX, 

A young specimen from Pegu in the Museum agrees closely 
as regards skull characters with the type. The antero -lateral 
margins of the vertebral shields are, however, less markedly short- 
er than the postero-lateral. 

I have nothing to add to the discussion ;is to the distinction 
or agreement between T. emys and T.phayrei; but this specimen 

appears to be one of those associated with the latter name by 

Testudo horsfieldii, Gray (PL II, Fig. 2). 

T. horsfieldii, Boulenger, Gat. Cheknhm*, p. 178. 
There are specimens in the Museum from Afghanistan and 
Eastern Persia, and I have lately received twenty-three living ex- 
amples from Kehit. The latter vary considerably in size and age, 
and are of both sexes ; but although several have been injur I in 
the carapace and plastron, all have the < -i r» pace flattened in the 
dorsal region. The skulls of eight specimens have been examined ; 
they vary considerably in respect to the following characters: 
relative width ; flatness; relative breadth of the postorbital arch ; 
the development or absence of a transverse depression on the 
anterior part of the dorsal wall of the cranium ; and the decree 
of serration of the upper jaw. 

_ T. horsfieldii is an active species, walking, with considerable 
rapidity, very high on its legs. It is timid, but hisses when 
disturbed. When eating or drinking it occasionally emits a low 
croak like that of a frog. Captive specimens conceal themselves 
during the heat of the day and at night, feeding at dusk and in 
the early morning. They are fond of most flowers and fruits and 
of the thick, fleshy leaves of various plants; but they generally 
refuse to eat grass. *" * ' * " ~ " 


Females cap- 

April contained eggs of the size of duck shot ; 
™ « , a 11 lar ^ e specimen kill, d towards the end of May - 
were live fully-formed eggs with a thick, calcarious shell. The 
eggs measured 50 mm. by 35 mm 

Vol. II, TN T o. 6.] Notes on the Indian Tortoi*e$. 205 

Testcdo BALUCHIORUM, Annandale (PL II, Fig. 1). 
T. baluchiorum, Annandale, in Joum. As. Soc. Bengal, 1906, 

p. 75. 

This species is very close to the preceding one. The main 
difference lies in the shape of the carapace, which in T. hn/uchio- 
rum is not flattened in the dorsal region and descends more abrupt- 
ly at the sides aud in front. Neither the skull characters men- 
tioned in my original account of T. baluchiorum nor the number 
of tubercles on the back of the thigh can be regarded as affording 
a constant diagnosis, as T. horsfiehHi is evidently variable in these 

Of exotic tortoises of the genus Testudo in the Indian Museum, 
I may call attention to a large skull of the extinct T. triserratu 
from Mauritius, and series of skeletons of the Madagascan specie- 
T. radiafa. Most of the specimens of the latter species are labelled 
" Mauritius," and it is probable that large numbers were at one time 
introduced into Calcutta from Madagascar via that island. It is 
probable, further, that the species, which has certainly been con- 
fused in some cases with T. elegavs, is or was feral in parts of 
Bengal. As a parallel instance I may mention that the com- 
monest terrestrial Mollusc in Calcutta gardens is a snail introduced 
from Mauritius, namely, Acliatina fidica, Fer. 

Nicoria tkijuga (Sch weigg.). 

In my recent note ] on the distribution of the var. thermalis ni 
this species, 1 neglected to refer to Mr F. F. Laidlaw's* record of 
its occurrence in the Maldives, whither it has probably been 
brought from Ceylon. The var. edeniana probably occurs inChohi 

Na«n>ur, judging from the large size of skeletons from that district, 
as well as in Burma. 

BlLLIA crassicollis (Gray). 

In addition to specimens from Burma and Malaya, there is a 
skeleton in the Museum said to have come from Travancore. In 
several specimens examined, the serration of the posterior margin 
of the carapace is obsolete. 

Morknia pktersii, Anderson (PI. II, Fig, 4). 

There are several specimens in the Museum from the neigh- 
bourhood of Calcutta, as well as the types. 

M. petersii is easily distinguished from M. ocellata (PI. II, 
Fi<*. 3) by its coloration and by its skull characters; but the 
relative proportions of the plastral shields are not constant in 
either species. 

1 Mem. As. Soc. Bengal 1, p. 185. 

* In Gardiner's Maldives and Laccadives, Vol. I, p. 122. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

[June, 1906 

A List of the Indian Tortoises. 1 


1. Trionyx subplanus, Geoffr. 










gangeticus, Cuv. 
leithii, Gray 
hurum. Gray 
formosus, Gray 
phayrii, Theob. 

cartilagineus (Bodd 
Pelochelys cantoris, Gray 
Chitra indica (Gray) 
Emyda granosa (Sclioepff.) 
„ scutata, Peters. 


• •• 

• • • 

• • 

• • 

• •• 

• •• 

• I 

• • • 

Lower Burma. 

Ganges and Indus basins. 

South and Central India. 

Ganges and its tributaries. 

Rivers of Burma. 

Lower Burma. 

Lower Burma. 

Ganges and Burmese rivers. 
Ganges and Irrawaddy. 
Peninsular India, Burma and ( eyl 




Testudo elongata, Blyth 
? Testudo leithii, Gthr. 
14. Testudo elegans, Schoepff 


• • • 

• • i 

• • • 




• - t 

• • ■ 

• • • 

platyuota, Blyth 
emys Schleg. & M (ill. 
pseudemys,* Blgr. 
horsfieldii,* Gray. 

on n baluchiorum,* Annaud ... 

<*0. Geomyda spinosa (Gray) 

grandis, Gray 
depressa, Anders. 
23. Nicoria trijuga (Schweigg.) 




« . . 

. . . 

. . • 






35 . 




,, tricarinata (Blyth) 
Cyclemys platynota, (Gray) 

dhor, (Gray) 
mouhoti, Gray 

amboinensea (Daud.) 
Bellia crassicollis, Gray 

Damonia hamiltonii (Gray) 

Morenia ocellata (D. & B.) 

>> petersii, Anders. 
Hardella thurgi (Gray) 
Batagur baska ( Gray) 
Kachnga lineata (Gray) 

• •• 

* t . 

• • • 

• •• 

• • • 

• • . 

• # • 

• •• 



trivittata (D & B.) 
dhongoka (Gray) 
smithii (Gray) 

• • i 

- - - 

■ • - 




» sylhetensis (Jerd 

Kachnga intermedia, Blanf. 

Kachuga tectum (Gray) 


• • • 

« • i 


42. PIaty8ternum 


• • * 

• • ■ 

Bengal, Assam, Burma. 

? Sind. 

Peninsular India except Lower Ben- 
gal ; Calcutta (P introduced); Ceylon. 

Assam ; Burma. 
Lower Burma. 

Kelat, Baluchistan. 

Lower Burma. 
Lower Burma. 
Arakan hills. 

Peninsular India ; the Punjab 
Burma ; Ceylon ; the Maldives. 

Chota Xagpnr ; Bengal ; Assam. 

Lower Burma. 

Lower Burma. 

Assam ; Burma. 

Lower Burma ; Nicobars. 

Tenasserim ; Tra vancore. 

Northern Peninsular India ; th< 1 

Assam ; Burma. 
Lower Bengal. 
Ganges and Indus systems. 
Bengal ; Assam ; Burma. 
Northern and Central Peninsular 

India ; Burma. 

Ganges and Indus systems. 
Upper Ganges and Indus and 


Central Provinces; Godaveri. 
Ganges and Indus systems. 



nam^trinted\-?«^" ,afc a **?*** is O0W U) th rn,,ia » fa ™a since J890. The 
Museum lU1 ^s are those of ipeciea not represented in the Indian 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Note cm a rare hulo-Paeijic Barnacle 



29. Note on a rare Indo-Pacific llanvicle. — By X. Annavdam, 

D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 


cal wi 


the Indian from the British Museum ; they are labelled as hating 
been taken on a sea-snake (Hydrus plat urns) in Ceylon by Mr. E. E. 
Green. They differ from Darwin's description and figures {Manogr* 

^. t trrt _1 TTT X* O \ • i.U« .«„.J™, /!*,,* ,,«„:« Kl«\ 

Om\ Lep., p. 153, pi. Ill, fig. 3.) in the greater (but variable) 

relative length of the peduncle and in the fact that the terga 
are straight and the scuta, although 
calcified at alb 

of normal shape, hardly 
Hoek regarded Owen's species as probably do 
more than a variety of C. rirgatam (Spengler), a 

and probably a more widely 

more coin 
distributed form; and 

nion E ...... ^ „ 

specimen from the Ganges delta in the Indian Museum gives 

additional support to this view. In this specimen (Fig. 2) the 
scuta are distinctly Y-shaped, but the two upper arms are joined 
together at the base by a delicate, feebly calcified web ; the terga 
and carina are narrow and almost straight. The coloration is that 
of Spengler's form ; whereas the Ceylon specimens agree with the 
descriptions of the types of C. hiinteri, which Darwin believed to 
be faded, in their almost complete lack of pigment. Evident ly tins 
absence of pigment is characteristic. The appendages and mouth- 
parts are normal in all the examples I have examined. Major 
A. R. Anderson, I.M.S., has recently presented to the Museum I 
Hydrus plat urns from the Andamans to which typical examples of 
C. hunteri are attached. 

Fig. la. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig, 2. 


The Ceylon specimens may be regarded as slightly aberrant, 

pies of C. virgatum van hunteri t while that from -Bengal 

208 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

represents an intermediate variety. The typical hunteri is probably 
confined to the tropical parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the 
only localities hitherto fixed being the Maldives or Laccadives ' and 
New Britain. 3 The form has been taken on Hydriis platnrus on 
several occasions, and once on a telegraph cable. 

1 See Borradaile in Gardiner's Maldives and Laccadives, Vol, I, p. 441. 

2 See Stebbing in Willey's Zool. Remits, Part V, p. 676 # 

Vol. II, No. 6.1 The Raw fits and Merits of Rajputfina. 2Q£ 


30. The Raivats and Merdts of Rojputana. — By R. C. Bramley. 

Communicated by R. Born. 


The method by which Hinduism has gradually but silently 
extended its influence over the animistic tribes of India was 
graphically described by Sir Alfred Lyall in criticising a statement 
made by the late Profesor Mnx Mtiller, that Brahmanism was 
opposed to missionary work on its own behalf. Discussions which 
arose from enquiries made into problems in connection with the 
last census showed, however, that the process of absorption, though 
undoubtedly active, is not unaccompanied by difficulties. While 
the caste system of the Hindus is theoretically rigid, abundant 
evidence proves that, in reality, it is constantly being altered. 
Changes at present are chiefly disintegrations into separate endo- 
gamous groups, but at the same time there are instances of groups 
rising in position, and being recognised as members of one of the 
twice-born castes. As is only natural, the caste which chiefly re- 
ceives accessions in this manner is the Rajput. Its high position 
in society renders it a desirable group to belong to, while at the 
same time its unique formation in a number of exogamous clans, 
the members of which are bound by strict though varying rules 
of hypergamy, make it easier to enter than any other. When 
communications were difficult, it was possible for a tribe, after 
undergoing the slow process of absorption into Hinduism, and 
acquiring the whole paraphernalia of mythical ancestors and the 
like, to assume the desired position in its own territory unques- 
tioned. If its members subsequently acquired sufficient wealth 
and influence outside the tribal territory, there would not be much 
difficulty in contracting marriages with the lower groups of 




with the slow progress 

times. The circulation of printed books and railway communica- 
tions have had results which have been often recorded; but the 
following careful study by Mr. R. C. Bramley, District Superin- 
tendent of Police in Ajmer-Merwara, of the revolution in progress 
in a Rajpntana tribe, the Merats and Rawats, shows a new factor, 
the influence of military service. It is also valuable as illustrating 
the advantages which Islam possessed over Hinduism as a prosely- 
tising religion. 

R. Burn, 




1 . It is but seldom that an opportunity 

the rise and progress of a social revolution 
Introductory. among the inhabitants of the country. Such 

210 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

a movement, naturally, arouses considerable interest and is a fit 
subject of study. A social change is in progress in the small British 
district of Merwara in Rajputana. Those portions of the Merwara 
clans who profess to be Hindus and who, up to 1903, intermarried and 
interdined with the Herat Katats, who profess Muhammadan- 
ism, have now decided to abandon this intercourse, on the general 
ground that Hindus cannot intermarry and interdine with the adher- 
ents of another faith. It is a noteworthy thing that the inhabitants 
•of a particular district, some of whom have professed Hinduism and 
others Miihamrnadanism for centuries, and yet have interdined 
and intermarried freely, should suddenly abandon these old-estab- 
lished social customs on the ground that their religions are differ- 
ent. For centuries this difference of religion has been no barrier 
to social intercourse. Then how comes it to pass that it is now 
put forward as the reason for discontinuing social customs which 
have been in vogue for so long a time ? To trace the origin and 
progress of this movement, and to indicate its probable results, 
will be interesting as well as instructive. For the sake of conveni- 
ence, the Hindu portion of the Merwara clans will be referred to as 
Rawats and the Muhammadan portion as Merats. The term 
Rawat, it may be explained, is, in reality, a petty title of nobility ; 
but it is convenient, inasmuch as all Rawats are Hindus. 

2. In order to be able to understand a social revolution 

Merwara and the of . this nature > ** w necessary to know some- 
Merwara Clans. thing of the tract called " Merwara ' and ot 

the people who inhabit it. Merwara, which 
means the "hilly country" (Sanskrit mem, a hill) is a small 
British district in Rajputana lying between 25° 24' and 26° 11' N. 
and 73° 45' and 74° 29' E., and is one of the two districts which make 
up the small province of Ajmer-Merwara. Prior to 1818 its history 
is a blank. It was inhabited by people with the proclivities of 
Highland caterans, who acknowledged no master and who lived 
solely by plundering the surrounding Rajputana States. With 
*J© advent of the British in 1818 the scene changes and the history 
? f the district becomes one of its administration. Of the original 
inhabitants little or nothing is known. The district is said to 
have been an impenetrable jungle, and such information as is 
available goes to show that it was inhabited by Chandela Gujars, 
tfrahmans, Bhati Rajputs and Minas. The present people do 
not claim to be the original inhabitants. They are promiscuously 
designated " Mers " which means " hillmen." The name is not 
that of any caste or tribe and is only correct in so far as it means 
those who live on this portion of the Aravali range. The inhabi- 
tants claim descent from Prithwi Raj, the last Chauhan king of 
A]mer, who ruled in the 12th century of the Christian era. The 
story is that Jodh Lakhan, the son of Prithwi Raj, married a Mina 
girl L who had been seized in a raid near Bundi, thinking her to be 
a Kajputni. Subsequently he discovered his mistake and turned 
J? + ™ t y° son « Anhal and Anup away. The exiles wander- 
ni+nw ! "Pl^ the Beawar Pargana of Merwara, and were hos- 
pitably entertained by the Gajars of that place. One day the two 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The RawOts and Merats of Rajputana. 211 


brothers were resting under a bargad tree (Ficns indica) and 
prayed that, if their race was destined to continue, the trunk of the 
tree might be rent in two. This occurred instantly and raised 
Anhal and Anup from their despondency. The splitting of the fig 
tree is a cardinal event in the history of the race. There is a 
distich which runs : — ■ 

" Charar se Chita bhayo, aur 
Barar bhayo Bar- ghat 
Shakh ek se do bhaye 
Jagat bakhani Jat." 

11 From the sound " Charar" (the noise made by the splitting 
tree) the Chitas are called, and the clan Barar from the splitting 
of the fig tree. Both are descended from one stock. The world 
has made this tribe famous." 

3. Anhal settled at Chang and, in course of time, his descend- 
on! a Ph"taq an ^ s ex terminated the Gujars who had 

succoured the exiles. This was the origin 
-of the Chita clan, which waxed strong and multiplied and 
established many villages in Merwara and a few in Ajmer. 
There are several subdivisions of the Chita clan, the most 
numerous and important of which is that of Merats, a term 
synonymous with a Muhammadan Mer. The word " Merat " is 
derived from Mera, the common ancestor of Merat Katats, who 
are Muhammadans, and Merat Gorats, who are Hindus. In the 
controversy which has arisen between the Hindu and Muham- 
madan clans of Merwara the Merat Katats represent the latter 
element — all other clans are arranged on the side of Hinduism. 

4. The origin of the Merat Katats here claims notice. One 

Hurraj, the grandson of Mera, took service 
The Merat Karats. ftt Delhi under the Emperol . Aurangzeb. 

During a night of terrific rain, he remained at his post as sentry 
and sheltered himself under his shield. 1 The matter was brought 
to the notice of the Emperor who is reported to have said : 

" In the Marwar tongue they call a brave soldier Kata : let 
..this man be henceforth called Kata, 

Shortly after this, Hurraj embraced Muhammadanism and 
was the progenitor of the Merat Katats. The Katats settled in 
several villages in the Beawar Tahsil and spread northwards 
into Ajmer. They hold (1904) 93 villages in Merwara. 

5. The Merat Gorats, who are Hindus, are descended from 

Gora, who was the brother of Hurraj. 
The Merat They spread southwards and are to be 
Gorats. found pVi nc ipally in the Todgarh Tahsil. 

6. The next clan which claims notice is the Barar clan. 

Anup, the brother of Anhal, settled at 
The Barar Clan. BarS a W ara, now Todgarh, and founded the 

Barar clan. His descendants proved less enterprising than the 


i The same story is told of several people, e.g., Muhammad Khan 
Bangash of Farrukhabad. — R. B. 

212 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

Chitas and are to be found only in Merwara. They like being 

called Rawats. 

7. In addition to the Chitas (with their subdivisions of 

Merat Katats and Merat Gorats) and the 
Other Clans. Baraj clan's who claim descent from Anhal 

and Anup, the grandsons of the Chauhan King, Prithwi Raj, there 
are other clans such as the Praraar, the Moti, the Gehlot and 
others who claim descent from others than a Chauhan Mina stock. 
Members of these clans are to be found in both Ajmer and 
Merwara. It is not necessary to set forth in detail the ancestry 
of each. For the purposes of this controversy it is sufficient to 
say that they all profess Hinduism and are called " Rawats," 
which in everyday use is understood to mean a Hindu Mer as 
opposed to a Merat, by which is understood a Muhammadan Mer. 

8. Whatever the origin of the various Merwara clans was, 

and whether they called themselves Hindus 

The Custom and or Muhammadans, their customs were tlie 

R f el tvP°w Bel - iefs same. With certain well-defined restric- 

CJlans 6 9 r W a r * tions > sucl1 as that a Chit " could n0t marl ? *} 

Chita or a Bara r , the clans intermarried 

and interdined. These restrictions have, however, been modified 
since 1875. The Barar clan live principally in the Todgarh 
Tahsil. Enquiries made in that Tahiti show that the Rawats 

there gave up intermarrying 20 years ago with Merats. The 
stopping of such marriages compelled Merats to seek husbands 
for their girls elsewhere. So now Merats marry Merats. Chang, 
Lulwa and Jhak are full of such marriages. It was by a mere 
chance that one of the descendants of Anhal embraced Muham- 
madanism and so introduced the religion into the district, lhe 
plant was an exotic which was compelled to struggle nlong as 
best it could. Even the bigot Aurangzeb made no attempt to 

compel the i 


No Mullas or Maulvis sprang up in Merwara to instruct the 
Merats in the religion which they had adopted. Under these cir- 
cumstances, it is matter for small wonder that Islam never gained 
ground in the district, and that those who profess the Muham- 
madan religion have always been in the minority. It is natural 
also that the Merats, with their vague notions of the tenets ot 
their religion and with no desire to make proselytes from their 
Hindu brethren, should continue the social customs of the 
majority of the inhabitants of Merwara, with many of whom they 
had a common ancestor and with the majority of whom 
they had always intermarried and interdined. The fact ot 
the matter is, that the difference in religion had hitherto 
been one in name only. The Hinduism of the Rawats, 
like the Islam of the Merits, is of a very vague and 
undefined description. The isolated position of 
physical features have prevented it from bei 


icr exploited by 


— — -«» »uva ^*.M.Aic*m. mouttu xiLuiiaa, u.inncui.i""'^*^© 

of the Brahmanical and Muhammadan faiths. Move throu 
Merwara district, and statelv Hindu t«mnles and Muham 

[ K. s. ] 

} The Rawftts and MerSts of RajputSna. 213 

mosques will not meet the eye. They are conspicuous by their 
absence. The ordinary Rawat worships incarnations of Siva, 
such as Mataji and Bhairunji, and talks of Parameshwar in 
a vague way, without a clear understanding as to who Parameshwar 
is. "The Sarkar is our Parameshwar, was the answer once 
returned by a number of Rawats, who were asked who Paramesh- 
war was. As for the Merfits, tliey resort to circumcision and 

bury their dead, but, beyond this, it is doubtful whether they 
pay any attention to the tenets of their faith. In physique, 
habits and personal appearance, the Rawats and ^lerats are 
alike. Their dress is similar, and it is only the experienced eye 
which can detect, by small difference in their clothes, whether a 
Rawat on a Merat is being addressed. For instance both Rawats 
and Merits will wear a batch tari, a dhoti and a turban, which 
appear to be exactly similar; but the bakhtan (jacket) worn by the 
Merats will open on the left, that worn by the Rawats on the 

right. . . i vi i 

9. Constituted as the Merwara clans are, it is hardly likely 

that the elements of disintegration would be 

The influences found within the house. Outside influences 

which have have been at work to bring about the pre.— 

brought about the ent state f a iJ a i rs . As far back as 1875 

movement in its Mr , Now Sir j ames ) La Touche recorded in 

riSontf his Gazetteeer of Ajmer-Merwara that a 
each clan. tendency was apparent on the part ot tfte 

Merat s to abandon their ancient customs 
and assimilate with orthodox Muhammadans, while among the 
Rawats of Todgarh the tendency was to adopt the rules of Brill- 
manism, as practised by the Rajpiir> of surrounding Native 
States For some 25 years these tendencies appear to have lam 
more or less dormant, after which a series of events occurred, 
which have brought about a complete upheaval of the existing 
social customs of the clans. A good deal of feeling has been 
created on both sides, and the popular belief is that the present 
movement has been, and is being, fostered by those who enlist m 
regiments of the Indian Army, where they find themselves m 
anomalous positions besides orthodox Hindus and Muhammadans. 
Evidence is not wanting that the Brahmanical influence has been 
stronger than that of Islam, and the Rawats are, in reality, foster- 
iue the movement. Each clan seeks to throw the responsibility 
on to the other. The Rawats contend that the movement has 
been brought about by the Me. ate giving their daughters in mar- 
riage to Muhammadans of an undesirable class, and by marrying 
within degrees of relationship which are clearly prohibited, the 
beef-eating propensities of the Merits are also mentioned as an- 
other item in the programme to which the Rawats object These 
practices, which are, they say, abhorrent to them have increased 
verv much of late, and they only want the Merits to abandon them 
and all will be well. The Merits, on their part, contend that they 
have not departed from their old-established customs as regards 
hose to whom they give their daughters in marriage or as regards 

214 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906, 

the degrees of relationship within which they marry, or in the 
matter of beef -eating, and that the rupture has been brought about 
by the Rawats who want themselves considered " Rajputs." The 
situation as sketched by the people themselves is : 

(i) The general belief is that the movement is being fostered 

by those who have served or are serving in regiments,, 
and this is the outside influence which has tended to- 
bring about a rupture, 
(li) The Rawats condemn the matrimonial practices and beef- 
eating propensities of the Merits, and Bay that the 
extent to which these practices have increased of late 
is the cause of the dispute, 
(iii) The Merits deny the foregoing contention and sny that 


the Rawats have brought about the dispute by wanting 
to be considered ' Rajputs.' 
It now remains to be seen what evidence has been pro- 
duced in support of each of the above points. 

10. In order to be able to form an opinion as to what innu- 
The ree" t ences, if a^ h ave b een exerted by men 

which enlist Mer! wh ? have 8erved or are sti11 8ervin £ . in 
wara clans. regiments, it is nece ary to see which 

regiments in the Indian Army enlist Mer- 
wara clans and what their organization is. 
There are five such regiments : 

(i) The 44th Merwara Infantry, 
(ii) The 119th Rajputana Infantry, 
(ni) The 120th Rajputana Infantry, 
(iv) The 122nd Rajputana Infantry. 

(v ) The 43rd Erinpura Regiment. 

Numbers (i) and (v) are fixtures at Ajmer and Erinpura. 
Numbers (ii), (iii), an d (i v ) are stationed at places in the Western 

ITnmma-w/J TU^ linn ir^.i -. .. ^~ - r . J „* 

Command. The 119th, 120th and 122nd are each composed of 




ana Central India), and two companies Hindustani Muhammad- 

aD i S; i \ Q 43rd Erin P ura Regiment has al>out 200 Men and Merits, 
while the 44th Merwara Infantry (late Merwara Battalion) is 
composed entirely of Merwara elans. This regiment stands by 
itself and a brief history of it will, perhaps, not be out of place. 
Ihe regiment was raised in June 1822 by Captain Hall, who was 
then m charge of Merwara, as part of the policy whereby the wild 
elans of the district were reclaimed from their predatory habits. 
It was originally called the " Merwara Local Battalion." In 1858 
a second battalion called the " Mhair Regimen- " was raised for 
services in the Mutiny. I M i860 the two battalions were amal- 
gamated into what is known as the " Mhairwara Military Police 

1 Includes Rawats and Merate. 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Bmc-ats and Herat s of Rdjputdna. 215 


Battalion" and continued under this name till 1871, when it was 

reorganised under the name of the " Mer 
which designation it continued till 1903, when, on the renumbering 
of the Native Army, it became tbe 44th Merwara Infantry- It 
has always been composed entirely of Rawats and Merats, and no 
distinction was held between the clans until 1903, when the 
dispute assumed its present aspect, and orders were received that 
the regiment was to be composed of four companies Mers and four 
companies Merats. These orders were recently modified and the 
organization of the regiment is now six companies Mers and two of 
Merats. The right wing of the regiment went to Mhow for some 
six months in 1902, and, in the same year, some men of both clans 
went with the Coronation Contingent from the regiment. The 
119th, 120th and 122nd Infantry move about in relief along with 
other' regiments. These regiments have been enlisting men from 
Merwara since 1887- It is, therefore, clear that the Merwara 
clans have, during the last J 7 years, come in closer contact with 
the various castes and creeds to be found in India than they did 
formerly. It would be only natural that they, with their vague 
religious ideas, should, in the course of time, be influenced by the 
orthodox followers of Hinduism on one hand and of Islam on the 
other, and should each strive to be considered orthodox followers of 
Hinduism, or Muhammadanism, in order to be able to free them- 
selves from a social state which they both found anomalous. The 
belief that the outside influence which has caused the rupture has 
come from regiments is, therefore, based on reasonable grounds. 
To be able, however, to grasp the movement, it is necessary to go 
back to 1875— in which year Mr. (now Sir James) La Touche 
wrote his Gazetteer of Ajmer-. Merwara. • _ 

11. For some 25 years after Sir James La Touche wrote, 

the tendencies he indicated appear to have 
The progress of made but little or no progress. Outside 

eVe Snn fr ° m influences had not been brought to bear 

to 1900. on tte clang) and m wats an d Merats inter- 

red and interlined or not according to their personal inclina- 


tions About 1900, however, commenced a series of events which 
turned the scales, and it was about that year in which the question 
be<ran to assume its present aspect. And here it becomes necessary 
to examine the contentions of the two clans. 

12 As has already been stated, the Rawats contend that the 

matrimonial practices and beef-eating pro- 

The contention pens i t i es f the Merats are responsible for 

of the Rawats. the ruptnrep As regards the former, they 

state that the Merats gave their daughters to low-class Muhamnia- 
dans and marry within degrees or relationship which are prohibit- 
ed. These statements are put forward, in the first instance, as if 
these practices were something quite new, but if those who make 
them be examined ever so lightly, they are compelled to admit that 
practices which they now apparently object to so strongly, have 
been going on for years, and they then endeavour to screen them- 
selves behind tbe contention that they have increased to a very 

216 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

great extent in recent years, and this has brought about the 
rupture. The Merats reply to these allegations that they still 
give their daughters in marriages to the same Muhammadan 
families as in the past, and that they have always married 
within degrees of relationship (i.e., cousins) to which the 
Rawats now object. The enquiries made go to show that 
the Rawats have by no means substantiated their case. 
Rawats of various villages from the Todgarh Police circle on 
the south to villages in the Pushkar, Gegal and Srinagar police 
circles in the Ajmer district on the north have been questioned as 
to the reasons of the split. They all give undesirable matrimonial 
alliances and the beef-eating propensities of tin* Merats as the 
reasons, and say they gave up marrying at periods varying from 
20 years ago onwards, for these same reasons. The matrimonial 
customs and beef-eating propensities of the Merats are, on the 
showing of the Rawats themselves, nothing new, and, it seems 
clear, that what the Rawats term reason* are really excuses. Some 
of them have stated in the most barefaced manner that Merit girls 
were married to " Moohis w and "Regain" and other unclean 
sects in Ajmer and other places. These allegations have, on enquiry, 
been found inaccurate, and would appear to be wholly unjustified. 
Merat girls are, as a rule, married to Merats, while some are 
married to Khadims and snch like in Ajmer. It is true that 
Muhammadans of high social standing will not intermarry with 
Merits, though they will allow their M Golas " or sons from con- 
cubines to marry Merat girls, because they cannot get wives from 
among good Muhammadan families for such sons. On the other 
hand, the Merats certainly do not degrade themselves to the extent 
of giving their girls in marriage to Mochis and other unclean sects. 
Numerically the Merats are much inferior to the Rawats. By 
the time their own brethren, Khadims and such like have 
been provided with wives, the number of marriageable Merat 
girls must be very small. It is, therefore, probable that 
Rawat-Merat marriages * have never been very numerous. 
Isolated cases occur even now; one occurred in April 1904 in 
Chang, but they are not acceptable to either clan. To whom- 
soever the Merats marry their girls it has not been proved 
that they do so to persons lower in the social scale than the 
Rawats themselves are The statement of the Rawats as regard- 
Merats marrying their girls to unclean Muhammadan sects has 
been found inaccurate. The conclusion, therefore, as regards the 
contention of the Rawats on the matrimonial aspect, appears to be 
clearly against them. The beaf -eating contention is not worth 
serious discussion. The Rawats certainly have not progresssed 
along the paths of orthodox Hinduism to a degree which would 
justify their looking upon beef-eating with the same horror as a 
tfrahman. The beef-eatin ff cry is a palpable excuse. The Rawats 
nave tailed to substantiate their case. Per contra they appear to 

Dorted^n > « ™ eil (? iw,,tB )» however, in the 44th Merwara Infantry, are re- 
ported to ba married to Merit women. 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Rawats and Merats of Rajput ana. 217 


have made every effort to exaggerate it. The Merats say they do 
not give their girls in marriage to new sects or marry them within 
-closer degrees of relationship than before, and this has not been 
controverted by the Rawats. 

12. Now as to the contention of the Merats, that the Kawats 

have brought about the rupture by wishing 

nfThS M C ^ ntl ° n to »,e considered Rajputs. To arrive at a 

conclusion, a series of events since 1900 

have to be examined. 

13. About 1900, as far as has been »-cert a ined, occurred 

the first of a series of events which, if not 

The social dis- the origin of the movement in its present 

pute between s hape, gave it a considerable impetus. 

Rawats and Me- ^ ou t that year a question arose in one of Hie 

abouri90Sf Elment regiments, ihich enlist men from Merwara, 

regarding the social customs 01 the two 
clans, which appears to have developed into something approaching 
a dispute. It has not been possible to ascertain precisely what 
occasioned the difference, but accounts appear to agree that, while 
Merats were allowed to eat and smoke with orthodox filnham- 
madans, the Rawats, who claimed to be Hindus, and yet inter* line*! 
with Merats, were excluded by orthodox Hindis and Muham- 
madans alike. Thu^. while the Merats succeeded in getting 
themselves recognized as Mnhamnwdans to an appreciable stent, 

apparently, the Rawats were recognized by the followers of ne.t In r 
religion They thus found themselves in a very anomalous, not 
to s°ay awkward, position as compared with the Merats, and then 
position was, no doubt, the theme of much di -u-ion and com- 
ment and, perhaps, banter in the regiment At this turning 
point in the history of the clans, the Merats, by being allow,.! o 
smoke and dine with orthodox Muhammadans, would appear tl 
have -ained a decided advantage. The natural course for the 
Rawats would be to do their utmost to free themselves from « 
Wious a position. Their brethren had, to some extent, got 
Ihlmsdves recognised as Muhammadans. It, therefore, became 
icTmbent that they should make efforts to get themselves 
in - — - How the dispute was for the time 

beinF settled is by no means clear, but that it gave rise to a 

situation such as that sketched above seems certain. The advan- 
ce trained by the Merats was a matter which the Rawats could 
ortainlV not forget or forgive. Here, at any rate, was "the 

little rift within the lute." And now we may move on to the 

next step in the series of events under d.x'ussion 

14 Subsequent to the occurrence sketched m the jrecedin, 

™racrranh. the regiment in which the 

The influence of difference had occurred was transferred to 
Brahmanism and Allahaba d. The Rawats found themselve- 
Islam. at Pravag5 a holy place, where Brahmanieal 

influences are strong, which, no doubt, were brought to bear 
on them to a considerable extent. On the other hand, the Merats 

under the influence of Maulvis and Mullas to a greater 


218 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

extent than they had done before. Thus two antagonistic and 
powerful influences were brought to bear on the clans, whose 
difference in religion, had, so far, been one simply in name. The 
breach which had been caused by the unfortunate difference 
referred to was widened. Raw r ats and Merits ascended one more 
rung on the ladder of separation. The Brahmanical influence 
was, apparently, the stronger, and events now commenced to move 
forward with a certain degree of celerity. Matters had gone 
too far to be allowed to stand still any longer. 

15. The time had come for the Rawats to decide whether tliey 

would continue their old social customs or 

The Meeting of not, and those who were engineering the 

Rawats in the Sri- movemen t decide I, it seems, on the latter 

to^jmaS April ~««- Ifc became necestwjy to show by 

1902. some unmistakeable action that ancient cus- 

toms were to be abandoned. Accordingly, 
on the 18th April 1902, a meeting of about 260 Rawats, some of 
whom were from Merwara, took place in the Srinagar Police 
Circle, in the Ajmer district, at -which it was proposed that 
Rawats were not to give their daughters in marriage to Chitas, of 
whom Merats are a subdivision, as they were Muhammadans. The 
meeting appears to have been more of a demonstration than any- 
thing else. It was not convened with the idea of laying down 
rules for future guidance, which were to have the force of law, 
so to speak. It did not result in the dispute assuming an acute 
form. The delegates met and stated Rawat-Chita marriages 
were to stop, but beyond talk of this nature, no decided action 
was the outcome of the meeting. So much, however, may be 
taken for certain, that the meeting was brought about by outside 
influences : it was the precursor of other meetings of a similar and 
more decisive nature, and was significant as indicating that the 
controversy had passed from tlie region of thought to that of 
action . 

16. In May 1902 the Coronation Contingent went to England. 
m hA rw^r, m A detachment from the 44th Merwara l 11 " 

Contingent fantr 7> tten the Merwara Battalion, consist- 

ing of members of both clans, formed part 
of it. The journey to and from, and the sojourn in, England 
appears to have accentuated the difference. The'Rawats, it is said, 
gave themselves out as " Rajputs/' but were twitted by ortho- 
dox Hindus from other regiments, who also formed part of the 
contingent and who, not unnaturally, expressed surprise at people 
who professed to be u Rajputs," eating their food with their clothes 
on instead of bare-headed and wearing only a dhoti. Further- 
more, the Rawats and Merats used to eat together, it is said, and 
here again orthodox Hindus wanted to know how "Rajputs 
could eat with those who professed Mnhammndanism. Questions 
which were asked were distinctly awkward, and the Rawats, it 
seems, were made to feel, more than ever, t b at, although they 
proteased Hinduism, they were, reallv, in the matter of caste and 
religion, neither -tish, flesh, fowl, ncr good red herring" in the 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Rawats and Merats of Baj'putSna. 219" 


eyes of orthodox Hindus. Then again, it is said, the Merats 
refused to eat the meat of the sheep and goats provided, because 
the animals had not been hallaled. The Rawats, possibly, 
regarded this as an attempt on the part of their brethren to pose 
as better Muhammailans than they really were, and perhaps 
thought it was done on purpose. But, whatever the relations be- 
tween the Rawats and Merats were, on the journey to and from 
and during their stay in England, the Rawats appear to have 
realised more strongly than before that while the Merats had, at 
any rate, some observances which were in conformity with ortho- 
dox Muhammadanism, they (Rawats) had uncommonly few, if 
any, which conformed to orthodox Hinduism. The breach was 
widened still more and it became necessary for Rawats to take 
further steps to get themselves recognized as orthodox Hindus. 

17. The men who went to England with the Coronation 

Contingent from the 44th Merwara Infantry 

The anti-kine- returne a in August 1902. In the early part 

killing letters. of September 190 2 anti-kine-killing letters, 

similar to those which were circulated in Bengal and the United 
Provinces a few years back, were put into circulation. The letters 
were in Hindi, and the following is an English translation : 

«« A voice has been heard by Sri Jagannathji, Baying, if any Hindu sells a 
cow to a butcher, or enters into any financial transaction with any butcher. 1 
will go away to Ceylon. If anyone receiving this letter does not make five 
copies of it and distribute them he will be guilty of killing cows." 

The circulation of these letters spread rapidly, but the moA 
ment was very closely watched by the police, and, by degrees, 
the circulation died out. The letters created no feeling among the 
populace generally, but, there are some points connected with the 
movement which appear to have an important bearing on the 
Rawat-Merat Controversy : 

(i) The villages in which the letters were first found appeared 

to indfeate that the movement was one towards ortho- 
dox Hinduism on the part of the Rawats. 

(ii) The letters were put into circulation soon after the return 

of the Coronation Contingent. This lends colour to the 
idea that Rawats, who had been to England, bad 
something to do with the movement at its commence- 
ment. If orthodox Hindus of Ajmer had put the 
letters into circulation, they would have done so in 
1899-1900, when the famine was raging, and, for some 
months, hundreds of cattle were killed daily at ^a?lra- 
bad for the sake of the hides. For the purposes of the 
question under discussion, it is useful to know that 
Rawats were concerned in the circulation of the letters 
very early in the day, and this at a time when some of 
them had recently retu rned from England, after a journey 
and sojourn in which the influence of orthodox 1 1 mduism 
had been brought to bear on them with a considerable 
amount of force. 

220 .' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

18. For some months, after the circulation of the anti-kine- 
mii t\ a ii n killing letters, matters remained dormant. 

f erence. In Ma ? 1903 a lar S e meefcin g of Karats was 

held at Dadalia in the Todgarh Police 

Circle in Merwara. Some Rawats will maintain that the meeting 
was held merely to re affirm social customs which had been dis- 
located by the famine of 1899-1900. Merats will say that letters 
were circulated at the Conference requesting Rawats to make 
their wives and daughters dress in Rajput fashion, but, whatever 
the meeting was held for, it set the whole community by the ears 
and raised the question in its present acute form. At the Dadalia 
Conference it was laid down, in the most decided manner, that the 
former social intercourse was to cease, while the allegation that 
efforts were made at the Conference to make Rawat women dress 
like Rajputnis is by no means devoid of foundation. The Con- 
ference was presided over by a Jogi of Saran in Marwaj-, who is a 
priest of the Rawats, and, ever since it was held, the whole social 

organization of the Merwara clans haa been upset. Petitions 
have been flying about, each party hai accused the of lier of un- 
worthy acts, and many harsh things have been said on both sides. 
A more unfortunate occurrence than the Conferee at Dadalia is 
not to be found in the annals of [Merwara. 

19. Since the Dadalia Conference a few incident* have taken 
■RVpnto oir, ti. P^ce which claim brief mention. In Sep- 

DiTdalia Confer- tember 1903 ■ meetin g of Ra * ats and Me " 
ence. rats was held at Beawar at the time of the 

Tejaji Fair with a view, apparently, of 
settling the difference, but no understanding was arrived at owing 
to the terms imposed by each party, which will be referred to 
hereafter being well nicrh impossible. An occasional letter has 
been circulated, saying, Rawats we not to marry into Herat 
families There can be no question but that the social organiza- 
tion otthe Merwara clans has been seriously upset. 

-0. The foregoing series of events indicntes that lince 1900 
A review of tv» Brahmanical influence, in a powerful form. 

foregoing events has been bro "* ht *o bear on the Biwati 

and the conclusion serv ing in regiments, and they, in their turn, 
as to the conten- have sought to influence their fellow clan8- 
tion of the Merats. men in their Tillages. The difference in the 
, regiment (para. 13) showed clearly that the 

3Ierats adapted themselves to the Muhammadan faith and were, to a 
c f*J ln extenfc > recognized as Muhammadans by orthodox followers 
ot the Prophet. The Rawatft, on the other hand, could not gain ad- 
mission to the more ri«nd folds of orthodox Hinduism. They called 
themselves Hindus, but were not recognized as such in the regi- 
ments m which they served. Ever since the movement sprang up 
in its present shape, the Brahmanical influence haa been stronger 
tnan that of Islam and has been impelling the Rawats to get 
,£^ orthodox Hindus. The majority of them 

tn Zl a 1 1 !i put ( Chauh * n ) ancestry, and, in fact, have commenced 
xo record themselves as Chauhans. when entering service at a 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The RawHts and Merats of Rqjpntilna. 221 

distance from their homes. 


Rajputs, and be recognized as such, their hearts' desire would be 
attained and the matter would be settled. They do not appear to 
have recognized the difficulties which would beset the realization 
of their dreams. They started on their course without properly 
feeling their way, and succeeded in upsetting the social organiza- 
tion of the Merwara clans at the Dadalia Conference, without bet- 
tering their own social position in the slightest degree. A review 
of the situation since 1900 shows that the contention of the Merits, 
that the rupture has been brought about by the Rawats wanting 
themselves considered " Rajputs/' has a considerable amount of 
force in it. At any rate, the Merats have gone a much longer 
way towards proving their contention than the Rawats have 

theirs. r 

21. Such is the history of this remarkable rupture as gleaned 

from Rawats and Merats themselves. The 
The attitude of quarrel is, naturally, between those who live 
the people general- in Merwara principally. There are some 
ly, the relations Chita and Rawat villages in Ajmer, but 
between the par- t ^ e i v inhabitants have played a minor part 
ties and probable .^ the matfcer# The attitude of the people of 

?Se quarrel 68 f Merwara towards the raptare is generally 

speaking, one of apathy. 1 hey know ot the 
uuarrel they feel the outside influence, bat they are too much con- 
cerned with their daily avocations to give the subject much 
thought The controversy is, to all intents and purposes, confined 
to those villages which provide men for regiments though of 
course, meetings like that at Dadalia have helped to spread the 
difference. The relations between the parties are, naturally 
enough, not cordial, but while the Rawats are agitating mxth he 
sole object of getting themselves recognized as Rajputs, the 
Merats are not much put out about the social aspect. The reh- 
gious I eeling is not sting enough yet, on the part of the Merats at 
Wt any rate to bring about any untoward consequences, but the 
harmony which formerly prevailed among the Merwara clans has 
SeTshiken to a considerable extent, and the social organization 
upset These consequences are, in themselves, regrettable. H 
would be a thousand pities if the social organization of the Merwara 
clans as it existed prior to their quarrel, assuming an acute form 
tre 3 ' swept away. It was an organization pecuhar^ its own and 


Bt7a s to "^ aaTes^y this desirable state of thiags. by a ludi 
croaT attempt to get themselves reeogaized as Hmdas of 
social standing, is very unwise. ... 

22 It may be asked if there are any chances of a reconcilm- 

tion. Some influential men on both sides 

Chances of re- appear to think reconciliation is possible. 

conciliation. Rawats and Merats discussed the question 

*f the meeting held at the Tejaji Fair, at Beawar, in September 

f 9 03 Each side imposed certain conditions. The Rawats wish 

the Merats to 

222 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

(i) Cease intermarrying among themselves. 
(ii) Cease giving their daughters in marriage to Muham- 

(iii) Cease eating the flesh of cows or buffaloes, 
(iv) Cease giving their pipes to Muhammadan Fakirs to 

smoke. 1 

The Merats, on their part, required the Rawats to 

(i) Cease eating pig. 

(ii) Cease eating animals killed by violence, i.e., otherwise 

than hallaled. 

If the Merat-Katats and Merat-Gorats 2 could be induced to 
come to an understanding a reconciliation might possibly be 
effected, but, it is alleged, that there are some mischief -makers 
about, who are preventing a reconciliation. A committee of influ- 
ential, broadminded, tolerant men of both chins, with a competent 
President, might possibly effect a good deal. The Merats have, 
so far, maintained a very reasonable attitude as regards the quar- 
rel. The Rawats, by holding meetings such as the Dad alia one, 
have agitated in a manner very distasteful to the Merats. With 
skilful and patient handling the clans may yet be induced to for- 
get and forgive and return to their former social customs, but the 
chance of a reconciliation now seem very remote. It may be 
noted that the Merats have not held a single mec ing so far after 
the fashion of the Rawats. 

1 Another condition the Rawats wish to impose is said to be that a 
Bawat woman married to a Herat should be burned at death They have al- 
ways been buried. 

2 The Merat-Gorats are said to be the keenest on separation of all the 
various Rawat clans. Enquiries in Merwara have not revealed that they 
•were agitating more than others. 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Revenue Regulation* of Auranqzib. 223 

[N.S.-] J 

31. The Revenue Regulations of Aurangzib (with the Persian text^ 

of two unique farmam from a Berlin Manuscript.) — Bij Jadu- 
nath Sarkar, M.A., Professor, Patna College. 


A Persian manuscript of the Berlin Royal Library (Perteeh'fl 
Catalogue, entry No. 15 (9) //. 112, 6.-125, a. and 15 (23) ff. 267, a.- 
272, a.) gives, among other things, two farmnns of the Emperor 
Aurangzib. I have not met with any other copy of these docu- 
ments in any European or Indian public library; the first (the 
farman to Muhammad Hashim) is absolutely unique ; but of the 
other (the farman to Rasik Das) a second but very incorrect copy 
was presented to me by Maulvi Muhammad 'Abdul-' Aziz of Bhitri 

Sayyidpur, District Ghazipur, the agent of Mr. W. Irvine, I.C.S. 
(retired). The Berlin MS., though beautifully written, is often in- 
correct. The text of the first farman is accompanied by a highly 
useful commentary in Persian, written on smaller leaves placed 
between but paged consecutively. In my edition of the text, every 
important departure from the original has been noted, but evident 
slips have been silently corrected. In two places good readings 
could be secured only by departing very far from the text ; but thi 
I have not ventured to do, preferring to leave the original un- 
altered. Photographic reproductions (rotary bromide prints) of 
the Berlin MS. were secured for my work. 

For the meanings of Indian revenue terms I have consulted 
(1) British India Analyzed (ascribed to C. Greville), London, 1795, 
Part I. ; (2) Wilson's Glossary ; and (3) Elliot and Beames's Sup- 
plementary Glossary, 2 vols. The last two are likely to be acces- 
sible to the reader; and I have referred, in my notes, to the first 
work only, partly on account of its extreme scarcity and partly 
because it was nearest in time to the period of Mughal rule. The 
Berlin MS. will be called the A Text, and the Ghazipur one the 
B Text. The punctuation of the text is my work. 


Farman of the Emperor Aurangzib-' Alamgir, in the year 1079 A.H^ 

on the collection of revenue. 


[112,6.] Thrifty Muhammad Hashim, hope for Imperial 
favours and know 

That, as, owing to the blessed grace and favour of the Lord of 
Earth and Heaven, (great are His blessings and universal are His 
gifts!) the reins of the Emperor's intention are always turned t<» 
the purport of the verse, " Verily God commands with justice and 
benevolence," and the Emperor's aim is directed to the promotion 
jof business and the regulation of affairs according to the Law 
[113, a] of the Best of Men, (salutation and peace be on him and 

1 June 1668— May 1669; the 11th year of the reign. 

224 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

his descendants, and on his most virtuous companions !)— and 
as the truth of [the verse] "Heaven and earth were established 
with justice " is always acceptable in the eyes [of the Emperor] 
as one of the ways of worshipping and honouring the Omnipotent 
Commander, and friendliness and benevolence to high and low is 
the aim of the illuminated heart [of the Emperor], 

Therefore, at this auspicious time, bfarman of the high and 

just Emperor is issued, 

That officers of the present and future and 'amils of the 
Empire of Hindustan from end to end, should collect the revenue 
and other [dues] from the mahals in the proportion and manner 
fixed in the luminous Law and shining orthodox Faith, and 
[according to] whatever has been meant and sanctioned in this 
gracious mandate in pursuance of the correct and trustworthy 


And they should demand new orders every year, and consider 

delay and transgression as the cause of their disgrace [113, b.] in 

this world and the next. 

[Commentary, 113, b margin : — The purport of the introduc- 
tion is only the transaction of affairs and threatening with [the 
anger of] God for the performance of the rojal order and for the 
sake of [according] justice to the officers, and benevolence mercy 
and convenience to the peasants in the collection of revenue, etc., 
agreeably to the Holy Law.] 

First. — They should practise benevolence to the cultivators, 
inquire into their condition, and exert themselves judiciously and 
tactfully, so that [the cultivators] may joyfully and heartily try 
to increase the cultivation, and every arable tract may be brought 
under tillage. 

[Commentary, 113,6 margin: — Concerning what has been 
written in the first clause the wish of the just E m peror is, " Display 
friendliness and good management which are the causes of the in- 
crease of cultivation. And that [friendliness] consists in this that 
under no name or custom should you take a dam or diram above 
the fixed amount and rate. By no person should the ryots be 
oppressed or molested in any way. The manager of affairs at the 
place should be a protector [of rights] and just [in carrying out] 
these orders."] 

Second. — At the beginning of the year inform yourself, as far 
as possible, about the condition of every ryot, at to whether they 
are engaged in cultivation or are abstaining from it. If they can 
cultivate, ply them with inducements and assurances of kindness; 
and if they desire favour in any matter show them that favour. 
But if after inquiry it is found that, in spite of their being able to 
till and having had rainfall, they are abstaining from cultivation, 
you should urge and threaten them and employ force and beating. 
Where the revenue is fixed {KharGj-i-muazzaf) inform the peasants 
that [115, a] it will be realised from them whether they cultivate 
or not. If you find that the peasants are unable to procure the 
implements of tillage, advance to them money from the State m 
the form of taaavi aftpr tat-inr* a^™w~ 

taqavi after taking security. 

Vol. II, No. 6. J The Revenue Regulations uf Aurangzib. 225 

[Commentary, 114, a: — The second clause proves that the 
only business of peasants is to cultivate and so pay the revenue of 
the State and take their own share of the crop. If they lack the 
materials of cultivation, they should get taqari from the Govern- 
ment, because, as the king is the owner [of the land], it is proper 
that when the cultivators are helpless they should be supplied 
with the materials of agriculture. The emperor's desire is the 
first. And threatening, beating and chastisement are [ordered] 
with this view that, as the king is the owner, [and] always likes 
mercy and justice, — therefore it is necessary that the ryots too 
should, according to their own custom, make great exertions to 
increase the cultivation, so that the signs of agriculture may daily 
increase. This thing is the cause of the gain of the State and the 
benefit of the ryots.] 

Third. — About fixed revenue : If the peasant is too poor to 
get together agricultural implements and runs away leaving the 
land idle, give the land to another on lease or for [direct] culti- 
vation [as a tenant at will ?], and take the amount of the revenue 
from the lessee in case of lease, or from the share of the owner in 
case of [direct] cultivation. If any surplus is left, pay it to the 
owner. Or, substitute another man in the place of the [former] 
ow r ner, in order that he may, by cultivating it, pay the revenue 
and enjoy the surplus [of the produce.] And whenever the [for- 
mer] owners again become capable of cultivating, restore the lands 
to them. If a man [115, 6] runs away leaving the land to lie idle, 
do not lease it out before the next year. 

[Commentary, 114. h : — In what has been written about giving 
lease, entrusting to cultivators for [direct] cultivation, taking the 
amount of the revenue from the lessee [in case of lease] and from 
the owner's share in case of [direct] cultivation, and paying one- 
half to the mfilik, i.e., to the former cultivator, — the word mdlik 
(owner) does not mean 'proprietor of the soil' but ' owner of the 
crop in the field '; because, if the word '.owner' meant 'proprietor 
of the soil/ then the owner would not run away through poverty 
and want of agricultural materials, but would rather sell his land 
and seek relief in either of these two ways : (i) throwing the pay- 
ment of Government revenue upon the purchaser, (ii) devoting the 
sale-proceeds of his owner's right to the removal of his own needs. 
As for the words "substitute another man for the [former] owner," 
the rightful substitute for a proprietor can be none but his 
heir, and this is the distinctive mark of ownership. Therefore, 
the word 'substitute* as used here means 4 a substitute for the 
owner of the crop.' But in the case in which a man, after 
spending his own money and with the permission of Govern- 
ment, cultivates a waste land which had paid no revenue before, 
and having agreed to its assessment for revenue pays the revenue 
to the State,— such a man has [true] tenant's right to the land he 
cultivates, because he is the agent of reclaiming the land. The 
real owner U he who can create a substitute for the owner, i.e., the 
king. It is a well-known maxim, "Whosoever wields the sword, 
the coins are stamped in his name." As for the expression " pay 

226 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 


half [the produce] to the owner, and do not lease out the field to 
anyone else for a year afterwards," — the intention is that, as the 
fixed revenue (Kharaj -i-muazzaf) is not affected by the productive 
or barren nature [of the year], in both cases the cultivator has to 
pay the revenue in cash: As the Kmperor likes leniency and jus- 
tice, [he here orders] that the officers should kindly wait for one 
year [for the return of a fugitive ryot] and, in the case of [direct] 
cultivation or lease, they should pay to him any surplus left above 
the Government revenue.] 

Fourth.— Inform yourself about the tracts of fallow (uftSda) 
land which have not returned to cultivation. If they be among 
the roads and highways, enter them among the area ( ? bana) of 
towns and villages, in order that none may till them. And if you 
find any land other than these, which contains a crop that stands 
in the way of its tillage, then do not hinder [the cultivation] for 
the sake of its revenue. But if it be capable of cultivation, or 
really a piece of land fallen into ruin (bair), then in both these 
oases, in the event of the land having an owner and that owner 
being present and able to cultivate it, urge the owner to till it. 
But if the land has no owner, or if the owner is unknown, give 
it to a man who can reclaim it to reclaim. Thereafter, if the 
lessee be a Muhammadan and the land [117, a] adjoins a tract 
paying tithes, assess tithes on it ; if it adjoins a rent- paying tract, 
or if the reclaimer of the land be an infidel, lay the full revenue on 
it. In case the [standard] revenue cannot be reali>« <1, as prudence 
may dictate, either assess the land at something per bigha by way 
of unalterable rent, — what is called Khardj-i-mitqat'a t ,' — or lay on 
it the prescribed revenue of half the crop, — which is called Kharaj' 
i-muqasema. If the owner be known, but is quite unable to culti- 
vate it, then if the land had been previously subject to Kharaj- 
i- muqasema, act according to the order issued [for this class of 
revenue]. But if it be not subject to Khardj-%-n%%tq 8s$m& or is not 
bearing any crop, then do not trouble [the owner] for tithes or 
revenue. But if he be poor, engage him in cultivation by advanc- 
ing taqavi. 

[Commentary 116, a : — Fourth clause : " When the land forms 
part of highways or is really waste or owned by a person 
unknown, or when the owner is quite unable to till it," and other 
expressions. In all these cases the word owner is used in the 
former sense. And there is a possibility of ownership being used 
in the latter sense too, as described before. There are many 
proofs, more manifest than the Sun and more evident than yester- 
day, in support of 4 owner ' being used for the king. For the sake 
of brevity they have not been mentioned here.] 

Fifth.— As for a desert tract (badia), if the owner be known, 
leave it with him ; do not give possession of it to others, [117i &]• 
If the owner be not known, and there is no chance of 'audat* ia 
the land, then, as policy may dictate, give the land to whomsoever 

* Bilmokta 

* fcj* return 

lerent.'— {Brit. Ind. t p. I*W 

Vol. II, .No. 6.] The Be venue Regulation* of Aurangzib. 227 


you consider fit to take care of it. Whosoever makes it 
arable must be recognised as the owner of the tract and 
the land should not be wrested from him. If the land contains 
articles of 'auJat (?), do not issue any order that may hinder the 
'audut in the land ; and as for the ain from the land, forbid 
sowing, etc. ; and do not let anyone take possession of it, and re- 
cognise none as its owner. 

If an entire l tract of waste land has been transferred for any 

reason, and a contrary state of things is brought about by a 
different cause, then regard the land as belonging to the man up 
to the time till when it was in his possession, and do not give 
possession of it to anybody else. 

[Commentary, 116, b : — In the fifth clause it has been written : 
"If the owner of a desert tract be present, entrust it to him ; 
otherwise, give it, as advisable, to a fit person who may reclaim it 
to cultivation ; recognise him as its owner, do not wrest it from 
him, — if there is no probability of 'audit in it," and other things. 
Here the word 'audat has two meanings : (i) that the land is likely 
to contain mines, and (ii) that the [original J owner may return to 
it. The second alternative which has been stated before, is clearly 
evident here, " Whosoever makes a land fit for cultivation should 
be recognised as its owner." It means that, as with the permission 
of the ruler he cultivates a waste unproductive land and benefit 
the State, therefore he has a claim to the land based on his services. 
Hence the imperial order runs ; " Whosoever makes a land fit for 
cultivation should be recognised as its owner, and the land should 
not be wrested from him. Then it is evident that none else can 
have any right to the land. "As for the gain from the land. 
e t c# " — | # #6#i if hereafter someone else sets up a claim to ownership, 
he should not be given possession of the profit from this land, such 
as the price of crops or [the gain from] gardens, tanks, and such 
things. The reason is that this land had been paying no rent 
before and therefore the man who has reclaimed it and none else 

has a right to it. 

" And if a tract of waste land, etc." — i.e., if a tract of waste 
land is in its entirety transferred to another person, either on 
account of its having had no owner, or by reason of the man having 
reclaimed the land by his own exertions from unproductiveness 
and incapacity to pay revenue, then the man who first owned it 
and from whom it was transferred to the former, has a right to the 
price of the produce of the transferred land up to the time when it 
ceased to produce anything. This produce had no connection 
with the man to whom the land has been transferred, because the 
land belongs to him only from the time of the transfer.] 

Sixth. — In places where no tithe or revenue has been laid on 
a cultivated land, fix whatever ought to be fixed according to the 
Holy Law. If it be revenue, fix such an amount that [119, a] the 
ryots may not be ruined ; and for no reason exceed half [the crop], 
even though the land may be capable of paying more. Where the 

l o— j o entire, undivided. 


228 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

amount is fixed, accept it, provided that if it be Kharaj, the 
Government share should not exceed one-half, lest the ryots be 
ruined by the exaction. Otherwise reduce the former Kharaj and 
fix whatever the ryots can easily pay. If the land is capable of 
paying more than the fixed [amount] take (?) more. 

[Commentary, 118, a ; — In the sixth clause : The wish of the 
benevolent Emperor is that the revenue should be so fixed that the 
peasantry may not be ruined by payment of it. The land belongs 
to the king, but its cultivation depends on the ryots ; whenever 
the ryots desert their places and are ruined, i.e., when they are 
crushed by the excessive exactions and oppression of the officers, 
one can easily imagine what the condition of the cultivation would 
be. Hence urgent orders are issued in this clause. And the 
statement in the last portion, "If the land is capable of paying 
more than the fixed amount, take more," is contrary to the order 
in the first portion of the same clause. Probably it is an error of 
the scribe. He must have imagined tha t as this pa ;ige is insistent, 
it ought to be read as ' take.' The reason is that in the first 
portion there is a total prohibition [of taking more revenue], 
" although it can pay more, do not take more than one-half," and 
again here the Emperor orders " do not take more than the pre- 
scribed amount," such an order strengthens the first order, nay 
more, the repetition of the order is for the purpose of strong 

Seventh,— You may change fixed revenue (muazzaf) into 
share of crop (muqasema), or vice versa, if the rvots desire it - T 
otherwise not. 

[Commentary t —The order for changing one kind of revenue 
into another at the wish of the ryots is lor their convenience.] 

Eighth.— The time for demanding fixed revenue is the harvest- 
ing of every kind of grain. Therefore, when any kin. I of grain 

reaches the stage of harvest, collect the share of revenue suited 
to it. 

[Commentary .—The object is, whenever the revenue is de- 
manded at harvest, the ryots may, without any perplexity, sell a 
portion of the crop sufficient to pay the revenue an.l thus pay the 
due ot the State. But, if the demand is made before that time, it 
puts them into perplexity and anxiety. Therefore, the Emperor's 
order is to seek their convenience.] 

Mnth.--In lands subject to fixed revenues, if any non-preven- 
table calamity overtakes a sown field, you ought to inquire care- 
tuny, and grant remission to the extent of the calamity, as required 
oy truth and the nature of the case. And in realising [119,6.] 
Produce from the remnant, see that a net one-half [of the produce, 
may be left to the ryots. 

[Commentary, 118,'fe .— « If Kharaj -i-mnazzaf has been fixed 

i* it «* + + *?i 5 cal& mity befalls some crop of the land by which 
is not totally destroyed, then you ought to inquire into the CM* 

1 Text has mahsul, which may also mean ' revenue. 

Vol. II, No. 6.] 


)f Auranyzib. -- 4 

and deduct from the revenue to the extent of the injury done ; and 
from the portion that remains safe, take so much of the produce 




therefore, yon should take one maund only [i revenue], so that 
the net half {viz.) five maunds may be left to the ryot.] 

Tenth. — In lands vith fixed revenues: If anybody leaves 

his land untilled, in spite of his ability to till it and the absence of 
any hindrance, then take the revenue [of it] from some other ' 

] In the case of fields which have been 

flooded, or where the [stored] rain-water has been exhausted, or any 
non-preventable calamity has overtaken the crop before reaping, 
so that the ryot has secured nothing, nor has he time enough left 
for a second crop to be raised before the beginning of the next 

year, — consider the revenue as lost. But if the calamity happens 
after reaping, whether it be preventable like eating up by cattle or 
after the calamity sufficient time is left [for a second crop], collect 

the revenue. 

[Commentary i — "If a man holds a land on which Kharaj-,- 

muazzaf has been laid, and he has the power to cultivate it, and 
there is no obstacle to his cultivating, and yet he leaves it untilled, 
— then realise the revenue of that land from any other land be- 
longing to the man, because he left his land idle in spito of his 
beinc able to till it and there being no obstacle. If any land be- 
longing to the man is flooded or the rain-water which had been 
dammed up for irrigation of crops gets exhausted, and the crop is 
ruined or if any non-preventable calamity befalls his crops, before 
they have ripened and been harvested, so that he secures no crop 
nor has he any time left for raising a second crop that year,— then 
do not collect the revenue. But if any non-preventable calamity 
overtakes the crop of the man after reaping, or if the calamity 
takes place before the reaping but enough time is left for a second 
crop that year, take the revenue {mahsvl)r because the calamity 
happened 'through his own carelessness after the reaping of the 
corn And so, too, "if the calamity happens before the reaping, 
but time enough is left for another crop," then [as the loss] occur- 
red through his neglect, it is proper to take revenue from him.] 

Eleventh— -If the owner of a land, subject to a fixed revenue, 
cultivates it but dies before paying that year's revenue, and his 
heirs *et the produce of the field [121, a] collect the revenue from 
them But do not take anything if the aforesaid person died before 
cultivating and [time] enough is not left that year [for anyone 

\ Commentary, 120, a .—What has been published about " the 
death of the owner of the land, taking the revenue from his heirs, 
and not demanding the revenue from the heirs if he died before 
l-:ii,- — " i= mnmffistlv iust : because the land-owner, ».e., truly 

1 B'aze Zamin—See Wilson, p. 69, i. " The Baze Zamin or certain lands 
set apart for various uses."— {Brit. Ind., p. 276.) 

230 Journal of the Asiatic Society of I> ujal. [June, 1906. 

speaking the owner of the crop, died before cultivating, and so it 

• j* p • i 1 "I .• 1*1" 1 11 


may have got something from him by way of bequest; for the 
[true] owner of the land is the king, and the owner of the crop, 
i.e., the deceased [ryot] died before cultivating, and his heirs 
have not got anything or crop that may be a ground for [demand- 
ing] revenue, so, nothing should be collected from them.] 

Ticelfth. — Concerning fixed assessment* .- If the owner gives 

see or borrower cultivates it, 

take the revenue from the owner. If the latter plants gardens, 

take the revenue from the latter. But if a man after getting hold 
of a Kharaji land denies it, :md the owner can produce witnesses, 
then if the usurper has cultivated it, take the revenue from him; 
but if he has not done so, take the revenue from neither of them. 
If the usurper denies [the usurpation] and th. owner cannot pro- 
duce witnesses, take the revenue from the owner. In ca-es of 
mortgage (rihan), act according to the orders applicable to eases 
of usurpation. If the mortgagee has engaged in cultivation with- 
out the permission of the mortgager, [121,6] [ex.-. t the revenue 

from the former]. 

[Commentary, 120, 6 .—This order may be construed in either 
of the following two ways, or it will yield no sense : " If the owner 
of a land under fixed revenue gives his land in lease or loan, and 
the lessee or borrower cultivates it, realise the revenue from the 
owner. If the latter has planted gardens on it, take the revenue 
from him, because he has planted the gardens. If a man after 
getting hold of a Kharaji land denies it. and the owner has wit- 
nesses, then, in the case of the usurper having tiller! it, take the 
revenue from him, but if he has not done so take the revenue from 
neither of them. If the usurper denies [the usurpation] and (i) 
the owner has no witness, take the revenue from the owner.'" This 
is one construction. The other is (u) "if the owner has witnesses, 
take the revenue from the owner,* *.*., the usurper denies [the 
usurpation] and the owner produces witnes to prove his own 
cultivation, therefore the owner should pay the revenue. 

In cases of mortgage act according to the orders issued for 
cases of usurpation. If the mortgagee has engaged in cultivation 
without the consent of the mortgager, [demand the revenue from 
the former],'' because if the mortgagee engaged in cultivation 
tntii the consent of the mortgager, the latter ought to have paid 
the revenue, because the right to cultivate is [here] included in 
the mortgage. But if he has engaged in cultivation without the 
mortgager s consent, he ought to pay the revenue, because the 
land alone, and not the right to cultivate it, was mortgaged.] 

Uiirteenth.— About lands under fired re nue : If a man sells 

ma Htornji land, which is cultivated, in the course of the year, 

tnen, it the land bears one crop only and the buyer, after taking 
possession gets enough time during the rest of the year to culti- 
vate it and there is none to hinder him, collect the revenue from 

the seiw L ° ?i i8e , from the eller - If ifc y ields < vv0 cr °P' S ' a .5 

the seller has gathered in one and the buyer the other, then divide 

Vol. 11, No. 6.] The Revenue Regulations of Aurangzib. 831 


the revenue between the two. But if the land is [at the time of 
sale] under a ripe crop, take the revenue from the seller. 

[Commentary, 122, a : — If a man wishes to sell his land, i.e., 
the crop of his land, and the purchaser gets sufficient time during 
the year to cultivate it, take the revenue from the purchaser. If 
it bears two crops, of which the seller has gathered in one and the 
buyer the other, divide the revenue and collect it from the two 
parties. If the land be under a ripe crop, take the revenue from 
the seller, because as the crop is ripe and the seller has sold it with 
full knowledge, he must have taken the price of the ripe grain. 
Therefore the seller should pay the revenue.] 

Fourteenth. — Concerning lands under fixed revenue : If a man 
builds a house on his land, he should pay the rent as fixed before ; 
and the same thing if he plants on the land trees without fruits. 
If he turns an arable land, on which revenue was assessed for cul- 
tivation [123, a] into a garden, and plants fruit-trees on the whole 
tract without leaving any open spaces [fit, for cultivation], take 
Rs. 2| upwards (? bala), which is the highest revenue for gardens, 
although the trees are not yet bearing fruit. But in the case of 
grape and almond trees, while they do not bear fruit take the cus- 
tomary revenue only, and after they have begun to bear fruit, take 
Rs 21 upwards (?), provided that the produce of one legal bight, 
which means 45x45 Shah Jahani yards, or 60x60 legal yards 
amounts to Rs. 5|. Otherwise take half the actual produce [of 
the trees!. If the price of the produce amounts to less than a 
quarter-rupee,— as in the case when grain sells at 5 Shah Jahani 
seers a rupee and the Government share of the crop amounts to one 
seer onlv ( 9 ) l — you should not take le than this [quarter-rupeej. 

If a man sells his h.nd to a Muhammadan, demand the revenue 

in spite of his being a Muslim. 

[Commentary, 122, o.— If a man owns a land under a fixe 
revenue, and builds a house on it or plants a garden of trees that 
bear no fruit, there should be no change in its revenue the former 
revenue should be taken. If a garden is planted on a land which 
was used for cultivation and on which the revenue of cultural^ 
land was fixed, and the fruit-trees are placed so close together that 
no n oprspa e cei S leftfor tillage take V 2-12 which is the due 
(hasil) of gardens, even while the trees do not bear !"**£" 
the case of grape and almond trees, the [usual] revenue is taken 
while they have not begun to bear fruit and afterwards the due 
( hasil ) of gardens. But if this due of gardens, which is fixed at 

(ha , _ 

Rs. 2-12— on the ground 


does not 

reach that amount, then take half the actual produce as revenue. 

l Is not this a very round-about way of saying that when the rerenne in 

kind is worth only * of a rupee, a quarter-rupee shonld be regarded as the 

miUi f ™?Z™by Lsion of cropa, the State took only * of tho gross pro- 
duce in the case of grain; but i to J in the case of, sugar-cane, 

-t ___„•_ „„A n^ftnn (TlAt Ttld . D. 179 J 

plantain, and cotton. (Brit. Ind , p. 179 ) 

232 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

But if the price of this half-share of the produce be less than 
As. 4 — as, in the case of grain, if you get one seer in five Shah 
Jahani seers (?) — do not take less [than As. 4]. If an infidel 
sells his land to a Muhammadan, collect the revenue from the 
latter, because in truth it was not the latter's possession]. 

Fifteenth. — If any man turns his land into a cemetery [123,6] 
or serai in endowment (waqf), regard its revenue as remitted, 

[Commentary, 124, a : — As it is a pious act to endow tombs 
and serais, therefore the Emperor forbids the collection of revenue 
from them, for the sake of benefiting and doing good [to the public]. 
Revenue ought not to be tnken [from such lands]. 

Sixteenth. — About revenue by divis m, of en (kharoj-i- 
mnqasema) : If a man, whether Hindu or Muhammadan, is not the 
owner of a revenue-paying land, but hns only bought it or holds it 
in pawn, he ought to enjoy the profit from whatever is produced in 
it. Collect from him the proper portion which has been fixed [as 
revenue], — provided that the share is neither more than one-half 
nor less than one-third [of the total crop]. If it be less than one- 
third, increase it, [if more than one-half, decrease it], as you consider 

[Commentary : — If a man ia not the real owner of a wmqitema 
land, but holds it [by purchase or] in pawn, lie onght to enjoy the 
gain from the land, whether he be Hindu or Muhammadan, on con- 
dition that in case of mortgage he has received permission [to till] 
from the mortgager. Therefore, collect from him the portion [pre- 
viously] fixed as the assessment on that land. But this portion 
ought not to be more than one-half nor less than one-third. If 
more than one-half, decrease it, if less than one-third, increase it. to 
a proper amount.] 

Seventeenth. — U the owner of a mtiqilsema land dies without 
leaving any heir, act, in giving it in lease, direct cultivation, etc. 
according to the ordinances issued [above] for muazzaf lands. 

[Commentary:— If the cultivator dies without heir, the man 
who administers the land should act in t he manner prescribed in the 

third clause about kharaj-i-mnazzaf, in giving it in lease OT direct 
cultivation.] ' ft e 

Eighteenth. —In vmqdrna lands, if any calamity overtakes 
the crop, remit the revenue to the amount of the injury. And if 
the calamity happens after reaping the grain or before reaping, 
gather revenue on the portion that remains safe. 

[Commentary .—The Emperor seeks the happiness of the ryots, 
inerefore he strongly orders that no revenue should be demanded 
tor the portion destroyed. But it should be collected for the rem- 
nant according to the share of that remnant.] 


form of a reumt< 

[267 a .] Rasik Das, thrifty 

Imperial favours and know— 

TK V l Know-- 

inat, all the desires and aims of the Emperor are directed to 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Revenue Regulations of Aurangzib. 233 


the increase of cultivation, and the welfare of the peasantry and the 
people at large, who are the marvellous creation of and a trust 
from the Creator (glorified be His name !). 

Now the agents of the Imperial court have reported, after in- 

• . i r*r» n t i I* /""I __ 1 _ . _1 _. -. __ J H A i" — 


<* « « * * a f «_« AAA v.-' * * t^ ** mm ^^ ^^r m m m ^^ ^r » *^ ~^r — -^ — — -w- r -y — — — — — - - 

(tai'ttZ) of jagir-holders, that at the beginning of the current year the 
amins of the parganas of the Imperial dominions ascertain the re- 
venue of many of the mauz'as and pargan -is from a consider:! t ion of 

the produce (hdsil ) of the past year and the year preceding it, the 
area capable of cultivation, the condition and capability of the 
ryots, and other points. And if the ryots of any village do not 
agree to this procedure, they fix the revenue at the time of harvest- 
ing by [actual] surveyor estimated valuation of crop. 1 And in 
some of the villages, where the cultivators are known to be poor 
and deficient in capital, thev follow the practice of division of crops 
[gkalla-bakhshi] at the rate'of £, £, f or more or less. And at the 
end of the year they send to the Imperial record office the account- 
books (tumar) 8 of the cash collection of revenue, according to rule 
and custom, with their own verification (tasdiq), and the Kmi* 
acceptance, [267, 6] and the signatures of the chaudhuris and 
qanungoes. But they do not send there the records of the lands of 
every par g ana with description of the cultivation and details of tin- 
articles forming the autumn and spring harvests,— in such a way 
as to show what proportion of the crop of last year was actually 
realised and what proportion fell short, what difference, either 
increase or decrease, has occurred between the last year and th. 
present, and the number of ryots of every ma** a, distmgnMhi ? 
the lessees, cultivators, and others. [Such papers] would truly ex- 
hibit the circumstances of every mahal, and the work of the othcerj- 
.there— who, on the occurrence of a decrease in the collection of the 
mahal, after the ascertaining of the revenue had taken place remit 
a large amount from the total [standard] revenue on the plea of 
deficient rainfall, the calamity of chillnip, dearth of gram, or some- 

m If 6 they act economically [or with attention to minute details] 
after inquiring into the true state of the crops and cultivators of 
every village, and exert themselves to bring all the arable lands 
under tillage and to increase the cultivation and the total standard 
revenue, so that the parganas may become cultivated and inhabit- 
ed the people prosperous, and the revenue increased, then, if any 
calamity does happen, the abundance of cultivation will prevent 
any great loss of revenue occurring. 

The Emperor Orders thai 

You should inquire into the real circumstances of every 
village in the parganas under your diwSm and amins, namely, 

1 Kankoot—" Estimate of the ripened corn is called Koot." (Brit. lnd, t 

p. 216.) 

2 Turndr — rent-roll. 


234 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

what is. the extent of the arable land in it ? [268, a] what pro- 
portion of this total is actually under cultivation, and what portion 
not ? What is the amount of the full crop every year ? What is 
the cause of those lands lying uncultivated ? 

Also find out, what was the system of revenue collection in 
the reign of Akbar under the diwani administration of Tudar Mai? 
Is the amount of the sair cess tl>e same as uuder the old regula- 
tions, or was it increased at His Majesty's accession ? How many 
mauz'as are cultivated and how many desolate? What is the 
cause of the desolation? After inquiring into all these matters, 

under tillaire. bv ffivinsr 

uuireuG agreements (fjaui) • ana proper promises, and. to mcrea: 
the first rate crops. Where there are disused wells, try to repair 
them, and also to dig new ones. And a-sess their revenue in such 
a way that the ryots at large may get their dues and the Govern- 
ment revenue may he collected at the right time and DO ryot may 
he oppressed. 

And every year after correctly preparing the papers contain- 
ing the number of the cultivators of every wan**, [the extent of] 
the cultivated and uncultivated lands, lands Irri fttod l»v wells and 
by rain [respectively], the higher and lower crops, the prepara- 
tions for cultivating the arable land for increasing the iirst-rnte 

crops and bringing under culture the villages Inch had lain 
desolate for years,— and what else hi. been ordered in previous 

revenue-guides (cUuturuJ.'and},-' report these details, with the 
amount ^of the money collected during the year just com- 

ure as estah- 

of the Hare, 8 

pleted [268, o]. Know this regulation 

y ui uie autumn ot rue ye: 

the 8th year of the reign, and act in this way. and also urge the 
omcers of the mdkah of the jayir-dnrs to ttt similarly:— 

Firtt.—Qo not grant private interviews to the i amAi and 
chaudhuns, but make them attend in the [public] audience-hall- 
Make yourself personally familiar with the ryots and poor men, 

who mav onma *^ WM « ±~ „i~i_ 1.1 • t,. r i ...• _ n. A * 


\y may not neea 
iremeuts known 

SecomZ.--Order the Vmifo that (i) at the beginning of the 
year they should inquire, village by village, into the number of 
cultivators and ploughs, and the extent of the area [under tillage]- 
yn) it the ryots are in their places, the 'amils should try to make 
every one of them exert himself, according to his condition, to 
increase the sowing and to exceed last year's cultivation; and 
advancing from inferior to superior cereals they should, to the best 
ot their power, leave no arable land waste, (iii) If any of the 
peasants runs away, they should ascer< in the cause and work 

shall Jve P cLz^ n n Z^' " ° n the commencement of the year [the arf} 

BntTilZVZ£a h ! 7° t8 r; and encoura * e them to cultivate the ,ftD 

• A Turkish year.' ' 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Revenue Regulations of Aurangzib.- 235 


very hard to induce him to return to his former place, (iv) Simi- 
larly, use conciliation and reassurances in gathering together 
cultivators from all sides with praiseworthy diligence, (v) Devise 
the means by which barren (banjar) lands may be brought under 

Third. — Urge the nmins of the parganas, that at the beginning 
of the year, after inquiring into the agricultural assets (maujudftt- 
i-mazru'aat) [269, a] of every tenant, village by village, they 
should carefully settle the revenue in such a way as to benefit the 
Government and give ease to the ryots. And send the daul ] of 
revenue to the Imperial record office without delay. 

Fourth. — After settling the revenue, order that the collection 
of revenue should be begun and the payment demanded at the 
appointed time, according to the mode agreed upon in every par- 
gana for the payment of the instalments of revenue. And you 
yourself should every week call for reports and urge them not to 
let any portion of the fixed instalments fall into arrears. If by 
chance a part of the first instalment remains unrealised, collect it 
at the time of the second instalment. Leave absolutely no arrears 
at the third instalment. 

Fifth. — Having divided the outstanding arrears into suitable 
instalments according to the condition and capability of the ryots, 
urge the hroris to collect the instalments as promised [by the 
ryots], and you should keep yourself informed about the arrange- 
ments for collecting them, so that the collection may not fall into 
abeyance through the fraud or negligence of the 'amils. 

Sixth. — When you yourself go to a village, for learning the 
true condition of the parganas, view the state and appearance of 
the crops, the capability of the ryots, and the amount of the reve- 
nue. If in apportioning [the total revenue among the villagers] 
justice and correctness have been observed to every individual 
fair and good. But if the ehaudhuri or muqaddam or patwari has 
practised oppression, conciliate the ryots [269, b] and give them 
their dues. Recover the unlawfully appropriated lands (gunjaish) 
from the hands of usurpers* In short, after engaging with hon- 
esty and minute attention in ascertaining [the state of things] in 
the present year and the division (? or details) of the assets, write 
[to the Emperor] in detail, — so that the true services of the amins 
and the admirable administration of this wazir [Rasik Das] may 
become knowTi [to His Majesty]. 

Seventh. — Respect the rent-free tenures, nankar* and tVfl???, 
according to the practice of the department for the administration 
of Crown lands. Learn what the Government 'amils have in- 
creased (?), namely, how much of the tankha ofjagirs they have 
left in arrears from the beginning, what portion they have deducted 

1 Daul — " an account of particular agreements with the inferior farmn s 
of the district, attested by theCanongoes ; sub rent-roll/' (Brit. Ind 9 , p. 222.) 

2 Nankar — {Brit. Ind„ p. 148). Enams— U the meanest and more general 
gifts of land, bestowed on mendicants and common singers. " (Brit. Ind , 

p. 186.) 

236 Jgurnal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

on the plea of shortage [of rain] and [natural] calamity. In 
consideration of these things resume [the unlawfully increased 
rent-free lands] of the past, and prohibit [them] in future, so that 
they may bring the parganas back to their proper condition. The 
truth will be reported to the Emperor, and favours will be shown 

to all according to their devotion. 


to accept only 'Alamgiri coins. But if these be not available, they 
should take the Shah Jahani Rupees current in the bazar, and 
collect only the sikka-i-Sbivab. Do not admit into the fotakhana 
any coin of short weight which will not pass in the bazar. But 
when it is found that the collection would be delayed if defective 
coins are returned, take from the ryots the exact and true dis- 
count for changing them into current coins, and immediately so 

change them. 


sky overtakes a mahal, strongly urge the 8m u and 'amils to 
■watch the standing crops with great care and fidelity ; and 
after inquiring into the sown fields, they should carefully ascertain 
[the loss] according to the comparative state of the present and 
past produce ( hast-o-bud). > You should never adm i t [as valid] any 
sarbastu » calamity, the discrimination (tafriq) of which depends 
solely on the reports of the chaudhuri*, qanungoes, muqaddams, and 
paticans. So that all the ryots may attain to their rights and may 
he saved from misfortune and loss, and usurper may not usurp 
[others' rights]. l J 

Tenth.— Strongly urge the amim, 'amih; chaudhuris, qanun- 
goes and mntasaddts, to abolish balia (?or hSidaf), exactions 
( akhrajat) in excess of revenue, and forbidden abirrlbs* (cesses),— 
which impair the welfare of the ryots. Take securities from them 
that they should never exact balia or collect the fibwdbs prohibited 
and abolished by His Majesty. And you yourself should con 
stantiy get information, and if you find anyone doing so and nor 
ping y° ur prohibition and threat, report the fact to the 
Emperor, that he may be dismissed from service and another ap- 
pointed in his place. 

Eleventh.-~For translating Hindi papers into Persian, inquire, 
into tne rateable assessment and apportionment (bachh-o-bihri)* of 
tne revenue, exactions (akhrSjat), and customary perquisites 

sourcef n I jama-" Comparative account of the former and actual 

variat?nn fl i r nU !\ Sh0wi "8 the total increased valuation of the lands, the 
vanationa produced by casualties, new appropriations, &c" (p. 220). 

£?ij~ exemption from payment. Hence the word in the text means 

SlS ™ ' emi88ion of revenue. Sa>ba,t fl in the sense of secret does not 
jf«jia so good a sense. 

d 168 >fT b8 -" Im P°8ts levied under the general head of Sair" (Brit. If* 
^a^^^"*** " PP - 164 ' 166 - AuraDgZeb ab0,S8he<1 

duals fwn^plfot 11 » ?"• ap £ regate 8nm amon * a number °t^ 

^uson, p. 42, b). Befcn_p r0 portionate rate (Wilson, p. 70, 6.)- 

Vol. II, No. 6.] 

)/" Auiangzib. 237 



As for whatever is found to have been 

taken from the peasants on any account whatever, after taking 
account of the payments (ivasilat) into the fotakhdna, the balance 
should be written as appropriated by the dmin, 'amil, zemindars 
and others, name by name. And, as far as possible [270, 6.] collect 
and translate the rough records (kdghaz-i -k ham) of all the villages 
oiWie pargana. If owing to the absence of the pattvari or any other 
cause, the papers of certain mauz'as cannot be got, estimate this 
portion from the total produce of the villages [taken collectively], 
and enter it in the tumdr* After the tumdr lias been drawn up, if 
it has been written according to the established system, the diirdn 
ought to keep it. lie should demand the refunding of that portion 
of the total gains of *amite. chamlhnries, qtinungoes, muqaddams, and 
patwaris, which they have taken in excess of their established per- 
quisites (rasum-i-muqarrar) . 

Twelfth. — Report the names of those among the drains and 
kroris of the jdgirdars, who have served with uprightness and 
devotion, and by following the established rules in every matter 
have proved themselves good officers, — so that as the result they 
may be rewarded according to their attention to the gain of the 
State and their honesty. But if any have acted in the opposite 
manner, report the fact to the Emperor, that they may be dismissed 

from the service, put on their defence and explanation [of 
their conduct], and receive the punishment of their irregular nets. 
Thirteenth. — With great insistence gather together the papers 
of the records (sar-i-ris/tfa) at the right time. In the mahal in 
which you stay, every day secure from the officers the daily account 
of the collection of revenue and cess and prices-current, and from 
the other par y anas the daily account of the collection of revenue 
and cash {raanjndat) every fortnight, and the balance [271, a] in 
the treasuries of fotadOn ? and the jam? a vasil bdqi every month, 
and the tumdr of the total revenue and the jam'a bandi* and the 
incomes and expenditures of the treasuries of the fofadars season by 
season. After looking through these papers demand the refunding 
of whatever has been spent above the amount allowed (? or spent 
without being accounted for), and then send them to the Imperial 
record office. Do not leave the papers of the spring harvest un- 
collected up to the autumn harvest. 

[271, S.] Fourteenth. — When an drain or i amil or fotaddr is 
dismissed from service, promptly demand his papers from him and 
bring him to a reckoning. According to the rules of the diwon's 
department, enter as liable to recovery the abwdbs that ought to be 
resumed as the result of this auditing. Send the papers with the 
records of the abwab recovered from dismissed 'amils, to the Im- 
perial riitch 
be finished. 


m — — — 

Fifteenth. — Draw up the diwani papers according to the estab- 
lished rules season by season, affix to them your seal [in proof] 
of verification, and send them to the Imperial record office. 

1 Russooms — " Customs or commission." (Brit Ind., p. 149.) 

2 Jamah andi — " Annual settlement of the revenue. " (Brit. Ind. y p. 174.) 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

* •• 


i vJ5>*1 

[#1 t»s^o ^Jl^sw C^-£* ^Uji Jaj [1U, 4.] 



vl jia-. .J Lfj^ sU->l v^^a 

^ J'y ^ j° l?/^ *; 


- *u*j i&** j Uj^li! ojk* . o|j«-*Jfj ui;*i v; *J*tfOj o^y c** 1 ^ 


^♦sw ,l**> ojlio" 




ill j jA*Jb^'j *D| ^ t^J *f w^j *** If, ^y ^ »;I^A 

W »U*0 

tr^f ; 




af *»iC| i& (J;-* 

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J^* *>j J> o!/ G J/ 3' o 



jyiax ^t e^^ j *<*J^ jjLoyty &Uv=». tiJLo 


AJ - C*~»| ^j£i* , ^i^i* dlfti— « 8>*i*xi ixuj 

* ->J ; U£ Li^ cyM [113,*.] J W 

i^ixA^. j ^io ^-^fcj 


• - 





* oJvl 



'J^ ^JJ* dj* 


Jjli ift-yfc Af aijU-J ^r^/ 








(a) Text J^Aj 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Revenue Regulations of Aurawjzib. -19 


v fj O^l;) O;0J ^*j b *>' ir>jAi& ^a^ti *»Jt • *»|U|< OoU ; 

o.a>U ^J^ 3 a^Tli t^ l«if a*" Job . *>! ii^lj, )b o^l ; ) )t c~- a <_^ 



»;3 v 1 *-' *m* 3' uh*) v l o'/' ■ ^ g!^ ; a p** - 

^h | ; trt^jf - ^jy? Ai»J^ AJLitJ.? dJa** ^ ^,^3 b - jj-ib »ajUj..> j 


C*«|j) •*>** tr**) vty » f £* J * ** vi/^* *>* b *♦" -> ***•* 

jk*« ^i^ [ 115, b. ] lj t**j /i * ^^ ct^'j ^ u**j * wU ; 

'Jj : *;&& H? 9 XT C# J " b *■*• |J> J */** *•* ?/" 

# ^ ^JJ* v&& '^JL ^Ly . *£(; C 1M ^» [ *f ] - ^ ^*<;j 

Ji^jjS ^,5 y» >' • *i ^^ cUf ^ ^ * r^ 1 ^^ ^^ ^ T ;v> -^' J 

; /c^yy - ^ ^ i^y ^y C 117 > a.] ; y^ &*}, ^v o 1 * 1 ^ 

(6) Textti^ 


240 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 


153 y** & )y * } b Jty ***& (*&* &*> ^.j^ *4*i *** **!iJ 

J^ ^';>y 

,b <x£b r> Lw J^JU> yi [ *£b ] A^Ij A* ^j ixhi f^j 

&J&J ^Uo ^f ifiiduyi * oiAjj tMo [117, 6.] Jja I; a_/*j *»/** b 

***** Jii( 1/^ o»l** ^Uia* aj - o^w ^^3 ^ Jit ^oy JUi^l j 

^ oil^i ^~f Jl»i>f <*»*• 031 *~-te jgafj &**) i*^ ^1 * ^l* 

**>fdj| jl*^ o«,l ^U5 ^1 ^aj A? i.lx>3G - ,>lij| jt*ib &* y O 1 

3> [119, a.] A? *^ £-», ;*flif ^ o;^;i j # 4*0 ^J *^ ;/*> fc/ 

iiftjj b .1 Llr. 

/« O 

if ] u^/ 3» as" j.«U) JuaJ3i 8^3 ^t^ o;r*; 

^oyi . AijU^ ,wj( ^sij, ^,'y. a^a j^" (f \ ) &U s ( 


*iij c^-;/^ 3' M H5 ^ 

gj ^ 


;l^ ill e &^ ^ cJf ^ |; . ^ AJ [ ;d /f ] ci^ JjL fi f\ 

(c) Text w^, (d) Teifc ^ ^^ jf (c) Text yyy *i^ 

Vol. II, Xo. 6.] The Revenue Regulations of Aurangzib. 241 


»f ; |*Loy /^J/l cT^Jc^*- j'y ;» *«H-»; »> tJ^ A* .Job - d-*y 
^A,oi Af .XuU) ^^ ^i ^U« Jj-osl* [H9, £.] *iljjj * **> 

^^i fcj*f C^f ^OUjJjl J^j c^|j) b [b] dj £ jkiix) ^b v f b (7 Jof ; ^ 

^f^ - c*~t ***U I?;/** OA* Jjt [ *V ] b Iff} wlj* 0*0 

&i 3' cr* >f** &? K & i * ^^ *>» y J ||p* [1*1, <*.] «*f 

c ,*0) «JJU jf g| &*% - «xtf O^I;3 y!;^*^^ [ J ] **>> *i; 


±Zb to.ii ^\»J\ j - *b^. -~^ 3' s'> «^ b w/ ^b') ^^ 

j^c;,! ^ jAtti [121, «.] w/ is*^ ^ w*!; c)5i ^ ^y°Jh 

*r \j ^> ^y^ c^*3 J ^^ /' " ^^ x c^ >* f**-*'* 

(/) Text *=**» 3» >' i& * C») Text ^U**^ 1 *^ 

( ? ) Text afl/| v 1 ? (*) Text &*& 

(j) Text v**j \ 

242 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

- >/^bi J u «»»>• *tf M fc «H ^ J* <- 5 ^ J u *^ 3 1 u >* ^ 

,> ?t » * ^5^- 


jso/ £U [123, a.] *i# c^lj} «uuJ&, J ,» X m lj ^j tr*^ [/j] • Ml 

j l r! *~ *%9) 9*j& cJ* ,d j' **J " ****** C* 1 - j***** ***>J»» *(*&) 

$ *£j ^ j f ^ * -«/■/* V* ^ Jr*~* ** uh** ' ***** ^ 

Aj»jlf ^igj ^UU* c~*Jj dj i ^ ^y^y I * [ 5 ] *>*V ^ 3 ' 

- 1^ ^ tflf >3 [123, Jj i^U ij s> ^^j ^/\ ^^ 

til,* bil~ tilt"-!/' 

>j* 6*iU> Ufy Aft AJ63I ^ ^ fj . ^JU; ( , ^ *i Vl • vAUl ^ ' ! ' 


* «VO 


(ft) Text ^1 JU. wtp ^y, ^^, *IJU (n) Text S »» 

(m) Text «3A*5 t*^ |^ |0 ^j ^^ ^ ^ A ^ t j ^ ^ 


Vol. II, N<>. (3.] The Revenue Regulations of Auranqzib. 243 


* «X^f cL*J ^>J ^A%«J A^utv^ ta*j *^!>** L t < ; Ub ^f 

p) Text ^«.* 


Commentary on the farman to Muhammad Hasliim. 
_,Ua. ji *j.>4> [j] a^^ax) ,>j^j ,_y* j^ ^4-** [113, £. margin] 

t*j j ^♦a.yc ^ izJikZj JU*j J^ o^ JlkU^.1 <_\^^\j. \jjtS 

31^X1 AS - c^~\;t JA** ^Uai-. *,>fjt c~«l -j*-** *»-f ^V **».> 


■U ^^a «_!>* Ju- ^'*;t>o *f ^ a . J fc k ^ A*-j [114, a.] 


*&(« J5( >S- »'$* ij iji. ^j w~-K tf - *^ c-fll* ^U ^ *f *H 


o-J.| d LSI ^l^L. fitjf J*» j - ***J 



- !*j ey r« / ;i - ^- i ' ^^ ^'^ *^* *^ ^~' ^-r'^ 


JiL i> ^f b ^ ^;i>- *f «s— I ;j> cr;f - ^^ <^'^ ;^ 

^^ ^1 * ^ j,j y^i vJ ;'y^t J >; j* *- Mfil * ^ ^ Jj *** i* 

* ^^.- Ulcj o^a'#j j j(ij-« ojli? «±**b 


J^JI <f^f - £»>- te#i* • V 1 ? >—(»*- *"* [114, ^.J 

***y* C^ r ] »;^ r 3' ot r 1 ^ —j** -> «*** ^^ *^iWF» e^ 

»»*_^ 6^tj 

(a) Text ti^ o.*l;3 (•) Text «-*** 

(l>) Text «.- , (d) Text ifr^jl 

(«) Text ur**/ ^ U ; W P 

244 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 190& 

rfij - 6»j/ «u(^bu c^tjj) yl**l y?*il")* j j+* Jl **k <^° ^^^> 

- *JjU c£JU> ^ta* Ajli |j ^ o~f gj*** AS* ^j| ^ # j^yf *ilj3^6 

- ijte i>^ cj;> 0*°3^ ^ <^x^i. ^ ^iU ^| - *~b H^-j* 8 

iiUU ^ILc ^Ij *J o-iU* i£JL!U JLo| . o— y j^^xj ^-Lv^l »£^b *J fjf 

t 1 


-/** J^ ° u'3' *^ i ** {m> j J& [ +j *^J **" n-*l ,)^ J "° *^ crfl 



* «>jjl0o jlj ^yL. ^ w vL,j AajA hj>\kl" 

Jj^^j^ &*jsj fa* jri^jii ^^3 |«uJ _ r; t^ [116, a.] 
«iK° u^' j cr*^' i^^l j'*-j JL^ ^u v^ ^uu ,,> ^ - ^ y** 

^t;3^ ^ AkAijU *£!j J,J| aJ c< ^ ^.JLjx, ^^^o Jf|, . *LU» *J'j* 

(/) f:mendation ^y^l^ ( ? ) Text j^Ju 

(h) Text A^io i^iy IU» ^f^L 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Revenue Regulations of Aurangzib. 245 

j*> £l - Ajl* cr*** ^^ ^f;^ ob>c laid # t*M*| _;**-* *^*j o^I^o^j^ lj 

* ertfj ^ u*~~ ^ uiMj 1 ? <*** «H r^ " **** ^ J 1 * 1 ^' ^ w**3 

^^5 if o>~l i** ^UA - ftUfd l ;J t i*^ *-*)'-• dtf Or| ; j JUj Jj c *v°3 

j* *i*jf . o~i i^i ; i£- o,iif w / 4 t# r >u. ^u » ; j^u 3/ ^u 

«3*i '^l u* J^~ t*> [J] *W-*"*I u 

)t xLo A? |jj£j <*j.^j ^^j toki J\ j * gyJ ^At>iu <J^ |j £L-j^!0 

H^Ojfj - j&o t>aw.^ .>.>/ Jau* ***Ui» i^b y^=} i«W trJ 
J^asuo JyS* ,.*• > ^3 ^liif [31] U*l i*&£» Cj ^f «X'U 

j^^ruc ^ . »jj^ JaiLc u^iui ^U y JlAii! 31 j ia»*« ^ J,» *< 

j_U>3 3! i*. - cx**j iilb iJ| Jai^o 31 . ^»oj oaiui ^U*) <>l*i^ y f 

if . owJot ^j [^ ; ] ^Itl- > j*»« - ^ *^ jd vl^ [1 18, a.] 

oiiU> U^ 0U ; »(^ . c—b>j 3» y yJdbf CM-J ^IW- ct «^ u * r eri*3 

I wi^jj j^i lyi ^- v>^ i.ii ^| ♦ *i^ |»V3 


o^f j^G ylw t/i c^t A^ oJl i; ^ ^^ - «^V »^ V 3 ^ *^*- *i U 

246 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

*tftj jj{* *£m y^i3 tf o£ ^\jH K ***! - *2""ty (&* 




jji<Ls. \"}\ye j^J-jjij y -f^i. tJjiioJ +£*■ +&& &**J )£ v!^" 


hyJ^j^Ui , cu-b> ; jj-i j «**] ^b ^ wlfc ^j| J^j/t ^ * fr* 

b ;j 5- ^cJoyo g ^ ^j ;i> yi ^ . ^ *»j ;<i v y, [US, 6.] 
|/f *r job v * ^j . i^tl 8 bj JfJb *? A -y cJT^*) o^ 1 ;) <&)** 
<yb [**] 4_;^-» j - Ai»,5 l.»>o .yiij **ji *bj ar 4^_«^flJ 80^ J^ 
- Ail*j ^JL, «-Laj o^c ; ^^j a? oJ^Jb ^T ;i Jj-^»-< j^1 *H »->- ,u 

J^^J\ 3 * c~*| aii^ Jia*^ *>u **» , o,ji ^tj ^»^ M * 

°^b) ur^ itf**-j ^-'y ^ - o'; L . v 1 " ! i ^^ »-^-; c5^~ u *^ 1 

tt»' »S**tj>j ^ vfoojA b - dJUj ? o-i ^.bi ^^f;3^ - AXb jji j.l*3 

. ^b jL.iT ^ ^ p ji 0jC(;3 ^ ^j ^ b 8> ^ ^4 j^*» 

0) Text oi^aJ (0 Text |ft _. s>- J l>c b 


(*) (3jJa5 (w) Text ^^^ f everywhe re 

Vol. II, No. 6.] 

)/ Aurangzib. 247 


T ijaiv.ijf .fcUU.! f±c \\ i.\x ^^jyt \\ jju i$ \ji\ * oi.*£j J 


jjAjj-j oJf ^y j| J^J n**. J\ ^rt^-A j - ^-» 


<y aT |iM *j <JJU aT !/*. # •**•! **/* Ja* c—1 /^ - * il ? •»/ •»• 

^b w ,f e,J ja? **m *r ^T ;J ,>* ^>-t **i ; ) c^Ju d^o*J« 

JOu: )l »*« ^^ 2 t> A-y l# c^V^ y &/ )l A? ^1 ^ jtf & 

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250 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 


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[N.S.] ^ 

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Vol. II, No. 6.1 Shaista Khan in Benqal. 257 

[N.S.] ~ 

32. Shaista Khan in Bengal (1664-66). — By Jadunath Sarkar, 

M.A., Professor, Patna College, and Member, Asiatic Society of 

When Mir Jumla invaded Kuch Bihar and Assam, he had in 

Materials ^ s train an officer named Shihabuddin 

Talish, who has left a detailed history of 
the expedition, named by the author the Fathiyyah-i-ibriyyah. 
A long abstract of it was given by Mr. Blochmann in the 
Society's Journal for 1872, Part I, No. 1, pp. 64-96. Our 
Society has a fine old MS. of this work (D. 72), and the Khuda 
Bakhsh Library three others. All these end with the death of 
Mir Jumla, 31st March, 1663. 

But the Bodleian Library possesses a MS, of the work (No. 
Bod. 589, Sachau and Ethe's Catalogue, Part I, No. 240), supposed 
to be the author's autograph, which contains a continuation (folios 
106, a-176, 6.), relating the events immediately following and 
bringing the history down to Buzurg TJnimed Khan's victorious 
entry into Chatgaon (Chittagong), 27th January, 1666. This por- 
tion is absolutely unique l and of the greatest importance for the his- 
tory of Bengal, as will be seen from the abstract I give below. I have 
procured photographic reproductions of these 71 leaves of the MS. 

The internal evidence is overwhelming in favour of the 

Continuation being regarded as Shihabud- 
Authorship. din Tsligh > s wor k. The style is marked by 

the same brilliancy of rhetoric ; many favourite phrases and turns 
of expression are common to both ; and one peculiar sentence, 

* *>u~$J &±*>jr~ u/f>> ls)^ V&J LSJ^ e^^ 

which I have found in no other Persian history, occurs in botli 
(Conquest of Assam, p. 58 of our MS. D. 72, and Continuation, folio 
124, a.). We have here (/. 156,6.) one instance of the author's 
vicious habit of running the variations of a single simile through 
a whole page of which there are three examples in the Conquest. 
The writer is the same hero-worshipper, only Shaista Khan here 
takes the place of Mir Jumla. Neither of them is named, but 
both are indicated by laudatory titles, Mir Jumla being Nawicab 
MnstagJkani-alqab, and Shaista Khan Naivtvab Mu'ala-alqab. 

The author evidently died shortly after writing the Gontinua- 

Hon, for it ends abruptly, without carrying 
Defects. qq ^ e campaign in the Chatgaon District 

to its conclusion. He had no time to give it the finishing touches : 
the material is loosely arranged ; there is no regular division into 
chapters as in the Conquest, only three headings (surkhi) being 
given (If. 150,6, 153, a, and 161,6.)- Moreover, the author has 

1 I suspect that there is a scrap of it at the end of an India Office MS. 
of the work, which Ethe in his Catalogue describes as narrating the conquest 
of Jatkam (should be Chatgaon). 

258 Journal of the 'Asiatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1906. 

left blanks for dates in two places (Jf. 149, b. and 175, 6.), which 
he evidently meant to fill up after consulting other sources. 
Wrong dates are given in 106, a, and 167, </. and some obscurity 
has been introduced into the narrative by his passing over the 
first day of the siege of Chatgaon (25th January, 1666) in absolute 

I do not think that there is any good ground for holding with 

ttn ^ntsLMwuLmii Sachau and Etlu ; that u this coi»\ maybe 

No autograph. Sbihab . al . din . B iUlt0Rrapll .- T wo lines of 

the previous page are repeated by mistake in /. 117, a. There are 
two lacunas : 136,6. 6 and 169, a. 7. In some place.- blank spaces 
have been left, evidently for putting down headings in red 
(snrkhi). All these facts go to show that the work is a mere 
copy and not the original. Besides, there are several errors of 
spelling of which an accomplished author and profe. ional writer 
{icSqi'a-naiL'is) like Shihabuddin could hardly have been guilty. 

Analysis of the Coh nxntion. 

Official changes following Mir Jumht's death (106, a. -107, o.) 
Ihtisham Khan, left by Mir Jumla in charge of Dacca, now began 
to exercise supreme authority. Aurangzib ordered Daud KJjau, 
Subahdar of Bihar, to administer Bengal, pending the appoint- 
ment of a fitcea Subahdar; Dilir Khan to officiate until Daud 
Khan arrived. Daud Khan arrived near Dacca, 27th September, 
1663, and stayed at Khizrpur. 

Khizrpur commands the route of the pirates of Chatgaon 
(108,^.)— Decay of the Bengal flotilla, nuuara ( 108, b. ) - Pi' ' 

off the ab 



lity remitted the tithe (safari) on gi in, in order to relieve the 
scarcity at Dacca (110, M— True condition andean- of the decay 

oi the flotilla (112, «.)— Shfiista Khan enters Rajmahal, 8t h March, 

lbt>4 (114, «.)— New appointments made by him ( J ir,.,r.) — Shai-ta 
Khan pushes on shipbuilding (115,6.), demands help from the 
Capta.n of the Dutch (116, a.), plans to win over the Feringees ot 
Chatgaon (116, 6). 

_ m His internal administration: gives relief to iaghdars and 
aimadars (117, o.-121, a.) transit below.— Roia of Kuch Bihaf 
makes submission. 

Piratical incursion into Bagadia 1 122, a.)— Account of the 

Pirates of Chatgaon (122, 6.)— their oppre ion and sale oi captives, 

noi a -)~* he y desolate Bagla.— Cowardice of the Bengal navy 
U4,a.)— Anecdote of 'Aashur Beg. cruising admiral (1-1, b -[ 
Lormer governors of Bengal only bent upon e X tort ing money, ba* 

.eghgen o1 the duty of protecting the people I 12:.. «.)-A«t»>° 

ESS :a;S; - " ^* ,h '^f 

Vol, II, No. 6.] Shai4a Khan in Hernial. 259 


Shaista Khan leaves Kajmahal, 16th October, and enters 
Dacca, 13th December, 1664. (134, 6.-137, a).— Great exertions in 
building and equipping warboats (137, 6.).— New arrangement for 
patrolling the rivers (138, ft )— Thaua and port established at 
Sangramgarh (139, ft.) — Causeway built from Dhapa to Sangram- 

garh (140, a.) — Raja Indramas ( = Fndradnmna) imprisoned for the 

rebellion of his clansmen (141, a.). — Portent nt Makhsusabad 
( = Murshidabad) (142, a.). 

Sondip, island, described (142, 6.) — its forts — colonised by 
Dilawwar, a runaway ship-raptnin of Jahangir's time (143, ft.) — 
Dilawwar defeats the Arr&canese and reigns supreme (144, a.) — 
Abul Hassan ordered by Shaista Khan to spy out the nakedness 
of Sondip (145, a.) — His ruse (145, ft.) — The Nnwwab prepares for 
a regular siege of Chatgaon (146, a,). 

First invasion of Sondip by Abul Hassan, 9th November, 
1665 (147, a. and ft.) — Second invasion of Sondip, 18th November. 
1665(148, ft.) — Capture of Dilawwar and his son Sharif (149) 
Mughal rule established in the island (150, a.). 

The vanning over of the Feringees of Chatgaon (150, ft.) : — The 
Nawwab tempts them by various men (151) — They come over to 
Farhad Khan at Noakhali, with their families and boats (152, a.) 
Conversation between Shaista Khan and the Feringee leader. 
Captain Moor (152). 

Description of Arracan (153, a.) — Three Arracanese invasions 
of Bengal (154,6.) — Reasons for the Nawwab not commandni 
the Chatgaon expedition in person (157, a. ) — Buzurg Umme 
Khan, the commander of the expedition, starts from Dacca, 
24th December, 1665 ( J 58, a.) — Composition of his form (158, ft.) 
Jungle-clearing and road-making (159, ft.)— Expeditionary force 
constantly supplied with provisions (160, a.). 

Army advances, step by step, in co-operation with the flotilla 

(161, a.)— Ibn Husain, the admiral, enters the creek of Khamaria, 

van of theland force joins him, 21st January, 166<i (161, a. and ft. ). 

Capture of Chatgaon (161, ft.) :— The impa able barrier be- 
tween Bengal and Chatgaon (162, 6. )— Chatgaon fort described 
(163, a -164, a.)— Ibrahim Khans expedition to Chatgaon failed 
(164, 6.)— Anxiety about the success of Shaista Khan's expedition 

(165, 6.-167 a.). , A 

First naval battle, 22nd January —the Arracanese put to 

flight, 10 ghurUbs captured (167, ft.-168, a). 

The two fleets again face each other— night of 23rd January 
spent in distant cannonade.— Second naval battle, 24th January, 
(169, a. & ft. )— The Arracanese retreat into the Knrnphnli river — 
The Mughals close its mouth (170, a.), burn three stockades on the 
bank, and then attack and capture the Arracanese navy 

(170,6.-171, a.). 

The Arracanese garrison evacuate Chatgaon fort, night of 

25th January (171, 6.) — Mughal general enter it (172. </.) on the 

26th. Port opposite Chatgaon al » evncuated. 

Netvs of the conquest reaches Dace*, 29th January* Rewards 

granted by the Nawwab and the Emperor (172, ft.-173. ft.). 

260 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

Exultation in Bengal. — How the conquest benefited the Exchequer 

(174, b.). 

Buzurg Ummed Khan enters Chatgaon fort, 27th January, 
restores order, and conciliates the people (175, &.). 

Previous attacks of the Bengal forces on the Arracanese 
(176, a. and &.). 


The Continuation, therefore, supplies us with useful and origi- 
tt , „ x nal information on the following four sub- 

Heads of In- . , & 

formation. jects : 

(1) Shaista Khan's administration of 

Bengal up to January 1666. (2) The system of piracy followed 

by the Feringees of Chatgaon, and a record of the various Magh 

incursions into Bengal and Bengal attacks on the Maghs. (3) A 

description of Sondip and the history of its conquest. (4) A 

description of Chatgaon and the history of its conquest. 

I shall deal with the first only in this article. 

Shaista Khan's Civil Administration. 


[117, a.] The mansabdars Lad their jagirs situated in differ- 
ent parganahs, and the multiplicity of co-partners led to the ryots 
being oppressed and the parganahs desolated. Large sums were 
wasted [in the cost of collection] as many siqdars and 'amlas had 
to be sent out by [every] jagirdar. Therefore, the Nawwab 
ordered the diwan-i-tan to give every jagirdar tankha in one place 
only ; and, if in any parganah any revenue remained over and 
above the tankha of a jagirdar [117, 6.], it was to be made over 
to the jagirdar for collection and payment into the public treasury. 
Thus the department of Crownlands would make a saving by not 
having to appoint collectors [of its own in the parganahs of 

"V ulu " I » \- m *-> lue jagirctar's and tfoverame 
diwan-i-tan set himself to carry out this work. 


Khan learnt the truth 

and promotions made after Mir Jumla's death by the acting 
bubahdars. Most of these men were now dismissed; a few, who 
were really necessary for the administration, were retained m 
service. 1 have noted this difference between Shaista Khan and 


-"-»u ro vi me ^rown, in tne matter ot saving uroveiu"^"- 
money, that they desired solely to gain credit with the Emperor, 
while his aim is pure devotion and loyal service. He considers 
the parading of this fact as akin to hypocrisy and remote from 
true devotion and fidelity. 

nf "R At t V S , time the &imf idnrs and stipend-holders of the province 
msT m? a 2 to flock t0 the Nawwab to make complaints 
Ttt.VT' *v i x £? 8 of tbeir case w ere :— After the reign of Shah 
Jahan, the late Khan-i-khanan [Mir Jnmlal confirmed in his own 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Shaista Khan in Bengal. 261 


jagirs many of these men who were celebrated for devotion to 
virtue and love of the Prophet's followers, and some who had got 
farmdns of the Emperor. All other men who had been enjoying 
madd-o-m'aash and pensions in the Crownlands and fiefs of jagir- 
dars, were violently attacked by Qazi Rizwi, the Sadr ; their 
sanads were rejected and their stipends and subsistence cancelled. 
It was ordered that the aimadars should take to the business of 
cultivators, till all the lands they held in madd-o-m'aash, and pny 
revenue for them to the department of Crownlands or to the 
jagirdars. And, as in carrying out this hard order these poor 
creatures could not get any respite, many who had the capability 
sold their property, pledged their children [as serfs], and thus 
paid the revenue for the current year [118, 6.], preserving their 
lives as their only stock for the next year. Some, who had no 
property, brought on themselves torture and punishment, gave up 
their lives, and thus escaped from all anxiety about the next year. 


Like fire they ate sticks [i.e., received beating] and 

gave up gold [or sparks], 
And then, through loss of strength, they fell down 

dead in misery. 

And now even by the resumption of the cultivated lands suffi- 
cient gain in the form of produce cannot be collected, because 
the aimadars abstain from tilling the lands that have been 
escheated to the State ; and even the chastisement and pressure of 
the 'amlas cannot make them engage in cultivation. And so the 
land remains waste and the aimadars poor and aggrieved. Owing 
to the great distance and the fear of calamities, these poor per- 
plexed sufferers could not go to Delhi to report their condition fully 
to the Emperor and get the wicked and oppressive officials punish- 
ed [119, a .]. Hence their sighs and lamentations reached the sky. 

One Friday, the Nawwab, as was his custom, went [to the 
" in nflW hi* HYidav m-aver. After it was over he learnt 




Q 1 

the brink of death and was saying : 


Shall my life return [to my body] or shall it go out, 
what is thy command ? 

The Nawwab ordered the author to go and ask the reason 
I went to the old man and inquired. He replied, "My son, who 
held thirty bighas of land in madd-o-m'adsh, has died. Ihe aiu/a* 
now demand from me one year's revenue of the land. As 1 h&\ e 
no wealth, I shall give up my life and thus free myselt l^om the 
oppression]." I reported the matter to the Nawwab, who gave 

2$2 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal/ [June, 1906. 

him a large'sura, and then confirmed his son's rent-free land on 





God favours that man, 

Whose life owes renos< 





^ fc j 

The wise know that the resumption of the lands of dimadnm 
and the cutting off of the subsistence of stipend-holders bring 
on great misfortunes and terrible consequences [on the wrong- 
doer J. I have seen some among the rulers of this country who 
engaged in this wicked work and could not live through the year. 

[ Verse. ] 

The dark sigh of sufferers, in the heart of dark nights, 
Snatches away by [God's] command the mole of pros- 
perity from the cheek of the oppressor. 

It is a lasting act of virtue and an undying deed of charity 
to bestow imlak on the needy and idrSr on the poor. The hinder- 
ing of such liberality and the stoppage of such charity does not 
bring any gain in this world and involves one in the Creator's 
wrath m the next 

[J20,a.J One day there was a talk on this subject in the 
JNawwabs court. As "the words of kings are kings among 
words, he remarked, " If a man has not K race enough to increase 
the gifts made to these [poor] people, he should at least not de- 
prive them of what others gave them [120,6.], because these 

people, too should be counted among the needy. And one should 
not through his own meanness of spirit and vileness of heart 
resume the charitable gifts of others." 

In short the Nawwab's natural kindness having been excited, 
ordered that Mir Sayyid Sadiq, the Sadr, should fully recognise 
> madd-o-m aash and wazifa which these men had been enjoying 
mine Urownlands according to the reliable sanad$ of former rulers. 
fl.L3. was held [rent-free] in the fiefs of jagirdars, if it 
amounted to one-fortieth of the total revenue of the jagirdar, he 
should consider it as the zahat on his property and spare it. But 
iariwL rent " fre ! a * d exceeded one-fortieth [of the total jagir], the 

laenrdar was ,i. 1,W„ * J * ^ 


" , ij "" "" Cil -y ™ respect or resume [the excess!. Who- 

continued in it wiilinn* ™, 

f»rvrm4- 4-s* lw. j. i i -. r-V J ^ XilJ LiJjLUl>lULl, itllU Wits UU liu «*u- 

haT™ ™f tTO ? ble ? . [b ^ demand of revenue]. As for those who 
ailv al W?n 8u J« 8t «"» a ^ d now, for the first time, begged 

offiiS^M o"/ S ^ ^ Jagi J ° f the NaWW5b ' the *** 

The S^t^ *"?*«■ *5* desires without any delay. 

■Crowuland^n^+i • • the above order in the case of the 

jagtof theNat ^ J ^ r 5° f [ ° the ^ W**» [H&l.a.]. ^ tl,e 
who had ten brou^ 18 ^f'^^Uh^h Murlidhar,- 

n brou ^ ht "P wid trained in the Nawwab's household, 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Shaista Khan in Bengal. 263 



marked by honesty and politeness, possessed his master's 
confidence and trust, and, in spite of his still being in the flower 
of youth, had the wisdom and patience of old men,— displayed in 
this work of benevolence such zeal and exertion as, I pray, God 
may favour all Musalmans with. Every day two to three hundred 
aimadars presented their sanads to him and then departed. Next 
day, in the presence of the Nawwab, he passed them through the 
Record office and sealed them, and then gave them back to t lie 
aimadars. In short, he exhibited such great labour and praise- 
worthy diligence in this business, that every one of this class of 
men got what he desired. And the aforesaid Khawajah gained 
good name nnd respect for himself, temporal and spiritual welfare 
for his master, and prayers for the perpetuation of the empire for 
the Solomon-like Emperor, (Verse) [121,6.] 

, That man's influence with the king is a blessed thing, 
Who forwards the suits of the distressed. 

Shafsta Khan's Good Deeds. 


[127, a.] I. His exertions for conquering the province and 
fort of Chatgaon ; the suppression of the pirates, and the con- 
sequent relief of the people of Bengal. 

II. Every day he held open darbSr for administering justice, 
and quickly redressed wrongs. He regarded this as his most im- 
portant duty. 

III. He ordered that in the parganahs of his own jagir 
everything collected by the revenue officers above the fixed revenue 
should be refunded to the ryots. [127, &.] 

IV. The former governors of Bengal used to make monopo- 
lies (ijdra) of all articles of food and clothing and [many] other 
things, and then sell them at fanciful rates which the helpless 
people had to pay. Shaista Khan restored absolute freedom of 
buying and selling. 

V. Whenever ships brought elephants and other [animals] 
to the ports of the province, the men of the Subahdar used to 
attach (qurq) them and take whatever they selected at prices of 
their own liking. Shaista Khan forbade it. . 

VI. His abolition of the collection of zahat (i.e., ? V of tbe 

income) from merchants and traveller?, and of custom (ho si I) from 
artificers, tradesmen and new-comers,' Hindus and Musalnnins 

alike. The history of it is as follows : — 

From the first occupation of India and its port^ by the 
Muhammadans to the end [128, a.] of Shah .Lilian's reign, it was 
a rule and practice to exact hasil from every trader,— from the 
rose-vendor down to the clay-vendor, from the weaver of fane linen 
to that of coarse cloth —to collect house-tax from new-comers and 
hucksters, to take zahat from travellers, merchants and st-anle- 

1 Khush-nushin, which may also menn 'well-to-do men.' 

264 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

keepers (mukari). As S'adi has said, " At first oppression's basis 
was small ; but every successive generation increased it," [so it 
happened], till at last in all provinces, especially in Bengal, it 
reached such a stage that tradesmen and merchants gave up their 
business, householders took to exile, saying 



To such a place that Time cannot track us there. 




the roads and ferries matters came to such a pass that no rider was 
allowed to go on unless he paid a dinar, and no pedestrian unless he 
paid a diram. On the river-highways if the wind brought it to the 
ears of the toll-collectors {rSh-dars) that the stream was carrying 
away a broken boat without paying hasil, they would chain the 
river [128,6.]- If the toll-officers heard that the wave had taken 
away a broken plank [without] paying zakat, they would beat it 
on the back of its head in the form of the wind. They considered 
it an act of unparalleled leniency if no higher zakat was taken 
from rotten clothes actually worn [on the body] than from mend- 
ed rags, and a deed of extreme graciousness if cooked food was 
charged with a lower duty than uncooked grains. None of the 
Delhi sovereigns, in spite of their efforts to strengthen the Faith 
and follow the rules of the Prophet, put down these wicked and 
[canonically] illegal practices, but connived at them. Only, we 
read m histories, Firuz Shah forbade these unjust exactions. But 
after him they were restored, nay increased. But when, by the 
grace of God [129, a.] Aurangzib ascended the throne, he sent 
orders to the governors of the provinces and the clerks of the ad- 
ministration not to do such things in future. He thus gave relief 
to the inhabitants of villages and travellers by [129, &.] land and 
sea from these harassments and illegal demands. The learned 
know that no other king of the past showed such graciousness, 
made such strong exertions, and remitted to the people such a 
large sum— which equalled the total revenue of Turan. 

£, ?°5. ! Kee P 1( >ng over the heads of the people, 

This King, the friend of holy men, 

Whose shadow gives repose to the people. 

inroughthe guidance of [Thy] service, keep his heart alive. 

I strongly hope that, just as the peasants and merchants have 
oeen released from oppression and innovations [in taxation], so 

^^r^^ 1 ^ and freel ? re Vorb to the Emperor the distress 
S/t 6 * oldiei 7 and the fact of their being harassed and 
rewt X the °PP r ^sion of the thievish clerks, and thereby 
reieaw the soldiers from the tyranny of these godless men 
l«u,a.j. The army , 8 treated by the Hindu clerks, and drowsy 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Shaista Khfin in Bengal. 26 

writers as more degraded than a fire- worshipping slave and more 
unclean than the dog of a Jew. Whenever that forked-tongued 
cobra, their pen, brings its head out of the hole of the ink-pot, it 
does not write on the account-book (tumor) of their dark hearts 
any letter except to pounce upon and snatch away the subsistence 
of the soldiers. Indeed, when their tongue begins to move in the 
hole of their mouth, it does not spit out anything except curtail- 
ing the stipends of the soldiery. At times they would senselessly 
split a hair, and do not abstain from numerous unjust fines. 

Again, if after life-long exertion and the showering of bribes, 
they are induced to sign the fard-i-chehra of any soldier, then, at 
the time of branding (dngh), they designate a charger worthy of 
Rustam as a mere pack-horse, and on the day of verification 
(tashiha) they describe [in the records] a horse that stands erect 

as fit for the yoke jt*y*, a horse that bends its leg as lame, a 
horse that shies as doubtful <££, a horse that lacks a particle of 

hair as Taghlibi. They call a Daudi coat of mail the film of a 
wasp jj^j *4>* J and a steel helmet itself a small linen cap. 

They regard a Rustam as a Zal, and a Zal as a mere child. May 
God the Giver [130, fc.] reward with the long life of Noah, the 
patience of Job, and the treasures of Corah that valiant man, 
brave like Asfandiar, who after traversing these hill-tops ( = hin- 
drances) gets his tasdiq ynd-dasht qabz and barat passed through the 
Haft-khan of the accounts department, so that his business may 
be done. In the shambles of the kachari of Crownlands stipend- 
holders have to flay themselves [before getting their dues], and at 
the sacrificial altar of the office of the dtwan-i-tan tankha-dars find 
it necessary to root out their own lives. O ye faithful ! Did man 
ever hear of such tyranny as that each letter of the identification- 
marks of the record office should be written by a [different] clerk ? 
ye Muslims ! Did man ever see such oppression as that one word 
has to be written by ten men ? In [making out] the assignment- 
paper (barat) they decrease the taiikha due and magnify the deduc- 
tion to be made. If, through a mistake, the balance is entered in 
the receipts (qabuz), they treat it as a true record and appropriate 
the amount to themselves. And they think that they have con- 

b great obligation if they consent to [issue such a paper as] 
. . •' In the parganah of Wiranpur (city of Desolation) in the 
mrharol 'Adamabad (Depopulation), tracts are assigned on the 
revenue in jagir [to the duped soldier?] and [he should] demand 
from the jagirdar Khnna-Jcharnb (Ruined ) the arrears of many 
years at this place." A day's difference in the verification (tashiha ) 
is seized upon as a ground for making a year's deduction [from 
the trooper's pay.] If a man has entered service on the 1st *ar- 
wardi, they assign tankha to him from the end of the coming 
Asfandar. For the single grain of wheat (= fruit of the tree of 
knowledge, in Muslim mythology] which Father Adam, in his 
jagir of the sark&r of Jannatabad (Paradise), ate without [131, o.J 
authorisation, they demand from his progeny refund amounting to 

266 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

an ass's load. If a man's pay is due for 3 years, they designate it 
as one for many years and then write [only] one-half of it (?). 
The faces of the clerks of the taujih (description-roll) are dis- 
agreeable. The answer of the author of this journal is, u The state 
of not being in need is better, without the need of taking oaths 
[to it]." No harm has been done to me by these men (the 
clerks), and no confusion has been introduced into my affairs by 
them ; but [I write] from seeing and hearing what they have 
done to the helpless and the weak in the court [of the Nawwab] 
and in the provinces far and near. 

[ Verse. ] 

My heart is oppressed, and the pain is so great, 
That so much blood gushes out of it. 

In short, the Emperor's orders for abolishing zakat and hasil, 

tO Bengal. WfiTfi fni" fl.tirklicliin/WkAm <'n flia tiotwyotiqIio nf +T10 



v/iuwincum. j. imj HawwaD naa a tree choice in nis jagir with 
regard to all exactions except the rahdari and the prohibited cesses 
(abwabs). But this just, God-fearing, benevolent governor, out of 
his sense of justice and devotion to God, abolished the hUsil 
amounting to 15 lacs of rupees which used to be collected [131, &.] 
in his own jagir, and he thus chose to please God, relieve the people, 
and follow his religious master (Aurangzib). 

VII. In many parganahs the despicable practice had long 
existed that when any man, ryot or newcomer (Jchush-nashin) , died 
without leaving any son, all his property including even his wife 
and daughter was taken possession of by the department of the 
Crownlands or the jagirdar or zemindar who had such power ; and 
this custom was called ankura [ = hooking]. The Nawwab put 
down this wicked thing. 

VIII. In the kotw&li chabutras of this country it was the 
custom that whenever a man proved a loan or claim against an- 
other or a man's stolen property [was recovered], the clerks of the 

chabutra, m paying to the claimant his due, used to seize for the 
state one-fourth nf if nn^n. +i, * « # ' #__ j..- m rpv, a 




at the magistracy (muhakuma) both of them were kept in prison 
until i the decision of their case, lest it should be wilfully delayed (? ). 
Ana their liberators (itlaq-goian) took daily fees from the prison- 

abolfsh d Pa them int ° the StatG * This custom ' to °' was n0W 

*ro X l, The courtiers [132, a.] used daily to present to the 

of ™ln ma , n y nee f 7 Persons, and he made them happy with gifts 
ot money. When he s«t rm+ ™ „ ^a j: x.I Ki ~ •.*.«« ™ 

of money. 

took ^ 

addition to [support 


mvitP rt.a ™ i l *^ , gJ tne est ablished almshouses, he used to 

he snread T? * & ? d feed vast numbers *° s^iety at the tables 
he spread. His profuse charity so thoroughly removed poverty 


1 Shaista Kh 


and need from Bengal that few hired labourers or workmen could 

be had [for money] to do any work Every year he used to send 

to all the provinces vast sums for the benefit of the faqirs, or- 
phans, and motherless children, and thus laid in viaticum for bis 
last journey. 

Journ.As.Soc.Beng-al, Vol .11,1906 

PI ate II 





Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865 — 1904 (now amalgamated with Journal), 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings [N. £.], Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784—1883. 

Bibliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 


Honorary Secretary 


) To be present and vote at all General Meetii 

are held on the first Wednesday in each mo 

in September and October. 




grounds and public rooms 




manuscripts from the 

(e) To take out books, plates and 


(f) To receive grati copi< of the Jov al and Proo ng 

and Memoirs of the Society. 

(g) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 





• • • ft * * 

Pro tedint or June, 1906 

Com 'buttons to Oriental Herpetology. No. IV. —Note* on 
the Indian Tortoises.— By K Annandale, D.Sc., 


CM.Z.S. (with one plate) 

• « • 

• • • 


Note on a rare Indo-Pneific Barnacle.— By N. Aswandale, 

D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. - 

« » . . • • • * 


The RawMs and MerMs of Rajputanu .—By R. C. Bramlet. 

lommumcated by R. Bur 

■ • « ••* « • * 


2 G emu Re.jul, ioi of Aurangzib (with the Persian 
texts of two unique farmam from a Berlin Manuscript) 

Prof r, Patna CoH> e 255 

Sh p n in Bengal (1664-66).— By Jadukath Sarkar, 






Vol. II, No. 7 

JULY, 1906. 





Issued 4th August. 1906. 


List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1906. 

President : 
His Honor Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LIi.D., K.C.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Jasfcice Asutosh M. ukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 


T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G-.S., F.R.S. 
A. Earle, Esq., l.C.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Secretary : Lieut.-Coi. D. 0. Phill fc, Sec- 
retary ^ Board of Examiners. 
Treasurer : J. A, Chapman, Esq. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary ; E. I). Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 
Natural History Secretary: I. H. Bnrkill, Esq., MLA. 
Anthropological Secretary: X. Annandaie, Esq., ^^ c 

Medi i S< cetary : iJ jor F. P. Maynard, I.M.S. 

Joint Philological Secretai : Mahamahopadhyaya Harapra- d 

Shastri, M.A. 

mi»i Secretary: R. Barn, Esq., I.C.S. 

Oth If. of Council : 


H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 


Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra VidySbhusa % t, M.A 
C. Little, Esq., M.A. 


J. A. Cunningham, K ., B.A. 
K*jor W. J. Buchanan, I. M.- 



JULY, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 4th July, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : 

Dr. N. Annandale, Babu Sasi Bhushan Bose, Mr. I. H. 
Burkill, Mr. J. A. Chapman, Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Mr. L. L. 
Fermor, Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. T. H. D. La Touche, Dr. H. H. 
Mann, Dr. M. M. Masoom, Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., Mr. 
R. D. Mehta, Lt.-Col. D. C. Phillott, Mr. G. E. Pilgrim, Major L. 
Rogers, I.M.S., Mr. R. R. Simpson, Mr. G. H. Tipper, Mahama- 
hopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushana, Mr. E. Vredenbarg, 
Mr. E. H. Walsh, Mr. E. R. Watson, The Rev. A. W. Young. 

Visitors : — Kumar Kshitindra Deb Rai Mahasai, Mr. J. M. 
Maclaren, The Rev. E. C Woodley. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Twenty-seven presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced that Kumar Birendra 



had expressed a wish to withdraw from the 

The Chairman announced that Major P. P. Maynard, I.M.S., 
had been appointed Secretary of the Medical Section of the Society. 

The Rev. E. C. Woodley, Principal, L.M.S. College, Bhowani- 
pur, proposed by the Rev. A. W. Young, seconded by Mr. D. 
Hooper ; Lt.-Col G. F. A. Harris, M.D., F.R.C.P, I.M.S Professor 
of Materia Medica, Medical College, Calcutta, proposed by Major 
F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., seconded by Major L Rogers, iJL».j 
Lt.-Col. F. S. Peck, I.M.S., Professor of Midwifery, Medical 
College, Calcutta, proposed by Major F. P. ^ynard, I M.S., 
seconded by Major L. Rogers, I.M.S. ; Major DM Moar, MD 
T.M.S., Professor of Anatomy, Medical College, Calcutta proposed 
by Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., seconded I by Major L. Rogeis, 
I.M.S. Major J. Lloyd T. Jones, M.B I.MS Assay Master, 
H.M's Mint, Calcutta, proposed by Major L. Rogers. 


1 <*, propose -v -« -t -Hi" 1 

seconded by Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S ; Major JJIulvan^ 
I.M.S., Superintendent, Presidency -Jail, Calcutta, FOgjedJ y 
Major L. Rogers, I.M S , seconded by Major F P. Mayn«d. 
I.M.S.; Captain J. G. P Murray, M.B., LM.S, .Second^ 

Major L. 

Presidency General Hospital, 
Rogers, I.M.S., 

Calcutta, proposed by 
seconded by Major F. P. Maynard, 

rffa m 7!FvtSS Brown M.D., M.R.O.P., I.M.S., Civil 

I.M.S.; Maior &. Harold. i*»otwi, »*-^> ' p \.r Qimnr( i 

Surgeon of the 24-Parganas, proposed by Major F. P. Maynard, 

lii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906.] 

I.M.S., seconded by Major L. Rogers, I.M.S. ; Captain F. P. 
Connor, F.R.C.S., I. M.S., in Medical Charge, 13th Rajputs, Alipur, 
proposed by Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., seconded by Major 
L. Rogers, I.M.S. ; Dr. Arnold Caddy, F.R.C.S., Eng., proposed 
by Mr. W. K. Dods, seconded by Major F P. Maynard, I.M.S, ; 
were ballotted for and elected as Ordinary Members. 

Mr. I. H. Burkill exhibited two host-plants of Thesium him- 
ylayense, Royle. The roots of Thesium himalayense were traced 
to suckers entering roots of Andropogon Con tort us, Linn., and 
Micromeria biflora, Benth., at Alsundi, in the State of Suket, 
North- Western Himalaya. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushana exhibited 
a Tibetan almanac for 1906-1907, prepared by a Mongolian Lama 
living near Lhasa and containing figures of stars, etc., and prog- 
nostications of coming events. 

The following papers were read : 

1. On some Freshwater Entomostraca in the Collection of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta. — -By R. Gurney. Communicated by Dr. 

N. Annandale. 

2. An old form of Elective Oover 

By E. H. Walsh, I.C.S. 

3. Preliminary note on the Chemical Examination of the Milk 
mid Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo. — By E. R. Watson, M.A., B.S« 

4 A new Gecko from the Eastern Himalayas. — By N. Annan- 
dale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

5. Freshwater Fauna of India. No. VIII. — Some Himalayan 

Tadpoles.— By N. Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

6. Some Street Cries of Persia. — By Lieut.-Col. D. C. 



Hon on some of 

\e reading of an inscrip- 

By Col. C. E. Shepherd- 

Communicated by the Philological Secretary. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings. 

8. A Parasite upon a Parasite. A Vlscnm apparently V. 
articulatum, Burm., on Loranthu$ vettitus, Wall., on Qnercm incana. 

Roxb. — By I. H. Burkill. 

9. Gentianacearum Species Asiaticas Nova* descripsit L H. 

10. Swertiam novamjaponicam ex affinitate Swertise tetrapter&, 
Maxim, descripserunt S. le M. Moore et I. H. Burkill. 


The following new books have been added to the Library 
during June, 1906 : 

Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Vibhanga, being the second book of 

the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Edited by Mrs. Rhys Davids. 
London, 1904. 8°. 

One of the Publications of the Pali Text Society. 

Assam District Gazetteers. Vols. I, Cachar ; II, Sylhet j III, 

Goalpara ; V, Darrang ; VI, Nowgong ; VII, Sibsagar. 
Allahabad, 1905-06. 8°. 

Presd. by the Government of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

Aston, W. G. Shinto— the way of the gods. 
London, New York, and Bombay, 1905. 8°. 

Barthelemy, Marquis de. Au Pays Moi. Ouvrage accompagnr 

de...gravures hors texte et de. ..cartes. Avec le portrait de 
1'auteur. Paris, 1904. 8°. 

Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicordm. Pars Terfcia. Descripti.* 
Imperii Moslemici autore Shams ad-din Abu Abdallah 
Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn abi Bekr al-Banna al-Basshari 
AI Moqaddasi. Edidit M. J. de Goeje. Editio Secmida. 
Lugduni Batavorum, 1906. 8°. 

Presd, by Mons. M. /. de Goeje. 

Caland, W. and Henry, V. L'Agnistoma. Description complete 
de la forme normale du sacrifice de soma dans le enlte 
vedique. Tome I, etc. Paris, 1906, etc. 8°. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Octavo Publications, No. 42. 
The Place-names of Bedfordshire. By Her. W. W. Skeat. 

Cambridge, 1906. 8 9 . 

Pn /. by the Society. 

<?rooke, William. Things Indian : being discursive notes on 

various subjects connected with India. London, 1906. 8°. 

Ollinet, Vital. La Turquie D'Asie. Geographic administrative, 

statistique descriptive et raisonnee de chaque province <h> 
I'Asie-Mineure. 4 vols, and an alphabetical table. 
Paris, 1892. 8°. 





Hirt, Herman. Die Indogermanen. Ihre Verbreitung, ihre 
Urheimaf. und ihre, etc. Band I, 
etc. Strassburg, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Hodson, T. C. Thado Grammar. Shillong, 1906. 8°. 

Presd. by the Government of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

Jagadis Chunder Bose. Plant Response as a means of Physio- 
logical investigation . . . With illustrations. 
London, 1906. 8°. 

LaCOte, Felix. Une version nouvelle de la Brhatkatha de 
Gunadhya. Paris, 1906. 8°. 

Ext rait du Journal Asiatique, 1906. 

Presd. by the Author. 

MacDonald, J. R. Geography of New Zealand for Senior Pupils 
in the Public Schools, Scholarship Candidates, and Pupil 
Teachers . . . With . , . maps and . , . illustrations. 
Wellington, 1903. 8°. 

Presd. by the New Zealand Government. 

Manchester— University of Manchester. Economic Series, No. 2. 
Cotton spinning and manufacturing in the United States of 
America. A report ..By T. W. Uttley. 
Manchester, 1905. 8°. 

•Lectures, No. 3. Bearing and Importance of Com- 
mercial Treaties in the Twentieth Century. A lecture... By 
Sir T. Barclay. Manchester, 1906. 8°. 

Medical Series, No. 4. Course of Instruction in Opera- 
tive Surgery... By W. Thorburn. Manchester ; 1906. 8 . 

Presd. by the University. 

Morgan, J. de. Les Recherches Archeologiques leur but et lews 
precedes. Paris, 1906. 8°. 

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh District Gazetteers. 

Vol, VIII, Agra. Allahabad, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Govt of India, Horn* Dept. 

- -*. 

Vol II, No. 7.] Parasites from the Ghana!. . 269 


33. Parasites from the Gharial (Gravialis gangeticus, Geoffir.) — By 
Dr. von Linstow, Goettingen. Translated by Paul Bruhl. 
Communicated by N. Annan dale. (With 1 plate.) 

[The specimens on which Dr. von Linstow has been kind enough to 
furnish the following report were obtained from two Uhurials which died 
recently in the Calcutta Zoological Gardens. The stomach of one of these 
also contained an undetermined Ascaris. There is no reason to think that 
the death of the reptiles was in any way due to the parasites. — N\ A.] 


Micropleura vivipara, nov. gen., now sp. 

Fig. 1-2. 

From the mesentery : 

The genus Micropleura is related to Fiiaria; the anterior 
end is provided with neither teeth nor lips ; the lateral lines 
are low and narrow and are without a canal ; an excretory pore 
is wanting, the genus belonging to the Resorbentes ; the caudal 
end is rounded ; the male has, on each side, a thickening ending 
in a papilla; the female is viviparous, and the vulva is not far 
distant from the middle of the body; spicules of equal size. 
The muscular system is strongly developed; the lateral lines 
are feeble, broader outwardly than inwardly, occupying only 
T V of the circumference of the body; the anterior end is roundish 
with 6 papilla? which are arranged in a circle and are little 
prominent ; the oral aperture is small and circular ; the length of 
the oesophagus amounts to T V of the total length of the body in 
the male, and to T * T in the female ; it commences with a vestibu- 
lum which is about one-fourth the length of the (esophagus ; 
the cuticle is smooth ; the nerve-ring is situated at the end of 

the vestibule. 

The male is 35 mm. long and 072 ram. in diameter ; -^ of 
the total length of the animal is occupied by the caudal end; the 
latter bears ventrally on each side three small papilla? arranged 
in an arc, further one postanal papilla? placed on a roundish 
elevation, on each side, and behind these on one side of the short 
tail a small papilla; spicules 047 mm. long. 

The female attains a length of 37 mm. and a width ot 
079 mm.; the tail measures ^ of the total length; the vulva 
is situated somewhat in front of the middle of the body; 
it divides the length of the body in the proportion of 
5:6; attached to the front and back of the uteri are ovaries 
the length of which amounts to T V of the length of the 
body ; the sexual organs leave about one-tenth of the body 
free in front as well as behind. The embryo is 057 mm. long 
and 0017 mm. in diameter; the cuticle is marked with sharply 
defined transverse rings, and the caudal end is long and tine- 
pointed ; the anterior end is rounded* 

270 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

Typhlophoros lamellaris, nov. gen., nov. sp 


From the stomach : 

Fig. 3-5. 

The genus Typhlophoros also belongs to the Resorbentes ; the 
lateral lines are without a canal ; they are broad and low, and occupy 
about i of the circumference of the body ; the anterior end has 
3 lips, and behind these is a cuticular thickening consisting of 
longitudinal ribs ; the lateral lines are raised into longitudinal 
ridges ; on the dorsal side of the oesophagus a caecal prolongation 
of the intestines extends right to the anterior end of the body ; 
the males possess two equal spicules. The cuticle is smooth ; 
the anterior end of the body has three lips which are triangular 
and narrowed at their base ; the pulpa is wider in front ; the 
dorsal lip bears two papillae : behind it is a cuticular thickening 
which consists of sixteen finely and transversely striated longitu- 
dinal ridges, 0*12 mm. long ; caudal end pointed ; the longitudinal 
ridge which runs along the lateral lines has an equilaterally 
triangular cross-section ; the intestines possess a high epithelium ; 
in the parenchyma of the intestinal wall occur deep-black oval 

The male is 11 mm. long and 0'3l mm. in diameter; the 
caudal end is T |y of the length of the body ; on each side of it 
are placed four preanal papillae; the equal-sized curved spicules 
measure 0*60 mm. 

In the female, which is 16 mm. long and 032 mm. in diameter, 
two roundish projections are situated in front of the anus, the 
caudal end occupies ¥ V oi the whole length of the body ; the vulva 
is placed somewhat in front of the middle of the body and divides 
the. length in the ratio of 4:5; the caudal end is curved towards 
thedorsal surface ; the eggs have a thick shell ; their length is 
0073 mm., their breadth amounts to 0*062 mm. 


Porocephahis indicus, nov. sp. 

Fig. 6-10. 

From trachea and lungs : 

Only females have been found. Rather young specimens are 20 
mm. long and 2 mm. broad ; behind the thin anterior end the body 
is thickened and spindle-shaped, attaining a width of T18 mm.; 



diameter ; 


here is nearly uniform. On the ventral side the cuticula is trans- 
versely ringed at regular intervals of 0*44 mm., the rings occu- 
py 111 !?. aV of the circumference ; the muscle-fibres run in four 
directions, transversely, longitudinally, and obliquely in two direc- 
tions making equal angles with each other; the anterior and posterior 

ends are roundish. 

muB are roundish. Un the lateral edges of the rings there are 
posteriorly finger-sh aped prolongations, which become smaller and 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Parasites from the Oharial. 271 


smaller farther back, but which can be traced far backwards ; 
exteriorly they possess an annular chitinous thickening (fig. 9) ; 
at the anterior end tbere lies beneath the cuticle an oval ring wh i ch 
is provided in front and behind with a prolongation (fig. 8) and 
on the rigbt and left of it with two hooks on each side which 
are directed frontwards and outwards and tbe points of which 
project freely ; their length is 1 5 mm. The intestinal canal opens 
at tbe posterior end ; the vaginal aperture is situated closely in 
front of tbe anus ; the vagina is 11 mm. long and 0*044 mm. 
wide, whilst the width of the uterus, the numerous convolution- 
of which fill the body-cavity, amounts to 0J6 mm.; the egg- 
possess a thick hyaline envelop (fig. 10 ) ; their length amounts to 
0052 mm. on an average, their width to 0044 mm., the yolk 
attaining a length of 0'026 mm. and a width of 0016 mm. We owe 
to A. E. Shipley an admirable account of the Linguatulida?, " An 
attempt to revise the family Linguatulida?," in Arch, de Parasi- 
tologic, vol. I, Paris, 1888, pp. 52-86. 



Fig. 1-2.— Micropleura vivipara: 1, caudal end of male; 2 

cross-section of lateral line. # 

Fig 3-5 —Typhlophoros lamellaris : 3, anterior end ; 4 caudal 
end of male, right side ; 5, cross-section through lateral line. 

Fig 6-10 —Porocephalus indicus : 6, older specimen, and /, 
younger specimen, natural size; 8, anterior end, ventral surface ; 
9, cuticular prolongation ; 10, egg. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] On some Freshwater Entomostraca. 27:1 



34. On some Freshwater Entomostraca in the collection of the Indian 

Museum, Calcutta —By Kobkrt Gurnet. Communicated by 
K Annandale. (With 2 plates.) 

The Entomostraca here dealt with were kindly entrusted to 
me for examination by Dr. Nelson Annandale, Deputy Super- 
intendent of the Indian Museum. They comprise a number of 
Phyllopoda, Cladocera and Copepoda, and one Ostracod, some 
collected by Dr. Annandale himself, and others forming part of 
the Museum collection. 

Our knowledge of the Entomostraca of India is most meagre ; 
apart from the Phyllopoda, of which several have been recorded by 
Baird and Sars, we know practically nothing, and it is impossible 
at present to make useful comparisons with the fauna of other 
countries. Though I am able to add 14 species to the Indian 
fauna, the list is obviously too incomplete to be of use to students 
of Geographical Distribution. The only point of importance 
which arises from the study of these collections is the completely 
Palaearctic character of the species contained in the three collections 
from Chitral and Sind. The Chitral district belongs clearly to the 
Palasarctic Region, but Sind is generally included in the limits of 
the Oriental Region, though no doubt having the characters of a 
border-land. I cannot, of course, lay much stress on the evidence 
of the single species — Branchipus fisciformis, Schaeff., which I 
record from there, but the genus, as at present restricted, has not 
been found hitherto outside the Palsearctic Region. 


1. LiMNEirs br achy (j ra (0. F. Miiller). 

Several specimens, mostly females, from Shandur lake, Chit 
ral ; 12,000 feet (Chitral Mission). 

2. Esthkrja DAViDf, Simon. 

See G. 0. Sars, Amu Mus. St. Petersb., VI, 1901. 

This species was first recorded by E. Simon (1886) from Pe- 
king. It has since been redescribed by Prof. Sars from specimens 
brought from the Western slopes of the Chingan Mountains in 
Eastern Mongolia. Several specimens, agreeing completely with 
the description given by Sars, were collected by Capt. R. E. Lloyd, 
x "~ ' ~ ' a Thibet. The species has not hitherto been 

found outside Asia, 



The shell is of the same shape and appearance in both 
sexes. Seen laterally (Fig. 2) it is elliptical in shape, the height 
about two-thirds of the length; the nmbones very prominent, 

274 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

situated near the anterior extremity. The dorsal margin is 
short and straight and ends posteriorly in a sharp angle : the 
anterior, ventral and posterior margins form an even curve. 
Seen dorsally, the shell is narrow, the greatest width in front, on 
a level with the umbones. The valves are thin and rather trans- 
parent, marked with about 20 very distinct lines of growth, the 
marginal lines closely crowded. The spaces between the lines are 
very faintly punctate and traversed by what appear to be canals, 
ending distally in little refringent protuberances (Fig. 2a.) These 
protuberances are more marked along the peripheral lines and 
give these lines of growth a distinct beaded appearance, the canals 
at the same time giving an appearance of radial striatum. The 
margin of the shell is beset with short hairs, as are also the last 
few lines of growth posteriorly. In all the specimens these hairs 
are largely broken off, so that their distribution is not easy to 
determine accurately. 

Tne head is separated from the body by a deep sulcus (Fig. 1) ; 
the rostrum is narrow and minutely emarginate at the extremity 
(Fig. 3). The eyes are not quite confluent. 

™ ne nrst pair of antennae have about 15 rather irregular 
lobes (F lg . 8 ). The second pair of antennas ( Fig. 5) have all joints 
in the anterior branch and 12 in the posterior. There are 20 pairs of 
branchial legs, the posterior pairs exceedingly minute (Fig. 4). 
Ihe seasory appendage of the fifth endite is nearly as long as the 
sixth endite in the female (Figs. 9 and 10), but it is two- jointed, and 
considerably longer than the sixth endite in the male. The pre- 

♦J enS j m a PP enda S es of the male are of the usual form (Figs. 
7 and 8). 

The dorsal edge of the tail is armed with a series of short 
spines regularly diminishing in size from in front backwards (Fig. 
4). I he fifth segment of the body is produced dorsally into a small 
elevation .bearing a seta ; the sixth and following segments are all 
similarly produced, but the elevation, becomes broader and bears 
more spines, finally dying away in the last seven segments and 
leaving each segment armed dorsally with a short strong spine and 
one or two accessory spinules. 

Size of Shell. 

Length. Height. 

Male : 30— 325 mm. 185— 20 mm 

Female: 325— 375 mm. 20— 225 mm 


Mandapam, Pamben Passage, South India. 
Collected by Dr. Annandale in a small 

a small rain-pool in sand, 

j orA 'j n 7*. -"u«uua« in it smau ram-pooi in «auu, 

devoid of vegetation. The pool had been filled a week before by a 
finower of ram. 

Est w! K iG ! d ? er9 consid erably from any of the species of 
shell T V, described from India. In the outline of the 

sueii it has some resemblance to Edheria boysi, Baird, but the 

Vol. II, No. 7.] On some Freshwater Entomostraca. 271 


ure and number 01 lines or oto>\ 

The only species from which there can be any difficulty in separa- 
ting it, is Edheria mexicana, Claus. It may be distinguished by 
the rather more prominent umbones, sharper posterior dorsal angle 
of the shell, and smaller number of joints in the second pair of 
antennae. The sculpture of the shell of Edheria tndica resemble* 
very closely that of Edheria- rnexicana as figured by Packard (1883, 
PI. xxiv, Pig. 6). 

4. Cyclesteekia hislopi (Baird). 

(See Sars, 1887.) 

One specimen of this remarkable species was taken by 
Dr. Annandale in a small tank at Calcutta about half an acre in 
extent and containing a good deal of vegetation. First recorded by 
Baird in 1859 from Nagpur, it has since been found in Ceylon, 
Celebes, Sumatra, Australia (Queensland and Victoria), East Afric:.. 
and Brazil. It is the sole representative of what is probably a very 
primitive genus, and in its structure, life-history and distribution it 
is perhaps the most interesting of all Phyllopods. 

5. Branchinecta orientals, Sars. 

The collection contains three specimens of this species taken 

by Capt. R. E. Lloyd, I.M.S., at Cyantse, Thibet The. specimens 

described by Prof. Sars (1901) were found in Lake Chnnte-nor, 
Eastern Mongolia. The Thibetan specimens agree fully with the 
description given by Prof. Sars, with the exception that, the 
furcal branches are relatively a little longer. 

6. Branch [pus piscipormis, Schaeffer. 
Syn. B. ledoulsei, Barrois, 1892. 

A number of specimens of this species contained it, ithe collec- 
tion are labelled "J. AW. Murray, Smd." They differ slightly 
from the type in having a few chitinous hooks on the tip of tin 
penis of the male ; and in having the tooth on the infenor antenna- 
somewhat more prominent. In these respects they appioach 
Branchipu, ledoute, Barrois, and are in fact a hnk between he 
latter and Branchipus pisdformu, Scbaeff I regard B ^ ', 

for this reason, as not sufficiently distinct to rank as awpaiat. 
species. Hitherto the species has only been recorded from pai t 
of Europe, Algeria and Syria, so that the present record is a 
considerable extension of its range to the eastward. 

7. Streptocephalus dichotomies (Baird). 

Syn. S. bengals, Alcock, 1896 and OMrocephalu, «fo*», 

Wood-Mason MSS. See Sars, 1900.. 

I have had the opportunity of examining the types of Strrpfn- 

1,11 • a i™,»V rnnsistin" of one male and one female- 
cephalus bengal en "f, AlcocK, consisuug 

276 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

specimen, and I think there can be no doubt that they hhoald 
be referred to Baird's species, S. dichotomus, as it has been re- 
described by Prof. Sars (1900). I cannot detect any important 
difference between the species. There are also some rather dil- 
apidated specimens in the collection labelled " Chirocephalus do- 
Uczkm Wood-Mason (Catch)/' l and these are also in reality Strep- 
tocephalus dichotomus. They do, however, differ rather markedly 
from the type, and I think it is perhaps advisable to consider them 
as constituting a variety to which the name Streptocephalus dicho- 
tomus % var. simplex may be given. The variety differs from the 
type in the following respects. In the second antenna of the male 
the ventral apophysis is very long and straight (Pig. 11) ; there 
only three sickle-shaped filaments on the basal part of the second 
joint; the anterior terminal branch is simple and undivided, armed 
along the greater part of its length with regularly placed recurved 
spines. The accessory branch of the second joint agrees with the 
type. The penis, in its everted condition, is extremely long, reach- 
ing to the end of the fourth segment of the abdomen and armed 
with two rows of small spines. In two of the three specimens the 
penis is retracted, and has the form of a simple stout curved 

The female I have not seen. 


8. Daphnia fdsca, n. sp 

J / female 

Shell elongated oval in shape, bluntly pointed behind in the 
middle line, but without a spine in the adult condition (Fig. 12). 
The young are provided with a long toothed spine, sometimes 
amounting to one-third of the total length, but the spine appears t<» 
shorten and disappear with age. The edges of the valves are quit.' 
smooth, but their surface is marked with oblique lines intersecting 
to form rhombic areas. The dorsal part of the head is reticulated 
in the same way, but over the eyes the cuticle is finely striated, 
the head is comparatively small, about one-fifth of the total length, 
without any crest, and is separated from the body by a very slight 
depression. The front is nearly straight ; the rostrum long, defiexed 
»nd obtusely pointed. The fornix is rather prominent I nd continued 
over the eye. It is also prolonged slightly over the anterior part 
ot the valves as an incipient secondary fornix. The eye is large 
with the crystalline cones almost embedded in pigment. The first 
pair of antennaj are large, and project, considerably from the 
posterior margin of the head. The' second pair are large and 
strong, the basal portion very minutely scaly along its anterior 
edge. The natatorv set»« a.™ a K™f OQ 1 — +i,„ ..„™; «r,rl do 

not reach to the posterior end of the body. The postabdomen has 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^* — ^*^ fc *"^"^ - * i **~ ^» ^— * — »- - - _n _u__i_ ^^ j^*-i^^^^^^^^M^^^^^^^^ " ~ '^"' " 

f rom rpiil IT'™ d the loca|il y. of "Wen Mr. Gurnov was m wftie, 

trom records m the Museum.— N. Annandale.] 


] On some Freshwater Entomostraca. 277 

a bunt 

anterior 5 or 6 decreasing in size (Fig. 13). The terminal claws 
are rather long with a basal comb and a row of fine cilia (Fig. 14 ). 
There is an accessory comb composed of 7 or 8 teeth on the 
postabdomen itself just at the base of the claws. Of the dorsal 
processes of the abdomen, the anterior one is about twice as long as 
the next one, and clothed with cilia. 

The animal is of a deep reddish-brown along the back, shading 

off to a faint tinge ventral ly. 

Length : 2*75— 3'3 rum. 

Kang Kul (Chitral Mission). 

This Dapnia is evidently closely allied to Dapnia atkinsoni, 
Baird, but, so far as the specimens which I have examined go, 
it is sufficiently distinct. In view of the great local and seasonal 
variability of the Daphnias, the making of new species has become 
a rather speculative proceeding and it is unfortunate that in this 
case I have not had the male and ephippial female for compari- 
son ; but, on the evidence available, I think I have no course 
open to me but to describe the species as new. 

9. SlMOSA KL1ZABETHAE (King). 1 

See Sars, 1888. 

This species, which differs very slightly from S. vetuhuhy. 
Sars, is a widely-distributed one, being recorded from Australia 
Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Siam and China. The specimens which I 
have examined were taken by Dr. Annandale in Kyd Street Tank- 
in Calcntta, on April 5, 1905, and Jan. 21, 1906. It was abundant 
on the first occasion, but rare on the second. 

10. Cebiodaphnia rigaudi, Richard, 1894. 

Dr. Annandale has sent me specimens of this species taken in 
his aquarium in Calcutta, and I found several specimen n a 
collection made in a brackish pool at Port Canning •neai Calcu to 
In the latter collection they were associated with various typica 
„^» a n™ ™,l fi Amnhinods and Caridea. Tins species has 



wiae mstriDution, utuug I""™ «• - -~~ 
New Guinea, South Africa and Brazil. 

11. Scapholeberls k'ingi, Sars, 190-S. 
Found abundant in Kyd Street Tank, Calcutta on Jar u 21, 

1906. In 

the Z££ of^ens the sculpture of the shell i 
by uo m e a „s as well jiw » £**-*ffS3 V^Sl 

in fact in some specimens tne si.ri d.Liuu ul ^^ ^ 

1 For the name Simo^ ta^» o7sun^luuaIs,l,;.dler.. see Norma,,, 

278 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

to see in a lateral view- Viewed from the dorsal side, on the 
other hand, the transverse ridges are sometimes very prominent. 
Except for its small size, Scapholeberis kzngi appears to me to be 
inseparable specifically from 8. mucronata (O. F. Muller), though it 
should probably rank as a variety of that species. I have carefully 
examined the seise of the flattened ventral margin of the shell and 
find that they agree in almost all respects with the account given 
of them for S. mucronata by Mr. Scourfield (1894). The setae of 
the outer of the two rows are about 26 in number. Of these the 
first 6 are inserted very close together on a line curving inwards 
towards the edge of the shell. Each seta is tubular, with a short 
basal branch and dividing distally into two larger branches. 
One branch is directed backwards while the other is a continua- 
tion of the seta forwards and inwards so that it has a semicircular 
curve. Along the outer edge of the two distal branches spring 
several exceedingly delicate hairs, but I cannot see that they have 
the tuft-like arrangement described by Mr. Scourfield. The 7th 
and 8th setae are like the first 6 though placed a little wider 
apart, and differing in having no basal branch. On the other hand 
a minute hair springs from the shell near their bases and is 
probably the equivalent of this basal branch. The eighth seta has 
delicate hairs along both its outer and its posterior sides, and the 
seta at its base also has them on its posterior side. As in 
S. mucronat a, there is aline of excessively faint radial markings 
running round beyond the ends of the anterior setae, and, as it 
were, enclosing them. Mr. Scourfield believed these markings to 
indicate " a number of imbricated hyaline scales supported by the 
setae" (1894, p. 8). He considered it possible that the hairs 
arising from the seta? are really stiffening corrugations in the 
hyaline scales. Prom the presence of these " hairs " on the 
posterior edge of the eighth seta only, I think myself that in these 
anterior setse there are no separate scales, but that there is one 
lamella the anterior series of (in this case) 8 setae. The seta 4 
following this series probably support each a separate, but 
overlapping, scale. The next 4 (9-L2) are all two-branched; 

but from the 13th to the 24th they are all simple, though bearin 
a few "hairs." The 24th, 25th and 26th are much longer, and the 
25th has a short basal branch bearing a tuft of " hairs." 

Mr. Scourfield informs me that in a West Australian species 
probably identical with S. mtcrocephala, Lillj., the arrangement of 
these set« differs considerably from those of 8. mucronata, and I 


are wholly absent. It is probable, therefore, that these setae will 
be found to afford a reliable basis for discrimination of species, 
and, if this is so, then the species with which we are now dealing 
cannot be separated from 8. mucronata (O. F. Miiller). 

12. CuvnoRus sphvEricus (O. F. Muller). 

Rang Knl— Chitral Mission. 

A species of world-wide distribution. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] On some Freshwater Entomoslraca. 279 



13. Cyclops strendus, Fischer. 

Several specimens, mostly immature, were associated with 
Lkiphnia fusca in the Kang Kill collection. 

Cyclops strenuns is a typically Northern species, which ha 
not, so far as I know, been found South of Palestine. 

14. Cyclops viridis (Jurine). 

One or two specimens were found in the Kang Kul collection. 
It appears to be confined to Europe, North Asia and North 

15. Cyclops leuckartt, Claus. 

Taken by Dr. Annandale in the Kyd Street Tank, and in a 
brackish pool at Port Canning near Calcutta. 

Distribution : world-wide. 

16. Cyclops prasixls, Fischer. 

Taken in the Kyd Street Tank, Calcutta. Recorded from all 
parts of the world. 

17. Cyclops phaleratus, Koch. 


Kyd Street Tank, Calcutta. 

Distribution : Ceylon, Australia, New Guinea and South 


18. Diaptomus bacfllifer, Kcelbel. 

Kang Kul — Chitral Mission. 

A species characteristic of Northern and high mountainous 



19. Stenocypkis malcolmsoni (Brady). 

A number of specimens were sent me by Dr Annandale 
from his aquarium in Calcutta, It has been recorded from Central 
India, Ceylon, Queensland and East Africa. 

[Both this year and last this Ostracod has become exceedingly abundant 
in aquaria at the beginning of the hot weather. In winter it disappear.. 
Its appearance has coincided roughly on both occasions with that of th 
Protozoon Operculariu nutans. — N. Annandale.] 

280 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 


Alcock, A., Description of a new species of Branchipus from 

Calcutta, in Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, 

p. 538. 

Report on the Natural History results of the Pamir 
Boundary Commission. Calcutta, 1898. 

Baird, W., Description of two new species of Entomostracous 

Crustaceans from India, in Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 


A Monograph of the family Limnadiae, a family of En- 
tomostracous Crustaceans, in Proc. Zool. Soc, 1849, 
p. 84. 

Description of some new recent Entomostraca from 
Nagpur collected by Rev. S. Hislop, in Proc Zool. 
Soc, 1859, p. 231. 

Description of a new species of Estheria from Nagpur, 
Central India, in Proc Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 188. 

Barrois, Th., Liste des Phyllopodes re^juellis en Syrie, in Rev. Biol. 

Nord. France., V, 1892, pp. 24-29. 

Brady, G. S., Notes on Entomostraca collected by Mr. Haly in 

Ceylon, in Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., XIX, 1886, p. 293. 

Daday, E., Mikroskopische Susswasser-Thiere aus Ceylon, in 

Termes. Fuzetek. Anhangsheft zum. XXI. Bd., 



1903, pp. 630-633. 

Mag. Nat. Hist 

W., Vorderindien, eine Zoogeographische Studie, in B<-r. 



p. 367. 


Packard, A. S., A Monograph of the Phyllopod Crustacea of North 

America, in 12th Ann. Rep. U.S. Oeol. Survey., 1888. 


Ceylon gesammelten Siisswasser Entomostraken, 

Hamb. W\ 


-_ ^—^-.^^.v.j wuiuiauA iuiciicura ut;a t^tuA uuui/oo «« 

Tonkin, in Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 1894, pp. 237- 


Sars, G. 0., On Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird) : a new generic type 

of bivalve Phyllopoda raised from dried Australian 
mud, in Forh. Selsk. Christ., 1887, 65, pp. 

On some Indian Phyllopoda, in Arch. Mat. Naturv., 
XXII, No. 9, 1900. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] On some Freshwater Entomostraca. 281 


On the Crustacean Fauna of Central Asia, Part I. 
Ainphipoda and Phyllopoda, in Ann. Mus. St. Petersb.. 
VI, 1901; Part II. Cladocera, ibid., VII T, 1902: 

Part III. Copepoda, ibid., VIII, 1903. 

Freshwater Entomostraca from China and Sumatra, in 
Arch. Math. Naturv., XXV, No. 8, 1903. 

Scourfield, D. J., Entomostraca and the surface-film of water, in 

Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., XXV, 1894. 

Simon, E.,fitudesur les Crustaces du Sous-Ordre des Phyllopodes, 

in Ann. Soc. Entom. France, (6) VI, 1886. 


(Plates 4 and 5.) 
Fig, 1. Estheria indica, n. sp. Side view of male. X 26. 



2. „ Left shell of male. ^ x 20. 

2a. „ Part of the posterior region of the shell 

along 14th and 15th lines of growth. 

3 ^ Head of female from dorsal side. x37. 

J _" 4 Posterior part of body of female. x37. 

\ " 5 Second antenna of female. x 37. 

q] U Part of first leg of male. x 57. 

7" " Part of second leg of male, x 57. 

8 First antenna of male. X 64. 

9' " Leg of 10th pair, female. x45. 

10* " 5th endite of leg of 11th pair of female. 



?1 U ' ?5 





male from side. * 8. 





12. Daphnia fusca, n.sp. Side view of female. x26. 
13 Postabdoraen. X° 4 - 

14 ' " Terminal claw of postabdomen. x 260. 

15.' Scapholeberis kingi, Sars. 7th and 8th set* of outer row 

on anterior edge of shell, x about 1000. 

Vol. IT, No. 7.] Some Street Cries of Persia. --S3 


35. Some Street Cries collected in Persia. — By Lieut.-Col. D. C. 

Phillott, Secretary to the Board of Examiners. 

Persia is the very home of figurative language, and striking 
•examples are to be found even in the cries of street- vendors. The 
following were collected in Kirman : 

The vendors of kerosine oil cry Naft-i ddram misl-t-gulab, "A Kerosine oil 
naptha have I like rose-water"; while the sellers of castor oil Castor oil. 
(for burning) say, u Yd shah-i chira gh ! Yd sh«h-i chirdgfa" " Oh 
king of lamps ! Oh king of lamps ! " 

Fruits and sweets are sold to a cry of Quvvat-i bdzu, quvvat-i Fruits : 
p&, " Strength to your arms, strength to your legs." sweets. 

Fop figs alone, there is a somewhat similar cry, Quvvat-i Figs. 
zdnu anjir ast, " Strength to the knees are figs." ' Strength to 
the knees ' perhaps means no more than ' light refreshment/ for 
a guest is sometimes invited to stay and eat by the polite but col- 
loquial phrase, " Yak chiz-i bi-khur ki quvvat-i zdnu paidd hum, 
" Eat just a little to give strength to your knees." The idea seems 
to be that the refreshment will give the guest the necessary 
strength to continue his journey. Another cry for figs is Anjir! 
anjir ! bulbuUi bngfe-i Bihisht, " Figs ! figs ! nightingales of the 
•Garden of Paradise." 1 

For pomegranates there seem to be many cries : Andr ddram, Pomegra- 
andr-i bd gh -i Bihisht, u Pomegranates have I, pomegranates of the nates 
Garden of Paradise;" Ndr* bdb-i dil-ibimdr, " Pomegranates fit 
for the sick." A fine and esteemed variety of pomegranates called 
atdbakl is vended to the cry of " Atdbaki ddram ndr, atdbaki 
da ram nar" 

For grapes, Tela ddram mushtari, " Gold have I, oh buyer ! " Grapes. 

For cucumbers, Ay qand-i tar khiydr* " Oh liquid sugar, Cucumbers. 

cucumbers ! " 

The chant for mulberries is, "Biddna nabdt; biddna db-i hay at ; Mulberries. 

biddna shakar nabdt ; biddna; bi-yd, lazzat m'i-bari az ruh, " Seedless 

mulberries, sweet as candy 8 ; seedless mulberries, like the water 
of life ; seedless mulberries, like sugar and candy ; mulberries ; 
oh come ! thou wilt delight thy soul." Black mulberries are also 


cist) " Sugared cardamoms are here." 

to Miva-yi safrd-bur, shdh-mwa, "Bile-removing fruit, the 
of fruits ! " "and white mulberries to Nuql-i hiUa (i.e., Jul 

For plums a cry is Ay safrd-shikan alii, Oh plums, a cure Plums. 

for bile ! " 

For halvd of dates, Ay hahd-yi kharak* Halva. 

A i.e., Heaven ; not the Gnrden of Eden. 

2 Ndr, corrup of andr ; pomegranates are often prescribed by hakrms. 

3 Qand is loaf sugar, much esteemed by modern Persmns, by whom all 
other sugars are rather despised. Some Persians however, consider loaf 
sngar unclean (najis) partly because it is said to be clarified by bones. Aao«f 
or sugarcandy has not these objections. There are also a few old-fashioned 
Persian* who will not take tea, etc., if it has been purchased from a Hindu. 

* Kharak is a dried date. 






Tea and 



(hawked in 
villages only). 

Pins and 


hawked by 

Scissors and 

(in villages 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

For sweets, Ay pashmak, ay halvn-yi arda. 
Bamghan (pronounced Damghun) and Sir 


are noted lor tHeir pistachio nuts, so Fista-yi Damghun, mushtari, 

Tista nuts from Damghun, oh buyer" is a natural cry. A 

general cry for nuts, melon and pumpkin seeds and other edible 

seeds that are eaten parched and salted is, Hama 'aril dclram u 

At the l Id-i Qurhan rams are usually sacrificed, rarely camels, 
and never kine » as in India. It is a common belief that, on the 
Day of Resurrection, the sacrificer will ride from the Judgment 
£lam into Heaven on the very animal he sacrifices at this festival. 
Hence rams are sold to the cry of Shakh-ash bi-gir savar shau, 
-Hold it by the horns and ride it. 1 ' 

M m i I a 

Other common cries are : 
Ay sirctu, " Oh tripe ! " 

martyr of Karbaia." 4 


" Drink in 


Ay chahi ! dar-chln nabSt ! « Oh tea ! and sweet cinnamon 


Ay qamis daram, parcha daram, shila daram, "Oh longcloth 
nave I, cloths have I, salu 6 have I ! " 

Ay suzan u sanjaq ; angushtana, yarQq ! " Oh needles and 
pins ; thimbles, and gold and silver lace V> , 

u. n A i? m W s ?, &V yaraq-i dam-i chSdar, « Oh scissors ! Oh gold 
and silver lace for trimming chadara ! • 

oh *iuz;7L r 9 ' ny mrma - yi ™*> ■ 0h antimon ^ 8tone ! T 

is madf Z h Zi iS * ^ hUe sweet meat like hair or jute fibre. Halva-yi arda 
aol7together **** 8Ugar ' fl0Ur ' &nd butter - The8e *™ «weeta are alway«r 

2 n i?/ d i a th jf« 8 ^f e 5 *" Called ^chi-dana. 

it wae first ^ 8 ed 7n! 8 1 * e T a - Pplied to nut8 ' almonds and edi *> le seeds: 
Iinpera '« bZt» ?« v, ^^ i ard . b > »"*«*« eaten with wine.' Bi-shikan 
t^The sS , here &n ad J ec «™ or substantive. 

tan V 8 garf ° rS ' la " a - 

of jewels. ' 18 a valQ able collyrium supposed to be compounded. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Some Street Cries of Persia. 285 


Ay dava-yi mihr u muhabbat, ] "Oh medicine for love and £, ove 
affection." Philtres. 

Ay pul-i buz ! 8y pul-i buz? " Oh money for goats ! Oh Live goats, 
money for goats ! " 

Ay barra-yi parvSr ! ay barra-yi parvar, " Oh fatted lambs ! Small lambs 
Oh fatted lambs ! " 

Ay gOb-i kari, " Oh ploughing bulls." Bulls 

(for the plough) 

Ay gab-i shiri ! ay gab-i shiri, ay gab-i shin, " Oh milch cows, 
cows ! Oh milch cows ! Oh milch cows ! 

Ay khurus-i Lari, " Oh cocks of Lar." 8 Cocks. 



Ay jvja I ay juja* " Oh chickens ! Oh chickens ! " Chickens. 

Aybulbuli kjnoananda, ay bulbul-i pur chahcha h " Oh sing- Nightingales. 
ing bulbuls ! Oh nightingales in full song ! " 

Ay hadiya-yi Quran, " Oh presents of Qur'an ! " To sell a Qur'ans. 
Qur'an is impious; hence it is offered as a present, the re- 
ceiver giving a present of money in return. When a vendor of 
Qur'ans cries his " presents," the following little comedy is enact- 
ed : The purchaser, probably a woman, will enquire, In Qur'an 
chand hadiya mi-khwahad, " How many presents for this Qur'an ? 
The reply will be,' ' Bi-rizamandi-yi Khuda," As God wills." The 
woman then reverently lifts the volume, kisses it and produces 
some security, telling the " giver " to call again. She next con- 
sults a mulla who perhaps says, " Panj tuman ^diya dSrad, 
" The present you should give is five tumans: The giver _ 
calls for his " present," and, if dissatisfied, he will say, Bi-panj 
tuman hadiya nami-diham, " I won't make you a present of it tor 

five tumdns. , ' ,. , . 

Jews 6 that buy old clothes, broken or discarded articles, cry old clotbos. 

Ana muna ho f (i.e., kuhna muhna hast f) " Any old rubbish f 

A modern cry in Tehran is the « Visk, Visk ! " of the shoe- Shoe-blacks, 
blacks— at least so Persians inform me. The origin of the cry 

is doubtful. , „ ,_ , x , 

For the street cries of Cairo, vide Lane s Modern Egyp- 
tians," Cl.ap. XIV. 

1 Persian form of mahabbat. 

2 Buz is properly the female . the he-goat is cha V xsh or ■ nart^ 

3 Lar is famous for its large breed of poultry. Poultry are always 

^^ jjt "modern for obsolete chuza : the latter is still in use iu India and 

AfgL s a C^a is the spring song when the bulbu. is in love, as opposed to 
ri*a.& V ani a bird-fancier's Term for the low warbling before the cage-bird 

comes into full song. 

ghydja. In Calcutta the 

« Such Jews when nailed are uiywu ^- ~ *^u- a™ ^t Taws 
purchasers of old articles are called bikrhiuala and are Hindas, not Jews. 


> m 

Vol. IT, No. 7.] A new Gecko from the Eastern Himalayas. '287 


36. A new Gecko from the Eastern Himalayas. — By HI Annandale, 

D.Sc., C.M.Z.S. 

Less is known of the herpetology of the Himalayas than is 
generally realized, and the discovery of a new form even in so well 
explored a locality as the Darjiling district is not surprising, al- 
though far more collecting of Reptiles has been done in this part 
than in most parts of the range. The new species is represented by 
a single specimen recently taken by myself in a European house a- 
Kurseong (5,000 ft. ) . It is a typical member of the genus Gymno 
dactyl vs, of which two species (both extremely rare) have hitherto 
been recorded from the Himalayas, viz., G. fasciolafns from Simla, 
and G. laioderanus from Kumaon. G. himalayicm, as I propose to 
name the Darjiling form, belongs to a group in the genus which 
also includes G. khasiensis from the Khasi Hills and Upper Burma, 
G. marmoratu* from the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, etc., and 
G. rubidus from the Andamans. On the whole it seems to be 
more closely related to the Malayan species than to either of 
its other allies. 


Gymxodactylus himalayicus, sp. now 


Head I \ rge, rather narrow, depressed, ovoid; snout slightly 
longer than orbit, obtusely pointed ; forehead concave. Habit 
slender ; digits compressed throughout ; tail slightly longer than 
head and body, rounded, tapering. Dorsal surface of head and 
body granular, with numerous small conical tubercles on the body, 
base of head and hind limbs ; on the back these tubercles tend to be 
arranged in 16 irregular lines: they are very much smaller than 
the ear-opening. Ventral scales, small, leaf-shaped, imbricate ; 
about 85 across middle of belly. No lateral fold or enlarged 
scales in its place. Rostral grooved ; nostril between rostral, first 
labial and several small scales ; ten upper and ten lower labials. 
Ear-opening ovoid, slanting, one-third as large as eye. Subdigital 
lamellae moderate, larger on proximal than on distal joints. Eleven 
praeanal pores arranged in a continuous, wide, V-shaped series ; 
the scales posterior to them, between the arms of the V, enlarged ; 
three postanal papillae (in the male) on either side ; base of tail 
swollen below ; no pubic groove ; no femoral pores. Coloration 
as m G. marmoratns. 

Dimensions of adult male 

Total length ... - Ul™™- 

Head and body ... — j~ " 

58 „ 


Hind limb 

• • 

• . . 

• • 

- • • 

t • • 

25 „ 
20 „ 

• - • 

Fore limb 

Breadth of head ... ••• 9 » 

288 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

This species is very closely allied to G. marmoratus> with 
Malayan specimens of which I have compared the type. It may be 
distinguished by its smaller size (if this is constant), more slender 
habit, narrower head, and larger ear-opening, by the fact that the 
basal joints of the digits are more strongly compressed, and espe- 
cially by the number and arrangement of its pubic pores. 
From G. khasiensis the absence of a lateral fold will at once dis- 
tinguish it, as its small, conical dorsal tubercles will from G. law- 


I take this opportunity to put on record the occurrence of 
Japalura yunnanensis, Anderson, in Indian territory, having found 
in the Museum a fine male taken some years ago at Buxa, near 
the Bhutan frontier of Bengal, by a collector. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 289 



)f India. No. VIII.— Some 

Himalayan Tadpoles. — By JST. Anxandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

During a recent visit to Kurseong, which is situated at a 
height of 5,000 feet in the Darjiling district, I was so fortunate 
as to obtain the tadpoles of two of the characteristic Anura of the 
Eastern Himalayas, of a species hitherto not recorded from the 
Indian Empire, and of an unidentified form of interesting 
structure. My visit lasted from May 21st to May 29th, and it would 
seem probable that the species found had spawned about the 
beginning of the hot weather. 

The structural adaptations exhibited by tadpoles which live 
in the small mountain torrents of the Himalayas, are identical with 
those of species occurring in similar situations in the Malayan hills, 
but remarkably divergent inter se. It so happens that the three 
species which I found living together in such streamlets at 
Kurseong, illustrate three different methods by which these 
tadpoles are protected against the incidence of sudden floods. It 
is noteworthy that within the genus Bana a variety of larval types 
occur ; but, as I hope to show in the present communication, the 
peculiarities which are so striking in certain tadpoles, have 
homologies in other species which cannot be detected except during 
life. The first tadpole I describe is not peculiar in any way, but 
it occurs in circumstances which apparently do not call for any 
structural modification. 


1. JBufo himalayanus, Giinther 

Maximum total length, 27 mm. ; greatest depth of tail between | 
£ of maximum total length, less than twice the depth of the 

* — _ a -* _ mm ^ T ^ J ■* I L * .,— _ ^ M mw m* 

caudal muscles; length of tail If that of head and body. 
Head flat; nostril slightly nearer the eye than the snout; 
eye dorsal, small, by no means prominent; spiracle sinistral; 
pointing backwards and upwards, very inconspicuous. Tap 
obtusely pointed, constricted at the base. Vent in middle 
line. Colour almost uniform inky black, slightly less intense^on 

the ventral than on the dorsal surface. Dental formula ^^ 
Beak in two parts, an upper and a lower ; both serrated at the free 
edge. Lips fringed at the corners, but not on the posterior or 

anterior edge. . . 

As regards the structure of the mouth, this tadpole close y 
resembles that of liufo mdanostictus, 1 from which it may be readily 
distinguished by its small, sunken eye and flat head. 

1 See S. Flower in Proc. Zool. Soc, 1896, p. 911, pi. xliv, fig. 3, and 
1899, p. 911. Giinther regarded B. himalayanus as no more than a variety 
of this species. 

290 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 


M. montana ; Bonlenger, in Annandale and Robinson, Fasciculi 
Malayenses, Zool. i, p. 132 ; Annandale, ibid., p. 275 ; Weber in 
Ann. du Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, Suppl. ii, 1898, p. 5. 

The peculiar float surrounding the mouth of this tadpole 
has been described in detail by Prof. Max Weber and by myself. 
The examples from Kurseong agree very closely with those from 
Malaya and Java. I wa& at first inclined to suspect that the 
Indian specimens might be larvae of Leptobrachium monticola and 
that the larvae of this form very closely resembled those of Megalo- 
phrys nwntana, the genus of the latter not having been recorded 
from Indian territory ; but in many of my specimens the hind legs 
are well developed and show no trace of a web at the base of the 
toes. In one specimen the fore legs are also well developed, and 
the funnel has disappeared except for a ridge along the lower lip 
and a tubercle at each corner of the mouth ; but the tail has 
hardly begun to be absorbed. The funnel has already become 
much reduced in size in individuals in which the fore legs are 
almost ready to burst through the skin. The oldest specimen 
agrees, so far as it is possible to say, with Boulenger's var. aceras. 

3. Raxa LiEiuim, Gi hither 

Maximum total length, 56 mm. ; tail thrice as long as head and 
body, its greatest depth ± of the maximum total length, twice the 
depth of the caudal muscles. Head feebly arched, nostril midway 
between the eye and the snout ; eye small, by no means prominent, 
near the dorsal surface ; spiracle sinistral, pointing backwards and 
slightly upwards, small, surrounded by a white ring. Tail pointed 
gradually at the tip, not contracted at the base ; vent on the right 
side. Colour variable ; dorsal surface brownish, marbled in some 
cases with yellow ; fin membrane pale, with large, dark pigment cells, 
which in some specimens tend to be arranged in vertical bars ; in 
some specimens a dull yellow, mi d -dorsal streak at the base of the 

tail. Dental formula *-*. Lips very large, enclosing a consider- 

able cavity ; the lower lip with a complete double fringe ; a single 
fringe at the base of the upper lip on either side ; the beak in 
two parts, an upper and a lower, neither serrated. 


4. Ran a, sp. 

Length of a specimen without legs, 26 mm. ; tail more than 
twice as long as head and body, its greatest depth | of the tota 1 
length and twice the depth of the caudal muscles. Head flat ; nostril 
much nearer the eye than the snout ; spiracle sinistral, pointing up- 
wards and backwards ; a considerable glandular patch on either side 
behind the eye, which is on the dorsal surface. Tail gradually 

ET~?*i. tlp ; the lower fin disappearing some little distance 

behind the vent, which is in the middle line. Dorsal surface uniform 

Vol. II, No. 7.] 


of India. 291 


pale grey ; ventral surface dirty white. Dental formula *— i . 


Lower lip fringed ; a large sucker on the belly immediately be- 
hind the mouth. Beak in two parts, an upper and a lower ; neither 


This form resembles the tadpole of Bona latopalmata ' (which 

also occurs in the Darjiling district) but differs from it in its 
dental formula, fringed lower lip, and uniform coloration. 


The tadpoles of Bufo hinudaycmu* were found in large num- 
bers at Kurseong and at Darjiling (7,000 feet) in small artificial 
ponds, and at the former locality in a large and comparatively 
still pool of a stream. At Kurseong young toads, in which the 
tail had partly or completely disappeared, were common, while 
at Darjiling most of the tadpoles were still devoid of external 
fore limbs. ° The young toads were considerably bigger than are 
those of B. melunostidus at the same stage. 

The other three forms recorded above were taken in small 
mountain torrents, the largest pools of which in many cases did 
not contain more than a few cubic feet of water at the time they 
were examined. The tadpoles of liana lieblgu were also found 
in a larger pool, together with those of Bufo hanalayanus 

Although these three forms are adapted for clinging to rocks 
during a flood, the manner in which they are able to do so is not 
the same in all cases. The larva of Sana liebigU adheres chiefL 
by means of its mouth, the enlarged lips of which, as in the 
tadpoles of several other species, form a powerful sucker, while 
that of the liana I have left unidentified clings chiefly by meaii> 
of an additional sucker. In the former species, however, the belly 
as well as the mouth is applied to the surface to which the tadpole 
is clinging, in such a way that an individual adhering to the side 
of a glass vessel can be seen to have on its ventral surface a large 
circular, flattened area, which only needs a raised edge to make i 
into a true sucker. Moreover, in the unidentified species the 
margin of the fringed lower lip forms the anterior wall ot the 

ventral sucker. , , _ , ... .. ,i ^ tt . 

The method in which the tadpole of B. /' e6 'f»* ad . h "«. ' 
rocks and even climbs upon them, closely resembles that of ^ a smalt 
Loach (? Xtmachtlus sp. ), found in the same streams ; bu t the - ± lab r 
able to progress more readily than the tadpole, and ^J^T^ 
makes its way up the face of a rock completely out o the vat, r 
In both cases the animal has a suctorial mouth and a Is itself 
Clinging to more or less vertical surfaces by applying its be n o 

them fery closely. By means of this »PP^ to <>* l * *«V* 
release the hold of its mouth for brief periods and to wriggle i 

1 See Boulenger in Proc. Zoo!. 8m, »f», P- ™' !>• xliii < ^ 3 ; and * 
Laidlaw, ibid., 1900, p. 38G, pi. lvii, 6g»- 8, 4. 

"292 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906, 

short distance forwards or upwards without ceasing to cling to its 
■support. In the larva of Sana latopalmata, however, and of sinri- 



been formed on the belly which has apparently no connection with 
the smaller sucker found in a somewhat similar position in many 
tadpoles at an earlier stage of development. 

The tadpole of Megalophrys montana has neither a strongly 
suctorial mouth nor a large ventral sucker, but it is able to make 
its way up the sides of stones in a different manner. The funnel 
surrounding the mouth is probably homologous, to some extent, 
with the enlarged lips of the larvae of such forms as Bona 
liebigii; but the homology is not complete. As I have shown else- 
where (op. cit.), the horny teeth with which the float or funnel is 
studded have an entirely different structure from those of other 
tadpoles, being distinctly multicellular in origin. The functional 
analogy between this organ and the lips of Bana tadpoles is re- 
mote, and the habits of the larvse differ completely from those of 
the other tadpoles found in the same enviroimient. The latter 
frequent the upper surface and sides of submerged stones, under 
which they hide themselves when alarmed : but the larva of M. 

± ». 1 IT-, 

edge of the same pools, generally 


■ debris which collects in such places. Owing to their large and 
extremely muscular tails they can swim more rapidly than most tad- 
poles and have much the motion, as they have the appearance, of a 
small Silurid fish. They are able to insinuate themselves with the 
greatest agility into small crevices. Should they be forced into the 
centre of a pool, their funnel immediately expands and they float 
lightly on the surface ; but when they are making their way into 
narrow cavities it is folded together and the enormous lower lip 
entirely covers the mouth and the snout, probably protecting these 
parts from injury. When the tadpole buries itself in the mud, a^ 
it does in Malaya when its pools dry up, this is also the case. Not 
improbably the peculiar horny teeth aid the funnel in this function 
(although they are not on the exposed Burfare when it is folded) 
by giving it additional strength. The low,,- lip also serves, how- 
ever, another purpose, which has not previously been noticed. As 
its posterior surface, because of smoothness ancl considerable area, 
.s strongly adhesive, the tadpole is able to cling to smooth, vertical 
objects with its assistance, and at the same time to progress up 
Zt, T r r a T bj TP r0US mov ^ents of the tail. In this way the 

W^I^Jff UP ^ SldGS ° f 8tones and P^bably makes its wa.v 
irom one little pool to another. 

s™ll T !ln S '"I thr f different s Pe<»es of tadpoles found together in 
I.Ter l SZJS 1 Tv?^' three different m * thods of adhesion have 

irface ol wf r ^ - 1 ?™ ° f Rana »*** ****** V the ventrrtl 
f ' r Z?L h ? th lp8 ' ™ th the ai <* of the surfac-e of the belly ; those 


of JR. latopalmata and 
er ; those of Megalop) 
face of the lower lip 



Vol. II, No. 7.] The Milk and Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo. 293 



)/ the M, 

Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo. — By E. R. Watson, M.A. 

(Cantab.), B.Sc. (Lond.), Officiating Professor of Chemistry, 
Engineering College, Sibpur. 

The necessity of a careful investigation of these important 
food- substances need scarcely be emphasised. In all countries, 
civilised, in the western sense of the word, it is necessary to care- 
fully supervise the food-supply and to see that it is not deleteri- 
ously adulterated. As a preliminary it is necessary to very 
fully analyse wholesome samples of the various food-stuffs in order 
to set up standards for future comparison. The figures which 
have been arrived at in Europe for the composition of the milk 
and butter-fat of the cow cannot be used as standards in India, 
not even for the products of the cow, still less for those of the 
buffalo. This has been clearly shown by the few analyses which 
have been published in India up to the present. (Food Adul- 
teration, J. N. Datta, in Trans. First Indian Medical Congress, 
1894, p. 275 ; Composition of Indian Cows' and Buffaloes' Milk, 
J. W. Leather, in the Agricultural Ledger, No. 19 of 1900, p. 195). 

Pappel and Richmond (Trans. Chem. Soc. 57, p. 752) have 
made an almost exhaustive analysis of the milk and butter-fat of 
the Egyptian buffalo or gamoose. It was natural to suppose that 
the products of the Indian buffalo might approximate in character 
and composition to those of the Egyptian animal, and, therefore, 
constant reference has been made to the results obtained by these 


Throughout the present work the following questions have 

been constantly borne in mind : (i) Why is it that buffalo-milk, 
which is richer in fat than cow-milk, commands a lower price in 
the market and is less esteemed as an article of food, and is it 
possible to explain this on chemical grounds ; and (ii) is it pos- 
sible to distinguish by chemical analysis between the milk and 
butter-fat of the buffalo and the same articles from the cow. 

I have not attempted the estimation of the different consti- 
tuents in the milk, because this is the side of the problem which 
has already been investigated to some extent. There was on. 
point, however, suggested by a perusal of Richmond and Pap- 
pel's paper, which it appeared of the greatest importance to 
■ examine. These investigators had found that m the milk of the 
Egyptian buffalo there is no lactose, but a new sugar to which 
they gave the name 'tewfikose.' Such an important difference 
from the milk of the cow might explain the popular belief that 
the milk of the buffalo is less easily digested than that ot the cow. 
Also it should be noted that the estimations of sugar in milk are 
generally based on the assumption that the sugar is lactose, and 
these estimations would need revision if this assumption were in- 
correct. I have, therefore, isolated a sample of the sugar from 
buffalo-milk for examination. In crystalline form, taste, optical 

294 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906.. 

rotation, molecular weight and behaviour with Feliling's solution it 
is identical with lactose and different from the 'tewfikose ' described 
by Richmond and Pappel. 

Details of the isolation and examination of sugar — The milk 
used for this purpose was obtained from a buffalo in the village of 
Shibpur in May 1906.* The method adopted for isolation was iden- 
tical with that employed by Richmond and Pappel (loc. cit.), viz., 
precipitation of the proteids and fat by mercuric nitrate solution 
(Wiley's reagent) neutralising the filtrate with aqueous potash and 
passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas to precipitate mercury salts, 
filtering and concentrating the filtrate on the water-bath until the 
sugar crystallised out. It was found necessary to wash with cold 
water and to recrystallise from water in order to free the sugar 
from traces of potassium nitrate. The sugar was then dried in a 
desiccator over calcium chloride at the ordinary temperature. 
Another sample, which proved to be identical in properties, was 
isolated by evaporating the milk to dryness, extracting with ether, 
bailing with absolute alcohol and then extracting the sugar with 
dilute alcohol. The purification from traces of albuminoids of the 
>iigar obtained in this way was somewhat troublesome. 

Optical rotation was determined in aqueous solution : 
10 per cent, boiled solution of the sugar in a 200 mm. tul 
gave a =+ io°30'. 

Found. For lactose in 

10 per cent. 


Md 52°30 



0-4b70gms.sHo it r dissolved in 20 gms. water gave A = -0118°C. 

M.W. = 366. 

M.W. of lactose C la H 28 0„ + H 8 0= 360'. 

I have obtained the following result* in the examination of 

several samples of butter-fat. Most of these samples I have ob- 

tamed from the village of Shibpur, personally superintending the 

operation of milking, and preparing the butter-fit from the milk 

y allowing the cream to rise and then making into butter by shak- 

f 31 5°*^n T ^ i Utt £" Was melted in the steam-oven and 

n rn r i pT d ° ff - Z he Sam P les of milk ™* taken chiefly 

iu tlai uarv Hurl K»hvn ion/? £ .,..,_ « ,.«. 

ent agea. 

that'th^r^Zw^ 1 ''^^ Pr ? feS8 ° r ° f ******, Shibpur College. 

sometime > £L « ^ , *? breed8 ° f lmlian bnffa, °. »"d that the names 
on etitnes g,v< ,, ,n,rely refer to the localities in which the animals live. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] The Milk and Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo. 295- 

I intend to confirm the figures given in this note by the exa- 
mination of a larger number of genuine samples. 

Reichert-Wollny figure ... 

• • • 

. •• • 

Percentage of volatile acids yielded by the fat 
(reckoned as butyric acid) 

^ , . butyric acid 

Ratio - — — t-t 

caproie acid 

• • • 

• • § 


Percentage of soluble acids yielded by fat (reck- 

oned as butyric acid) 
Percentage of insoluble acids 
Iodine absorption valne ... 




• • • 

• • • 

Most of these results have been obtained by very well-known 
analytical processes. The ratio ^g g* has been obtained by 
weighing the dried potassium salts obtained on evaporating to 
dryness on the water-bath the titrated distillate from the Reichert- 

Wollny process 


Experiments with pure butyric acid showed that, on evaporating 
to dryness on the water-bath an aqueous solution of potassium 
butyrate, there was left the anhydrous salt C 4 H 7 a K. 

These results may be translated into the more easily compre- 
hensible form: — „ „ , „ . •-. 

The butter-fat consists of the glycerides of the following acids 

in the following proportions : 


t • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• «* 

per cent. 

• • • 



per cent. 

• ■ • 

Non-volatile acids soluble in water 

■ • • 


• •• 

• •• 

ft ft • 

I • • 

Palmitic and stearic 

« • • 

• • • 

- ■ « 

• • • 



Mean ■ 
per cent 

• • • 

46 60 


■ • • 

* • • 

§ In the examination of 20 

I .. the -*£*. o. »■**-«&. £ aKlT 

Dr. Datta (loc. cit.) had obtained the Allowing 
figure :-Mean, 34-5; Max., 39*3; Mm., 3CT&. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 
These figures may be compared with the corresponding figures 

for (1) European cows ; (2) the Egyptian buffalo. 

European Cow. 



t •• 

Non-volatile acid 
soluble in water 
(constitution un- 


• « t 

Oleic .., 

t tt 












• • • 


Palmitic and Stearic 1 62'24t 

Saturated acid of 

which Pb. salt is 

soluble in ether 

(constitution un- 

26 20f 






5 52 



■ • • 


• # • 

. t • 


36 # 00 




• • • 



* « • 

• t • 




• • t 


• ♦ • 

The following points are noteworthy :— 

< 1. It cannot be said that the butter-fat of the Indian buffalo 

is more similar to that of the Egyptian buffalo than to that of the 
Jbiuropean cow. This ro«r.lf ;<> „*,,; i._j 

This result is unexpected. 


2. The percentage of volatile fatty acids is very hifch. Tins 
result was also obtained by Dr. Datta It is probably the best 
criterion for Indian buffalo butter-fat 

ratio ^-^^fs 6 ^^^ 8 are alm ° St **** bn ^ r,C - The 
iahl0 caproiclidd w-rtor the Indian buffalo; ± for the Egyptian 

Wh!° '' f ^ thG ? ur ?? ean cow - This result, if confirmed by 

tttt&Js!^ _^e?* «f5»« po-wTs ad„i- 



t+ l° i j Y~~ ~ ""^^ vegeraoie on and sen as cow- 
it should, however, be possible to distinguish the 
:hee even m such a mi^fr,™ k„ n.- i • i *• ^ butyric acid 

butyric adf ff ed f rom ^'ert-Wollny standards, together with the rat, 

caproic acid ded * ce <l by Duclaux (Comptes Rendus, cii., pp. 1022, 1077). 

lyst, June ?894 ) ** ^^ absor P ti( >" "gures of Rowland William. (An,- 

acid 1 Fa C ?toSS^S nta ?-° , \ n80,ab,e,wid « mi "»* Percentage oleic 
commercial Organic Analysis,' Vol. ii, pt. 1, pp. 189 

And 192. 

Vol. IT, No. 7.] The Milk and Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo. 297 


4. Richmond and Pappel concluded from their analyses that 
there is contained in the butter-fat of the Egyptian buffalo, the 
glyceride of an acid which they did not identify, which, however, 
does not belong to the oleic series, but of which the lead salt is 
soluble in ether. My work has given results which might be inter- 
preted as indicating the presence of a similar glyceride in the 
butter-fat of the Indian buffalo. I am not, however, at present 
convinced that these results may not be due to the difficulty of 
getting accurate results by Muter's method for the estimation of 
olein. If it should be found that such a glyceride is really present 
in considerable quantity, its estimation should prove a valuable 
criterion of buffalo butter-fat. 


Vol. II, No. 7.] A Parasite upon a Parasite. *299 


39. A Parasite upon a Parasite, — a Viscum apparently V. articu- 
latum, Burm.,on Lorantlms vestitus, Wall., on Quercus incana, 
Roxb. — By T. H. Bukkill. 

Loranthus vestitus is quite a common parasite in the Simla 
Hill States, on trees of Quercus incana ; and it makes use about 

_ . _ ^_ __ — m -m x~\ i r i » t "T~ • 11 1 



Shibpur, and Manual of Indian Timbers, 1902, p. 583 ) : elsewhere 

•j. !_• r\J.' TI7"^ ,7 ,•„,*. TJ^xr'U BnT^loifliovri ifi'/iiinn Willrl T?,n iirf. / 1 1 

Wodier, Roxb., Schleichera trijuga, W 

spp., Elseagnus spp. and species of Quercus other than Q. incana 
(vide Brandis, Forest Flora, 1874, p. 397). 

Close to Ganekihatti near Simla, on a south hill face at 6000 
ft., I found five small plants of a Viscum parasitic on the Loranthus, 
which was parasitic as usual on Quercus incana. _ The Viscum 
plants were small, only once branched and not yet in flower : but 
the cushions from which the stems arose were 1-2 cm. in 
diameter. Older branches had existed and died leaving their 
scars 4-5 mm. across : perhaps they had died in the unusual cold 
of the winter of 1904-05, which did so much damage to mango 
trees in neighbouring valleys. 1 . 

Viscum articulatum is a widespread mistletoe, accommodating 
itself to many hosts. Kurz (Preliminary Report on Forests and 
other Vegetation of Pegu, 1875, p. 43) calls it one of the most 
troublesome of the parasites of the mixed Forests of Lower Burma, 
and Blume and Treub (the former in Bijdragen tot de Flora van 
Ned. Indie, 1825, p. 667, and the latter in Ann. du Jard. bot de 
Buitenzorg, iii., 1883, p. 3) say that it is very common at Bmten- 
zorg in Java : it is certainly common in the Malay peninsula, and 
cannot be altogether rare in Southern India. A perennial needs a 
wide adaptability to grow both near Simla and in the warm 

forests of the Malay islands. 

1 have drawn together the list overleaf of plants known to 
be used as hosts by the Viscum. From it records which appeared 
to belong to V. japonicum, Thunb.,and V. ramomsimum, Wall.,— 

confused species— have been excluded. .. 

Viscum articulatum is there seen to be a well-known parasite 
of its brother parasites : but, as far as I have been able to ascertain 
its double parasitism has always hitherto been noticed under 
circumstances of a much heavier or more ^ tobnt ^{S££ 
in the outer hills of the North-Western Himalaya .where ^*"£j 
royleana, a couple of thousand feet lower down, attests by its gieat 

abundance to the dry conditions. «.«un*M on 

But this mistletoe is not the only Loranth para «hc : on 
another Loranth. Vuoum atom in Europe is some times ara situ, 
on Loranthus europmu* (vide Engler, Pfianzenfamil en m. pt 1. 
1889, p. 194 ; Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., xxi., 1W, 

1 Some effects of this frost 
Indian B'orester, xxxii., 1906, p. 24. 



Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal . [July, 1906, 

Nat. Order. 

Ternstrcem iacese 





Host-plants of Viscum articulutum. 




Eur j a 


S. India 

Acer Campbellii, Hook. I Sikkim 
f. and Thorns. 






Cornus capitata, Wall. . Simla 

Rhododendron arbore- , ? N.W. Himalaya. 
urn, Sm. ■ 







Diospyros Melanoxy- 
lon, Roxb. 

Diospyros sp. 

Diospyros sp. 


Loranthus pentandrus, 

Loranthus pentandrus, 

Loranthus sphairocar- 
pus, Bl. 

Loranthus vestitns, 

Loranthus spp. 
Loranthus sp. 

Quercus iucana, Roxb. 
Quercus glauca, 

Thunb. (Q. annulata, 


Quercus dilatata, Lindl. 
Quercus Ilex, Linn. 

Dharwar, S. India. 

Central India. 



Dutch Indies. 

Dutch Indies. 

N.W. Himalaya. 


N.W. Himalaya. 
N.W. Himalaya. 

N.W. Himalaya. 
N.W. Himalaya. 




Brandis.' 2 

Gamble. 3 

Brandis.' 2 



Brandis. 2 
J. Scott.* 




Brandis. 2 

Brandis. 2 

Brandis % 
Brandis ' 2 

3 S or ® Bt K Plora » 18 Hp.897. 
Shibpur! 1 ° f specimens Preserved at the Royal Botanic Gardens 

& LiS ox ?J2 "sh S k rnb / °u f thG DM **ling »i«trict, 1878, p. 66. 
• In V«W1 TR n?^p V h ? B ° mbay Pre «^ency, 1902, p 293. 
1 In Journ rV A.ia? Itrir^ g— tschap/xTii., 1839, p. 258. 

xioy. Asiat. Hoc, Striata Branch, xxxiii, p. 134. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] A Parasite upon a Parasite. 301 


p. 307, and Mina-Palumbo in Boll, di Entom. Agrar., iii. 1896, p. 19. 
quoted from Just's Jahresber., 1896, i., p. 353) ; Viscum album 
occurs as well on its own kind {vide Guerin in Revue de Botanique, 
viii., 1890, p. 275, and elsewhere) ; Guerin observed it to fruit 
growing on a brother plant; Viscum tuberculatum, A. Rich., is 
found in Africa parasitic on Loranthus regtdaris, Steud. ; and 
Viscvm tenue, Engl., is found on both Loranthus Schelei, Engl., 
andi. subulatus, Engl., in the high forest of Usambara (vide Engler 
in Bot. Jahrbucher, xx, 1894, p. 81) ; while Tupeia antarctica. 
Cham. & Schlecht.,is sometimes found inNew Zeahmd on Loranthus 
micranthus, Hook.f . (J. D. Hooker, New Zealand Flora, 1867, p. 108). 

Of the allied order Santalaceae one species of Phaccllaria was 
collected by Griffith on a Loranthus at Mergui ; another by Sir 
George Watt on a Loranthus in Manipur (J. D. Hooker, Flora Brit. 
India, iv., 1886, p. 235); a third and a fourth were collected 
by Sir Henry Collett in the Shan Hills on a Loranthus, 1 and on 
Viscum manoicum, Roxb., respectively (Collett and Hemsley in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., xxviii., 1890, p. 122). 

Viscum articulatum and tenue, are leafless, and so are the 
Phacellarias : but Viscum album and tuberculatum are leafy, and so 
is Tupeia antarctica, though not abundantly so. We cannot, there- 
fore, say that double parasitism and leanness are incompatible: yet 
one would think that a water supply twice fought for, i.e., between 
the first parasite and its host and between the second parasite ami 
the first, would be so hardly won as to lead to the need of the 
utmost economy of water on the part of the second parasite. 

Viscum articulatum is a very variable plant and so is J™!*™ 
antarctica. Engler says (Bot. Jahrbucher, xx., 1894, p. 80 i hat 
the African Loranths which grow in moist forests have lager 
leaves than species of the steppes. Molkenboer a D utth 
botanist, has hinted that there may be some relation between ^ the 
nature of its host and the form that the paras, te takes '(**** 
Junghuhnianae, 1850, p. 107): Korthah >{loc. «*#0 says that the 
more fortunate in circumstances is the Vxscum, the broader and 
more leaflike are its stems. If that be so, then my spec ™» ™» 
most unfortunate, for there was in them an almost complete 

ab8 Tis°tht n aTmost complete absence of wing that has made me 
to name mine above as " apparently V. articulatum. 

1 This Loranthus was parasitic on a Quercus. Not a 8lU gle ^record Icjol 
find of the complete identification of all three assoc^ted plants »«£«£• 
cases of double parasitism. This case and LI i^™*"* * >,* Z&l 
the most completely reported, but in neither is the yuerc 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Elective Government in the Chumbi Valley. : 50: J 
[N.S.] U 

40. An Old Form of 

By E. H. Walsh. 

An interesting form of elective government exists in the 
Chumbi Valley which has been in force from time immemorial 
and is probably of very great antiquity. Although at the present 
time its functions are merely the local administration under the 
control of the Jongpons, the Tibetan officials at Phari ? it, no 
doubt, survives in its present form from the time when it wbs the 
independent Government of a small republic state. Until recent 
years the control exercised by Tibet over the affairs of Tromo, 
which is the Tibetan name for the country known to Europeans 
as the Chumbi Valley, has been merely nominal and has consisted 
in the payment of an annual tribute by the Tromowas to the 
Tibetan officials at Phari, and the obligation to provide via or 
transport for Tibetan officials visiting the valley, whose visits 

were, however, of very rare occurrence. The Tromowas I ^T$T^ ) 

are in fact a distinct people from the Tibetans. They never speak 

of themselves as "Tibetans," Po'pa (^S^T) and no Tibetan 

ever speaks of them as Tibetans. Their language, though a 
dialect of Tibetan, contains many distinctive words and forms, 
which alone points to a separate origin, and their customs differ 
in many respects. 

Even in Tromo itself there are two distinct races, the 
Upper Tromowas, who inhabit the upper portion of the Chumbi 
Valley, and the Lower Tromowas, who inhabit the lower or 
southern portion. 

The dialect spoken by these two races differs, and their cus- 
toms also shew marked and characteristic differences, shewing 

their distinct origin. To make this clear I give the following 

▼ t x uu U11U CL111SUXXC7X • Xl€V V C7 111(1111 VCM I lll/U. VAivy". %^ww— •vww— 

" respects than in dialect, it is only necessary to mention one or two 
44 points of difference. Many of the Upper Tromowas are of the 
11 old Bon-pa religion, which was the religion of Tibet before the 
11 introduction of Buddhism, whereas none of the Lower Tromowas 

are. The Upper Tromowa men wear the pigtail, where;)* the 
" Lower Tromowa men cut the hair short like the Bhutanese. The 
" Upper Tromowa women wear the hair in two plaits, which are 
"united down the back. The Lower Tromowa women, while 
" making the hair in two plaits, tie these separately round the 
" head and do not let them hang down. In the matter of 
" the men's dress, too. there was a difference until recent years, 

1 A Vocabulary of the Tromowa Dialect of Tibetan by E. H. C. AValsb, 
Bengal Secretariat Book Depot (page ii). 

304 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906.^ 

u as the Lower Tromowas wore the Bhutanese form and material 
" of clothing ; and though all except the older men have given this 
" up and wear the Tibetan form of dress worn by the Upper Tro- 
" mowas, a few of the older men still wear the Bhutanese form of 

" dress. 1 

" As to their respective origins, the tradition of the Upper 
" Tromowas is that there were certain original inhabitants who 
" have always lived in the valley from pre-historic times. These 
" are known as Khyim-ser-Rawa-nang-pa, 'Those within the fence 
11 of the golden house.' Next after these come the I'hi-pon Tsang- 
M khor, who immigrated here from the Khams province of Tibet, 
" This is said to have been a very long while ago, and there is no 
" history of their coming. A second immigration known as Nam- 
u lchen-pa, the ' sky knowers,' are said to have come from Sakya, 

Li 1 ill. ll V^fl • il TiT 1, I*.T ■ * 1 • 


± j ± 7 O — — — — - — • 

" also not known. These three classes have all intermarried and 
" become one people. 

"The Lower Tromowas say that the original inhabitants of 
" the lower valley were called Sakya-pus, namely, ' men of Sakya,' 
" who were probably an offshoot of that second immigration into 
" Upper Tromo. Subsequently the Ha-pas, people of the province 
" of Ha in Bhutan, came in about 400 years ago with a Chieftain 

"named Shab-Dung Lha Rinpochhe, who held possession of the 

"Valley for a time, and they subsequently remained and settled 
" down there." 

The point is of interest as shewing how the Upper Tromowas- 

have maintained their racial distinction, which accounts for the 

existence of a form of electoral government peculiar to them- 

Since 1889, a distinct but similar elective local government 
has existed in Lower Tromo into which it was then introduced by 
the Tibetans, on the model, with certain minor modifications, of 
that existing in Upper Tromo. The reason for its introduction 
was that since the Sikhim War of 1888 the Tibetans found it 
necessarr to exercise direct control over the Chnmlri Valley, and 
found that although the organisation of the Upper Tromowas 
able to supply them with any transport or supplies that their 
officials or troops might require, there was no such organisation 
in Lower Tromo, and they therefore constituted one on the same 
model as that which they found in Upper Tromo. 

As already stated, until recent years, The Tibetan Govern- 
ment interfered very little with the Chumbi Valley, more than 
receiving their annual tribute, and in the fact that more serious 
criminal offences had to be referred for punishment either to the 
Jongpons or to the Government at Lhasa. 

J h |- l0Cal admmistrat ion of Upper Tromo is by two officers 
called Kongdus, who act jointly and are elected for a term of 
three years. The election is made from the Tsho-pas or headmen 
« the vill ages. These Tsho-pas are themselves elected by their 

1 Op. at., p. ii. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Elective Government in the Chumbi Valley 30& 


villagers, but when once elected continue to be Tsho-pus unless the 
villagers were to remove their name which would only be done 
on the ground of old age or loss of money or position or anything 
else that would render them unfit to hold the office of Kongdu. 
The number of Tsho-pas in each village is not limited. 

Once every three years on the 15th day of the 4th month, the 
villagers all assemble at a fixed meeting-place near Galingkha, 
the principal village of Upper Tromo, and present to the two 
Kongdus for the time being, a list of the Tsho-pas of their respec- 
tive villages. For the purpose of election, Upper Tromo is divided 
into two divisions, one of which consists of the upper and lower 
villages of Galingkha and the other of the remaining seven 
villages of the upper valley. The Kongdus are elected alternate- 
ly from these two divisions. 

From the lists presented by the villagers the two Kongdus 
select the names of the four persons in the other division to their 
own, whom they consider to be the most suitable to be the next 
Kongdus. They then throw with three dice in the name of each 
of the four persons they have selected, and the two who obtain 
the highest throw are chosen as the Kongdus for the coming term 

of three years. 

This ceremony takes place before an old stone altar situated 
under a tree, and sacred to the Yul-Lha or deity of the locality, before 
which is placed the banner which is the insignia of the Kongdus 
office. It has no connection with the Buddhist religion, and points 
to an anterior origin. The two Kongdus thus selected then decide be- 


. is to be the Thri-pa (|5^) or Chairman. 

ied as having the superior wealth or social 
influence is always" chosen, but if the two selected candidates 
should consider themselves equal, the elder man becomes Thri-pa. 
The Thri-pa has the right of keeping the banner in his house. 

The newly-elected Kongdus do not enter on office at once. 
This is done in the eleventh month when another ceremony takes 
place and a yak is sacrificed at the stone altar already mentioned. 
The vak is skinned and the skin is placed in front of the 
altar with the head of the yak resting on the altar, and the new 
Kongdus place their hand* on the bleeding skin and take an oath 
on the sacrifice that they will administer justice " even between 

their own son and their enemy/' The outgoing Kongdus then 
make over to them their banner, the insignia of their office, and 

with the banner they take over all the rights and powei-s of the 

office ., 

The Kongdus say that they do not hold their power from the 
Tibetan Government but from the Yul-Lha, the local deity, 
that they originally got the banner from him and have always 
held their power from him. The administration is thus theo- 
cratic as well as elective, and the god also takes part in the 
selection, through the result of the throwing of the dice before 


his altar. 

'306 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

The duties of the Kongdus to Government are to pay the 
annual tribute and to provide any transport or supplies that 
the Government may require. This falls under the following 
heads : Via — supply of coolies ; rni-hrang — supply of messenger ; 
tao — supply of transport and riding mules and ponies ; khyem 
supply of yak transport ; tsa-thre — supply of grass ; shing-thre — 
supply of wood ; thab-yog — supply of personal servants to officers 
while on tour. 

The revenue paid to the Tibetan Government consists of 
40 srangs (Ks. 100) for the grazing rights on the Lingma thang 
plain and on the hills ; 120 bundles of bamboos, 60 wooden beams 
and 8 maunds of tsod leaves, which are used for dyeing. To meet 
these and other expenses, the Kongdus assess the land rent, a 
grazing rent, a house tax, which is really a personal tax as it is 
levied on the circumstances of the family and not on the value of 
the house, and a cattle tax. These taxes are assessed by the new- 
ly appointed Kongdus and remain in force for their term of 

office of three years. Should the amount so raised in any year 

not be sufficient to meet expenses, the house tax can be levied 
more than once in the year. 

These funds are entirely under the control of the Kwgdui 
and a large portion of them is spent on entertainment at the two 
•ceremonies of the election of Kongdus and of their taking over 
charge of their office, at the quarterly meetings of tin; Tsho-pas 
and on any other special occasion, and in contributions to the 
various village Lha-khanys or temples, and towards religiou> 

The people have absolute confidence in the Kongdus, and as 
they are men of sufficient substance, could recover from fchem in 
case of default ; but I was told that such a case had never occur- 
red. lh e Kongdus, apart from public opinion, are also re- 
strained by the oath taken before the Tul-Lha on taking office, 
and would consider that any breach of trust in respect of the 
tunds would bring them divine punishment and misfortune. 
J ney render a quarterly account of expenditure to the 2VA0-IMW, 
who assemble for the purpose. The Kongdus are exempted Iron. 
land rent and all taxes during the term thev hold office, and they 
a so receive a present from each village at the ceremony of taking 
charge of their office, but receive no other remuneration. 

lhe Kongdus also decide all civil disputes and questions of 
tamiy right such as the share of the property which a woman is 
entitled to if a divorce is granted on her application. Thev also 
try criminal offences other than thefts, grievous hurt, by which is 

1? P £? !° SS °J a limb ' and murder, which have to be referred to 
tieiibetan officials at Phari. They also make regulations for the 
allotment of the grazing grounds among the different villages, the 
maintenance of the village forest reserve, and enforce the local 
WW g -rf ral 7 , The ^ have the P°™- of inflicting fine or 
are infarn W g * y are ° f the People themselves, their order ~ 

are invariably respected 

worker, n * iv 1 , wu - *■«€*« uettny a, year s experience ui t»~ 

working of this system when I was in Chumbi, as all supplies 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Elective Government in the Chumbi Valley. HOT 


and local transport were obtained through the Kongdus of tin 
upper and lower valley, and I was struck by the manner in which 
the villagers carried out their orders and supplied the portion of 
any requisition which they allotted to a particular village without 
disputing the allotment. 

Each Kongdu has under him four officers known : La- 
yoks, who perform the duties of orderlio and messengers and 
carry the orders of the Kongdn to the Tsho-pas, He has one La- 
yok for each of the Tshos or divisions into which the villages are 
divided for the purpose of grazing rights. The La-yoks hold theii 
land rent-free and are exempted from taxes, and also each receive 
a yearly sum of 9 sranys (Rs. 22-8) as salary. 

The land rent is levied on the amount of land held, which 18 
estimated from the amount of seed sown on it, and comes t<> 
about As. 15 per acre. For the purpose of the house tax there are 
eight classes which are each assessed at a different rate, varying 
from Es. 5 for the highest to As. 2 for the lowest class. The da- 
rn which each household is placed is decided by the new Kongdu 
at the first meeting of the Tsho-pas, who assist them in making the 
assessment, and also report whether any land has changed hands 
from one family to another; for no one is allowed to part with his 
lands to an outsider. Thus a man of Upper Tromo may not even 
sell or mortgage land to a man of Lower Tromo. Nor is anyone 
allowed to part with the whole of his land, lest he should leave 
the country and so be lost to the house tax and to the liability to 

personal service. 

In the case of the grazing grounds, a fixed sum of 5 
srungs (Rs. 12-8) is allotted to each of the 19 grazing grounds 
into which the various ranges of hills in the different vil- 
lages are divided. These are allotted by the Kongdus between 
the different villages of the four Tshos groups, and the amount of 
rent paid by each group therefore depends on the number ol 
grazing grounds allotted to it. This and the distribution of the 
grazing rent to each village is decided by the Kongdus at the 


meeting of the Tshb-pas* 

Another of the duti 
of the grass on the Lingma than? plain, which is the chief grass 
supply for the winters hay. The plain is closed to grazing 
on a fixed day, the 5th day of the 5th month (June), 
and one of the La-yoks is stationed there to see that no 
one grazes cattle or mules upon it, Anyone doing so is liable 
to fine or beating under order of the Kongdus. On either the 
6th or 7th of the 9th month (October), everybody assembles 
from all the villages and the Kongdus take their banner and en- 
camp at the lower end of the plain. They then worship the YvU 
lha, and after the ceremony the Kongdus declare that the grass 
can be cut. Everyone then sets to work at once to cut the grass, 
and the cutting is completed in about a week. This furnishes 

the supply of hay for the winter. 

As has been already mentioned, the Tibetan Government when 
it wanted to create an organised administration in Lower Tromo, 

308 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

took the Upper Tromo administration as its model, and the two 
Commissioners deputed (the Ta-Lama and the Lhalu Shapa) in- 
troduced it with certain modifications. 

Although, therefore, the system, as it exists in Lower Tromo, 
is of no historical interest, it is interesting as shewing the altera- 
tions which were made from the original system of Upper Tromo, 
and also from the fact that the Tibetan Government gave the 
Kongdus a banner as their insignia of office, similar to that held 
in their own right by the Upper Tromo Kongdus. The Lower 
Tromo Kongdus have also, on their own account, adopted some of 
the ceremonies of the Upper Tromowas, except that in reaper* 
to the Yak sacrifice on the ceivmony of their appointment. 

The alterations which the Tibetan Commissioners made from 
the ancient system of Upper Tromo were: The number of Kong- 
dus has been fixed at three instead of two, and they are appointed 
annually and hold their office for one year instead of for a term 
of three years. The elective system by which every village 
chose its own Tsho-pas from whom the Kongdus selected and who 
assist the Kongdus in their a»« iments, lias also been altered. 
Eighteen Tsho-pas were appointed to represent the eleven villages 
of Lower Tromo, and from these the Kongdus are selected in rota- 
tion: the first three for the first year, the next three for the second, 
and so on, so that all the list is worked through in six years and 
the office then comes back to the first three again. Any Tthfrfa 
may, however, resign when the village which he represents elects 
the Tsho-pa to take his place on the roster, and similarly in the 
case of death. The Tsho-pas are so arranged on the list that each 
group of three represents three different villages ; there can never 
be two Kongdus from the same village at the same time. 

The three Kongdus on taking office elect one of themselves 
as Ihri-pa or Chairman, and take over the banner from the out- 
going Kongdus-, and the Thri-pa keeps the banner in his house. 
1 hey also take an oath before the banner to administer justice 
truly even between their own son and their enemy/ 1 
_ iheir duties are the same as those of Upper Tromo. 

Vol- II, Xo. 7.] Qentianacearum Species Asiatic*. 30 

41. Qentianacearum Species Ariaticas Novas descripsit 

I. H. Burkill sequentes. 

biter Frigidas, ex affinitate G. ornate, Wall., et prmcipue 

G. ternifoliffi, Franch. 

Gentiana A&ETKTJBM.—Planta fontinalis, cwspitosa, 10-16 cm, 

..alta, omnino glabra, e medio ramorum florifen nm caiilem 
unicum repentem producens. Rami floriferi subdecumbentes, 
liexaphylli, internodiis quam foliis longioribus : rami stoloniformes 
6-10 cm. longi, bracteati, internodiis quam bract* longioribua. 

Folia constanter 6-verticillata, inferiora ovaro-elliptica acuta 
3-4 mm. longa gradatim in superioribus linearibus 10-14 mm. 
longis 15 mm. latis trunseuntia : verticillus supivmus in calycis 
basi insidens. Flores solitarii, laBte ccvrulei Oalycis tubus 10-12 
mm. longus, vinoso perfusus, anguste campanulatus margin* 
intergro : dentes 6, lineari-lanceolati, 5-8 mm. longi, 2 mm. 
lati, acuti. Corollas tubus tubuloso-infundibuliformis. 4-5 cm. 

longus, ad os 15-18 mm. diametro : plicfe magnas: lobi 6, del- 

toidei, caudati 5 mm. longi : plicarum lobi ad auriculas >inu- 
atas tot quot petala reducti. Stamina intra fauces delitescent i;*, 
28-32 mm. longa, ad corolla tubi tertiam part* i adnata. 
Ovarium stipitatum, stipite 18-20 mm. incluso 30 mm. longum : 
stylus 1"5 mm. longus : stigmata "5 mm. longa. 

China occidi sntalis. — In proyincifie Szechuen districtu Tchen- 

keou-tin, Farges, 253. 

Typus in Herbario Horti Botanici Parisiensifl conserv;itu- 


Inter Frigidas, ex affinitate G. cephalantha?, Franch. 

et G. crassse, Kurz. 

Gentiana Atkinsomi. — Planta subcsespitosa, Caules decum- 

bentes, plurimi, teretiusculi, castanei, ad 25 cm. longi. Foha 
basalia subrosulata, lineari-lanceolata. apice rotundata, basi acuta 
glabra, maxima ad 10 cm. longa ad 8 mm. lata: folia caulina 
basalibus similia, pleraque 6 cm. longa 6-8 mm. lata, tubuloso- 
vaginata, vagina 6 mm. longa : petiolus 5-0 mm. longus. F 
3-6 ad apices ramorum, quisque inter bracteaa duaa raginantea 

subsessilis. Calycis tubus tubuloso-campanulatus, quinque- 
angulatus, 8-9 mm. longus : dentes innpquales, lanceolati, mai m- 
ibus scabridi, parum carinati, acutiusculi, 4-7 mm. longi. Gorui 
tubus 20-22 mm. longus, tubuloso-campanulatus: plica) magnee: 
dentes ovato-deltoidei, 4 mm. longi, 3 mm. lati: plicarum lobnli 
inasquilaterales, serrulati, 1 mm. longi. Stamina fauces eequantia, 

paullo infra corollas tubi medium inserta. Ovarium 12 mm. 

ongum : stylus brevis. Semina reticulata. 

310 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

China orientalis — In proyinci© Kwang-tung montibuer 
Lofan dictis ad alt. 3000 ped., J. M. Atkinson, 322. 

Floret mense Septembris. Typus in Herbario Horti Botanici 
Regalis Kevvensis conservatus est. 

Inter Apteras, ex affinitate G. Walttjewi, Begel et Schmalh. 

et Gr. decumbentis, Linn. 

GENTIANA phakica. — Planta omnino glabra. aides 1-3, 
subdecumbentes, 8-14 cm. longi. Gollis fibrosus. Folia radicalia 
infundibulo-connata, 3-5-nervia, margine integra, apice acuta, 
basi subacuta, plurima 8-10 cm. longa et 14-22 mm. lata : folia 
caulina similia, at minora, ad 4 cm. longa. Flore s 5-7, omnes 
in glomerulo terminali capitati vel duo inferiores paullo remoti 
ad apices ramorum pedicelliformium producti, viridi-straminei. 
Calyx dimidio-spathaceus, quinquedentatus. fissura? marginilms 

scariosis, 13-18 mm. longus : dentes perparvi, virides, 1-2 mm, 

longi, subulati, basi in angulum acutum exhibentes. Corollte 
tubus 17-20 cm. longus, 8-9 mm. dia metro, tubuloso-cam- 
panulatus : plicae conspicuae : lobi 5, ovati, 4-5 mm. longi, 
4-5 mm. lati : plicarum lobuli ovati, marginibus 1-2-dentati, 
2 mm. longi. Stamina corolla 1 tubo breviora, 15 mm. longa, 
ad corollas tubi climidium adnata, filiformia. Ovarium ang- 
ustum, nee stipitatum, 10-12 mm. longum : stylus 2 mm. 

Alpes himalaicae ORIENT A LBS.— Ad fines thibetico-sikkim- 
enses, prope Lonok, Younyh "A>and, 195; Kangma etiamque in 
ripis rivuli Penamong Chu, Dungboo ; prope Dotho, Dungboo. 

Typi in berbariis Hortorum Botanicorum Regalium Kewensis 
et Calcuttensis conservati sunt. Species hfiec Qmtianm Wa/><j>n't\ 
Kegel et Schmalh., proxima est. 

Gemiana Waltonii— Planhi omnino glabra, ad 2*5 cm. alta, 

caulibusl yel 2 erectis. Oottw fibrosus. Fdia radicalia lineari- 

lanceolata, infundibulo-connata, 3-5-nervia, nervis extimis dimi- 
dium versus evanescentibus, margine integra, basi et apice longe 
attenuata, plurima 10-15 cm. longa 15-2 cm. lata : folia caulina 
radicalibus similia at multo minora, ad 4 cm. longa. Flores fere 
sessiles, at inferiores in apice internodii pedicelliformis 1-3 cm. 
longi insidentes. Calyx dimidio-spathaceus, quinque-denta his, 


virides, 2-8 mm. longi, subovati. Q or dim tubus longe campanula- 
tus, 3-5 cm. longus, 1 cm. diametro : pHefB conspicua> : lobi 5, 

7-10 mm. longi, Hlaeini : plicarum lobuli 3-4 mm. longi, ovato-del- 
toidei. Stamina corollas tubo a<|uilonga : filament* ad medium 
tubi affixa, filiformia. Ovarium stipitatum: stipite incluso 2-5 

mm. longnm : stylus 2-3 mm. longus: stigmata in rotate recur- 
rata. ° ° 

Vol. IT, Xo. 7.] Gentianacearum Species Asiaticae. 311 


Thibet. — Sine loco i ndicato, mercenarius Kingianus, 277, 295. 
1659; in valle rivuli Kyi-cbu dicti, prope Lhasa, Walton, 1645; 
Lhasa, 12000 ped., Waddell ; et ad Gyangtse, Walton, 164S. 

Typi in herbariia Horti Botanici Regalis Kewensis et Florti 
Botanici Kegalis Calcuttensis conservati sunt. Species ha?e in 
mense Angusti floret; Gent ianse decumbent/, Linn., persimilis est. 

Liter Apteras, ex affinitate G. kaufmannianae, Reg el et Schmalh., et 

G. daliuricaa, Fisch. 

Gentiana lhassica. — Plant a omni no glabra, ad 8 cm. alt*, 
Caules 1-6, nniflores, subdecumbentes. Collis fibrosus. Folia radi- 
calia linerari-lanceolata, infundibulo-connata, 3-nervia, marline 


i n i 

7-9 cm. longa, 8-10 mm. lata : folia caulina anguste elliptica, 
longe vaginato-connata, apice obtusissima, 15-20 mm. longa, 6 
mm. lata. Flores solitarii, inter folia caulina suprema duo fere 



1 cm, longus : lobi suba^quales, anguste ovati, sinubus rotundatis., 
5 mm. longi. Corollas tubus campanulatus, 15-18 mm. longus, 
4-5 mm. diametro : plicas magna* : lobi 5, rotundato-ovati, 4 mm. 
longi, lilacini : plicarum lobuli ovati, acuti, 1 mm. longi. Sta- 
mina corollas tubum sequantia : filamenta ad tubi medium ad- 
nata. Ovarium vix stipitatum, 1 cm. longum : stylus 2 mm. 





Typi in herbario Kewense etiamque in Herbano Calcuti«-n>e 
conservati sunt. Floret mense Septembri. 

Inter Apteras, ex affinitate G. macrophyllre, Pall., et G, tibetiea\ 


Gentiana crassicaitjs, Duthie in Herb. Kevr—Planta omnino 
glabra, 30 cm. alta et altior, caule singulo i an semper ? an plerum- 
queP), erecta, Radices 2-3 incrassati. Collis fibrosus. OauUss 
tistulares. Folia radicalia petiolata, longe elhptico-ovata, vagi- 
nato-connata, 5-nervia, nervis inconspicuis sed in apicem meunti- 
bus, margine integra, basi acuta, apicem versus angustata, at apice 
acuta, minute mucronata. ad 14 cm. longa et 5 cm. lata : vagina 

. . , -. a l « . ^AliArnm nan innrilTn 

2-4 cm. longa : petiolus ad 

vaginato-connati, vagina ampla : lamina e 
margine expansa obovata, ad 10 cm. longa, apice obtusa : folia 
suprema quattuor involucram formantia, sessiha nee connata, 
mediis lamina similia. Flores 20-30, in capituhnn .aggngati. 
corolte tubo viridi-albescentes livido maculati, lobis lividis La tyx 
(Hmidiato-spathaceus, transparent, dentibus perparvis mdistineti- 
6-7 mm. longus. Corollte tubus 12-15 mm. longus, 4 mm. diametro : 

312 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

plicae conspicuse: lobi ovati, obtusi, 4 mm. longi, 2-2*5 mm. lati: 
plicarum lobi 1 mm. longi, acuti. Stamina corollae tubo aequilonga 
ad tubi mediam partem affixa. Ovarium stipite mellifluo incluso 
8-9 mm. longum, elongatnm : stylus 1 mm. longus. 

China australis. — In provincia Yunnan, in pratie liumidis 
regionis alpinaa montis Hee-gui-chao, alt. 9500 ped., Delavay, 
1241 : etiamque in provincia Szechuen, ad Tongolo, Sonlie, 675 ; et 
ad Tachienlu, Pratt, 463. Vidi et enim specimina culta ex Horto 
Botanico Regali Kewense. 

Typi in Herbario Kewensi conservati sunt, ilaxime cum 
Gentianam thibeticam, King, congruunt : sed floribus minoribus 
conspicuissime differunt. 


— 7 v • 

G. callistanthae, Gilq. 

Gentiana ami'LICRATER.— Planta omnino glabra, aana, floribus 
magms inclusis 5-6 cm. alta. Gollis non fibrosus. Folia rosulata 
ovata, 3-nervia, margine aequalia scariosa, apice obtusa, 2-3 cm. 
longa, 15-18 mm. lata, per paria infundibulum formantia, fere ad 
medium connata. Flores duo, subsessiles, alter vetustior, alter 
junior lilacim. Calyx tubulosus, quinque-dentatus, viridis : tubus 
- cm. longus, ad os 12 mm. diametro: dentes insequales, quadrato- 
ovati, scarioso-marginati, majores 10 mm. longi, 5-7 mm lati, 
minores 5 mm. longi 3 mm. lati, sinubus subquadratis. Corolh 


plicae magna;: lobi ovati-triangulares, 6-8 mm. longi, 6-8 mm. 
lati: plicarum lobuli ovati, 4 mm. longi. Stamina corollas tub.) 
breviora: filamenta ad partem dimidiam inferiorem affixa. Cap- 
stela stammibus sequilonga, angusta : stylus 3 mm. longus : stig- 
mata parva. * ° B 

Thibet.— Prope Lhasa ad fauces Pembu-la dictas, Walton, 


Hnvf^T?V n her ^ arils 1 Ho ^ Botanici Regalis Kewensis etiamque 
„3 B f am " Re g a1 ^ Calcuttensis conservati sunt. Gentiana 

ZtZ ad /^ P T ww ' Wal1 " maxime ^cedit, differt noribu 
fobis n-ff 8 \ calhstantham, Diels et Gilg, etiam accedit ; 

Inter Isomerias. 

tubuf ITtfi T NA ' C ' 1 n B - Ckrke ' Var " WOK-Flos major: 

tubus ad 22 mm. longus, 10 mm. diametro. 

THiBET.-sine loco designate, mercenarius 


Prain, 1653. 
Typi in 



Vol, II, No. 7.] Gentuvnaceannn Species Asiatics. 313 


JWer Chondrophyllas, ea; affifiitate G. pseudo-a<|imtica'. Kwntwu 

et G. humilis, Btev. 

Gentiana pseudo-humilis. — Planta nana, caaspitosa, eaolibus 
subdecumbentibus ad 8 cm. longis, omnino glabra, Folia radical]* 
ovato-orbiculata, mucronata, ad 4 mm. Longa margine cartilaginea : 
folia caulina obovata, recurva, margine scariosa, per paria 5-8 


Flores solitarii, pedicellati vel subsessiles, eoerulei. Oalycis Tubus 
decem-angulatus, ad angulas minopere cristatus, 5 nun. longus, 

2 mm. diametro, margine jequali ; dentes lanceolati, ncnti, dono 
minopere albo-cristati, albo-marginati, 2 mm. longi. Qorollm 
tubus 7 mm. longus: plicae magna^ ; lobi ovati, obtusi vel sub- 
acuti, 2-5 mm. longi: plicarum lobuli ovati dimidium loborum 
aaquantes. Stamina fauces attingentia : filamont.a supra corolla* 
tubi medium affixa. Ovarium stipitatum 3 mm. longum ; stipes 
vix 2 mm. longus : stigmata antheras attingentia. Capmla longe 
exserta, longe stipitata, fere lenticularis, 5 mm. longa. Gentiana 
intermedia, Burkill MS. in Herb. Kew. 

Alpes himalaicae occidental!:*, etiamque Siberia. — In regione 
himalaica Garbwal, ad Gothing, 13000 ped., Strackey et Winter- 
bottom, 15 : in regionis Kulu valle Piti ad Nako et ad Changar 
T. Thomson : in regionis Chumba districtu Lahul. Hay : intra 
Hues Kasbmiricas, in districtu cis-indusino Rnpshii, 15000-18000 
ped. alt, Stoliczha; et Kargil ad fauces Xamika. T. Thorn**; 
etiamque prope vicum Kargil boream versus, Stdiczka ; in valle flu- 
minis Indus prope Leb, ad Hemis, Heyde ; inter Leh et Lipshi, 
12000-14000 ped. alt,, Stoliczka; in valle transmdusmo Hunnnis 

Shayak prope Karsar, T. Thornton. In Af gh anwtawna, Griffith 
5823 K.D. In Siberia meridionals ad Irkutsk, Vlassoa-. 

G. pseudo-humilis G. humili babitu p-rsimilis ; differ foliifl 

Liter Chondrophyllas, ex affinitate G. purpuratw, Maxim., el 

Gt, recurvatae, 0. B. Vlarhe. 

Gentiana PAWTHAICA. - Planta omnino glabra, ad 10 cm. alta 
Caulis herbaceus, ramos solitarios 2-5 gerens: rami caules fere 
a>quantes, internodiis quam foliis longioribus. Folia ba^ liarosn- 
lata, ovata, ad 8 mm. longa, ad 5 mm. lata, acuta : folia caulina 
horizontal at apice paullo deflexa. deltoideo-ovata, acuta vel 
acuminata, suprema per paria vaginato-connata. ¥U * res conspicu < ■ 
pedicellati, iis Gentiana? rccurvata? majores, erecti vel nntantes. 
Cah/ris tubus 5 mm. longus, infundibulans, 3 mm. diametro, 
5-angularis: dentes e basi semicircular! 1 mm. longa conspicue 
acuminati, acumine 3 mm. longo. Corolla post anthesm crescens : 

tubus 8 mm. longus 

s fauce 4-5 mm. diametro : plicae magna : lobi 
ovati, 5 mm. longi,' obtusi : lobuli plicamm ovati, eleganter hm- 
briati. Stamina fauce pauUo excedentia : filamenta ad tub. 
mediam partem affixa. Ovarium stipitatum, 4 mm. longum ; stipes 

314 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

2-5 mm. longus : stylus 1 mm. longus. Cnpsula clavata, stipite 
5 mm. longo incluso 7 mm. longa, apice obtusissima. — Oentiuna 
recurvata, Forbes et Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., 

xxvi, 1890, p. 133. 

China australis. — In provincia Yunnan, in pratis acl collem 
Yen-tse-liay, JDelavay. 

Typi in herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis Kewensis Hortique 
Botanici Parisiensis conservati sunt. Species haec quam Oentiana 
recurvata robustior est et floribus major. 

Inter Cliondropliyllas ex affinifate G. pedicellate, Wall., 

etiamque aliquomodo G. apricse, Decne, 

Gkmiana Listeri. — Planta nana, omnino glabra, 4-6 cm. 
alta, erecta, savpe multicaulis, 3-1 2 -flora. Caulis minutissime 
asper, internodiis quam foliis saepe multo brevioribus. Folia 
raclicalia rosulata, late ovata, apice mucroimlata, 6-10 mm. 
longa, acl 7 mm. lata: folia caulina suberecta, per paria infundi- 
bulo-connata, ovata, cartilaginea, inferiora margine indurata. 
superiora margine albo-scariosa, apice mncronulata, hamata, 
internodiis eequalia vel longiora. F lores Pccerulei. Calycis tnbuB 
5 mm. longus: dentes 3-3*5 mm. longi, subulati, lineares, vix 
carinati, erecti. Gorollse tubus 8 mm. longus, tubulosus; plica 1 

conspicua? : lobi ovati, obtusi, 2*5-3 mm. longi; plicarum lobuli 

rotundati, fere integri. Stamina ad tubi medium aflixa : tilamenta 
lineari-subulata : anthera? fauces aequantes. Ovarium st i pita tun i ; 
stylus nullus. Capsula matura sublenticularis ad fauces corolla 4 
protrusa, fere 4 mm. longa, et 3 mm. lata. Semina elon ito 
tiigona, laevia, 5 mm. longa. 

Alpes htmalaicj: 0RIENTALE8. — In district!! I ) a r jeeling, in 
monte Tonglu, Lister, King; et ad oppidum Dai jeeling, 6000 

ped. alt., Anderson : intra fin. s sikkimen sis ad Yakla, 10000 ped. 
alt., 0. B. Clarke, 27831. 

Inter Chondrophyllas, w affinitate G. riparia, Kant. t\ Kinl 

Gextiana ALBICALTX.— Planta annua, nana, omnino glabra, 
10-11 mm. alta, multiflora. Folia orbieulato-spatliulata. conspicu- 


aibo - 5 mm. lato. FJores dens issime aggregati, purpureo-lividi. 
Calyx tubulosus, quinque-dentatus : tubus "scariosus, 2 mm. longus, 
1 mm. dmmetro: dentes orbiculares, albo-marginati, dorso albo- 

cristati, 1 mm. longi. Corollae tabus 3 mm. longus. 15 mm. 

diametro. infundibul if ormi e : plicae sat oonspicn® : limbuu ex- 
panses 7 mm. diametro: lobi ovati, f«re 2 nun. 

longi. 1-5 mm. lati : plicarum lobuli incequaliter bitidi, breviarimi. 

btam ma fauces aequantia : filamcnta ad supeiiorem pa item tubi 
afflxa Ovamm stipitahim ; stylus brevis, vix 1 mm. longus. 

Vol. II, No. 7 .] Qentianacearnm Spears Asiatic*. 315 


Thibet et Alpes himalaicae. — In valle rivuli JTiangkar et 

ad fauces Jhangkar-la dictas, WaUh; neenon in valle Chumbi 
8000-9000 ped. alt., Searlght. 

Floret mense Maio. Typi in HerbarioHorti Botanici Regalia 

Calcuttensis conservati sunt. 

Inter Chondrophyllas, ex affinitttte G. Haynaldi, Kamts 

{ G. Bockhillu, Hemsl. ), et G. micantis, 0. B. Chirk*'. 

Gentiana soeorcdla. — Flanta annua, caespitosa, anuiino glab- 
ra, caulibus plurimis requalibus erectis vel sul>em-tis. Folia 
radicalia rosulata, ovata, earinata, apice acuta, muoron&te, hasi 

obtusa, margine hyalina, 3-nervia, nervis extimis in margine 

delitescentibus : folia caulina densissima (intarnotlns te< tis), late 
subulata, per paria connata, in parte inferiori late Bcarioae inar- 



solitarii, in apicibus ramorum, P lilacini. Calyx tubulosus, qmii- 
que-dentatus : tubus 6 mm. longus, 25 mm. diametro, dentes rarmu 
quinqne-carinatus : dentes foliis caulinis similes, 6 mm longi, 
sinubus acutissimis. Corollm tubus 13-14 mm. longus 2-2*5 mm. 
diametro, infundibuliformis : plic® sat conspicn©: Iota 4 mm 
longi, anguste ovati, acuti ; plicarum lobuli loborum dinudio 

a3quales, bifidi. Stamina 11-13 mm. longa: fimmente ad tubi 

dimidiam partem affixa. Capmla elongata, stipite incluso 7 mm. 

Thibet— Nee locus nee collector indicati, 307 parfcim. 

Typus in herbario Horti Botanici Regalia Kewensis 

vatus est. 


Gextiaxa MiCANnw>BMis.-Pfon*a annua, caespi tosa, ommno 

glabra, mulibns plurimis imequalibus, suberectis vel *»«"*- 
bentibus. Folia radicalia rosulata, late ovata apice acuta , 1 amau, 
marine indurate hvalma, 4-6 mm. longa, 3-4 mm. lata, ..-nervia . 
folia caulina subulata, per paria breviter vaginato-eonnata. intei- 
nodiis paullo longiora, margine hyalina 4-5 mm longa. .Fhm 
solitarii in apicibus ramorum, ccerulei. Calyx "M°"MP^ 
dentatus: tubus 4-7 mm. longus, 2 mm. *«f*^V2JjS£ 
atus: dentes lanceolati, 3 mm. longi, acut.ssimi, md ™ *e 
carinati. Caroll* tubus 8-9 mm. longus. 2 mm. *££**% 

plica, sat conspicom : lobi 5, ovati, 2*5-3 mm. long lo mm. at , 
subclausi: plicarum lobuli bifidi, dentibus imrqua tam,^ • 
longi. Stamina fauces subaequantia: ^^^^T^SS^ 

partem affixa. Ovarium stipitatum. elongato-ovoideum oorolto 

fauces attingens. Capstda matura .-onspicue a *e ta *tq_> to 
10-12 mm. longo. Semina elongato-ovoidea, longitudmaliter 

striata, punctata nee reticulata, vox Vm*. J 011 -' 1 - - m ' ; t i 1 u>et- 
ALFE8 HIMALAIO* ORiENTALKS.-Utra fi ne s sikkime ^ -be 

anos in valle prope urbem Chumbi. W. 1*K 16, 60, m g- 
Phari dicta ejusdem vallis, 2>«»</b<x>, »86 partnn ; in colli *upra 

316 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

hospitium Tangu intra fines Sikkimenses ad 13200 ped. alt., Young- 

Species vernalis, maxime ad Gentianam micaidem, spectat. 

Typi in herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis Ke wen sis et Horti 
Botanici Regalis Calcuttensis conservati sunt. 

Inter Chondrophyllas, ex affinitate G. s<|uarrosae, Le<l<>b. 


Ge.vhaxa bryoides. — Planta annua, omnino glabra, caulibus 
1-6 subdecumbentibus. Folia radicalia rosulata, late oval a. a pice 
acuta subhamata, basi obtusa, carinata, margine indurata livalina, 
5-7 mm. longa, 3-4 mm. lata, 3-nervia : folia caulina anguste 

oblanceolata, per paria vaginato-connata, aliqnonmdo efflexa, aj)ice 

acutissima, internodiis breviora vel rarissime requilooga, 3-4 mm. 

longa, 1-1*5 mm. lata. Flares solitarii in apicibus ramorum, 
co3rulei. Calyx tubulosus, quinque-dentatu- : tubus 3 mm. 

longus, 15 mm. diametro, nee carinatus : dentes efflexi, ovati, 

acuti, subcarinati, 1 mm. longi. Corolla tubus 5-6 nun. l.mgus, 

2 mm. diametro: plicae sat conspicua? : lobi ovati, 2 nitu. longi, 

1*5 mm. lati, subclausi : plicarum lobuli vix dimidiam partem 

loborum aequantes, margine laciniati. Stamina vix fauces attiu- 

gentes: filamenta ad tubi dimidiam partem affiza. Ovarium 

ovoideum, stipitatum. Oaptula matura lenticularis, bngissime 

exserta, stipite 15-18 mm. longo. Semina ovoidea, angulata. 

Alpes himalaic^ orientale>. — Prope tines tbibetico-sikki- 

menses supra hospitium Tangu dictum, ad 14500 ped. alt, Young- 
husband, 1635. 

Inter Gentianam squamosum, Ledeb., et Gentianam pseud<>- 
aquaticam, Kusnezow, et Gentianam cra$9tdoidem, llur. et F ranch., 
mediam tenens. Typi in herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis 
Kewensis et Horti Botanici Regalis Calcuttensis conser\ ati sunt. 

Gentiana Yokcjsai —Planta erecto-patens, 2-14 cm. alta, stib- 
scabrida. Gaulis erectus, 0-4 ramos baeales germs, etiamque 

3-8 ramos solitaries caulinos iterum rami ros. Folia basalia 

rosulata, ovata, uninervia, in anthesin persistentia, subacuta, ad 

22 mm. longa, 8 mm. lata: folia caulina similia at minora, ad 12 
mm. longa, 6 mm. lata, acuta, mucronulata. patent ia. Floret 
solitarii, in apicibus ramorum pedicellati. ccrrulei vel albi. 
Galycis tubus 5 mm. longus, quinque-cristatus, 2-5 mm. diametro. 
cristas parvis: dentes lanceolati, cristati, acuti, 2*5-3 mm. longi, 
Lorollm tubus 8 mm. longus, 3 mm. diametro : plica? M.1 conspicu© j 
lobi late ovati. obtusiusculi, 2 mm. longi : plicarum lobuli ovati, 2 
mm . longi, dentibus perparvis 1-2 instruct i. Stamina corolla? 
tubum exeedentia: filamenta ad tubi mediam partem affixa. 
utanum stipitatum, 3-4 mm. longum : stipes 2 nun. tongas : stfliw 

i mm. longus. Capstda nunc inclusa nunc exserta. ..voidea vel 
ovoideo-lenticularis, ad 6 mm. long • semina elon ,1a. striata nee 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Gentianacearum Species Asiaticse. 317 


punctata.— G. squarrosa, Forbes et Hems ley in Journ. Linn. 80c. 
Bot. xxvi, 1890, p. 135, pro parte. 

China media. — In provincia Kwang-tung, sine loco indicate, 
Wenyon: in provincia Kiangsu ad oppidum Shanghai, Maingay, 
424: in provincia Kiangsi ad Kewkiang, Shearer: in provincia 
Hupeh, sine loco indicato, Henry, 7377; ad Iehang, Henry, 506; 
ad Chienshi, Wilson, 561 : in provincia Szechuen, sine loco indi- 
cato, Henry, 8858 ; ad Liu-hua-tsao, Chung-ching, Bourne; ad 
oppidum Tachienlu, Pratt, 388; in ripia fluminium Yang-tze- 
kiang et Min, Faber, 295. 

Var. japonica. — Folia basalia erectinscula, exacie lanceolata 
vel ovato-lanceolata, subacuminata, — Gentiana pedicellata, Yokusai, 

Somoku Onsets, iv, 64. 

Japonia et Corea. — In insula Japonica Nippon, boream ver- 
sus, Hoggs ; in districtu Idzu, ad Shuzenzi, ex herb. Sc. Coll. 
Imp. Univ., Tokio ; in districtu Kutsuke, ad Asamavania. liisset 1 
in districtu Musashi prope oppidum Yokohama, Dickin* : ad 
Achisihama, Bisset, 85o ; in montibus centralibus, Maries : regionis 
Coreae ad urbem Chemulpo, Carles ; et in parte occidentali regionis, 
Wykeham Ferry. 

Liter Chondrophyllas ex affinitate G. cra-sulonlis. Bureau et 

Franch., et G. myrioclada\ Franrh.. <>£ 

G. recurvatae, 0. B. Clarke. 

Gentiana Prainil — Plant a 


8 cm. alta, omnino glabra. Gaules dichotome pauciranr m 
purpurei, internodiis quam foliis multo longioribus. Folia 
basalia subrosulata, sessilia, elliptico-ovata 1-3-nervia, apice 
obtusa vel rotundata, ad 7 mm. longa, ad 4 mm. lata: folia 
caulina similia, distantia. apice obtusiuscula , basi paullulo connata. 
Flores albi, solitarii, ante et post anthesin nut antes. Calyx 
quinque-sepalus ; tubus 4 mm. longus, quinque-angulatus ; den 3 
deltoideo-acuminati, 1 mm. longi. Corollas tubus 6 mm. longus, 
fauce 2 mm. diametro ; lobi ovati, obtusiusculi, 3 mm. longi, 
nigro-maeulati : plicae sat conspicuae ; lobuli plicarum ina?qui- 
laterales, 1*5 mm longi. Stamina in tubi parte inferiore inserta, 
parte libera 2*5 mm. longa. Ovarium stipitatum. Capsula 
clavato-lentieularis, exserta, 4-5 mm. longa. Seviina elongata, 

Alpes himalaicjs orikntales.— In regionis Sik kirn pascuis 
Pangling dictis, Prainii mercenarius, 20, 121 ; ad Gnatong, Kiw i 
mercmarms ; sine loco indicato, Kinyii mercenarius, Prainii 
mercenarius, 306. 

Ex affinitate G. recurratse, C. B. Clarke ; praecipue difiert 
habitu. Typi ad Shibpur conservati sunt. 

318 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

Inter Chondrophyllas, ad Gentianam quadrifariain, 

Blume, spectat. 


Gentiana saginoides. — Herba annua, nana, caespitosa, omnino 
glabra, caulibus plurimis subsequalibus erectis vel asoendentibus, 
2-2'5 cm. alta. Folia radicalia rosulata, anguste ovata, carinata, 
margine hyalina indurata, apice subacuminata. basi obtusa, 
trinervia, nervis lateralibus sub apiceni evanescent ibus, 6-7 
mm. longa, 25 mm. lata: folia caulina lanceolata, carinata, 
margine hyalina indurata, apice acutissime acuminata, 3-4 mm. 
longa, 1 mm. lata, internodiis longiora. Flores solitarii, terminates, 
? coerulei. Calyx tubulosus quinquedentat u s ; tubus 4 mm. longus. 
vix 1 mm. diametro, sub-carinatus : dentes foliis caulinis similes, 
15 mm. longi, "5 mm. lati, sinubus subacutis. ( orollse tubus 4 mm 
longus, tubulosus: plicae sat conspiciup : lobi 2 nun. Ion i, ovati, 
acuminati; plicarum lobuli loborum diniidio eequilongi, in»- 
qualiter bifidi. Stamina fauces attingentia; filamenta ad tubi 
dimidiam partem affixa. Oapsula sublenticularis, 3 mm. longa, 
longe stipitata, faucibus exserta. 

Alpes HIMALAICAE 0CCIDENTALE8. — In district u Kamaon ad 

Soonderdhunga, 10000 ped alt., Andenm. 

Mense maio floret et fYuctificat. Habitu forma? alpine 
javanicse Gentian® quadrifariae a eel. Koodersio deecripta 
(Xaturkundig Tijdschrift van Ned, Indie ix.. 1906, p. 258) similis 

est. Typus in Herbario Horti Botanic i Regalia Calcuttensis eon- 

servatus est. 

, ad 

Inter species sectioni* Comastmnntis maxime G. tenelljv, 

Fries, affinis. 

Gfi OTUHA DOTHIBI. -Jferfca nan;,, erect a, siinpliciraulis. uni- 

flora vel biflora, omnino glabra, 2-4 cm, aha. Folia radicalia 2 vel 

4, spathulata, 2 mm. longa, vix 1 mm. lata, herbacee : folia CW- 
hna lanceolata, acuta, minntissime m..-ih, oculo ninlo einrvir " A 
4 mm. longa, ad 1-5 mm. lata, internodiis permnlto biw. . .- 

± lores ^ Milacmi. Calyx brevissime infundibnlaris, quadrisepalBS, 

mmutissime asper : infundibulum 1 mm. longnm, ( arii.atum: lobi 
lanceolato-ovati, exacte acuti. 3 mm. lon^ri, 1-5 mm. lati, 1 m 
versus angustati. Corollm tubus 4 mm. longus, tabnlifonnia, nee 
plicatus, faucibus glaber ; lobi 4, ovati, obtnsi 2 mm- long"- 

Mumna paullulo infra fauces insert a ; filamenta brevia, 1-W 
mm longa; anther© fauces attingentes. Ovarium elongate 




Alpes himalaic* occiiintales.— In regione 


alt., Dutkie, 461. 

infra monte Bandai punch 12000—13000 

SK^S^ftSTS-tf 1°™* G - tm * u * varie,;is est Typi 

icpur et > haranpur conservati sunt. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Gentianacearinn Species Asiafiav. 319 


Inter species sectionis Crossopetali, 

Gentiana detonsa, Rottb., var. ovato-i>ei.toii>i:a. — Folia pau- 
lina ovato-deltoidea. G. detonsa, Rottb.; Forbes et H enisle; 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xxvi, 1890, p. 1-7. pro parte. 

China media et borealis. — In provincia Bupeh occidental 
Wilson, 2551; prope oppidum Hsingshan, Henry, <>">:22A ; prope 

oppidum Paokang, Henry, 6522: in provincia Kmisu orientem 

versus, Fotanin. 

Typi in Herbario Horti Etegalis Botanici Kewensis ><r- 

vati sunt. 

Gentiana detonsa, Rottb., var. lutea. — Anvarietas, an specie 
distincta ? Foliis varietati Stracheyi, 0. B. Clarke. simili> ; pedi- 
cello breviori etiamque floribus luteis differt. 

China AUSTKALIS. — In provincia Yunnan, ad oppidum Yun- 

nanfu, Ducloux, 234. 

Typns in Herbario Horti Botanici Kewensis conseivatus est. 

Inter Ophelias, ex affinitate S. purpurascentis, W>dl, et prmdfUC 

S. pubescentis, F ranch. 

Swektia OIHCTA.— Herba 80-100 cm. alta. ramosa. ( u'is 
stramineus, fistulosus, indistincte quadri-lineolata. Folia Jan. »o- 
lata, petiolata, acuta, basin versus attenuate : lamina ad b cm. 
longa, ad 10- J 2 mm. lata, ad anthesin intima dela| i : petiolus 
ad 10 mm. longus. Flores nutantes, pedicellati. Oalyt t hir-ua 
tubus 2 mm. longus : lobi anguste ovati. 9 mm. longi. loroUM 
tubus perbrevis, 1 mm. longus: petals ovata, tenuissima, sepalJi 
paullo longiora, 8-9 mm. longa, 5-6 mm. lata, uni-foveo lata 
supra foveolam maculis tribus notata : foveola subrotunda. cal\ a. 

ad fauces corolla? posita. Stamina 6-7 mm. longa: filamei »e 
basibus latis cyatham formantibus lanceolato-acummata . Uva \ i urn 
breviter stipitatum, Stipite 1 mm. longo, elongato-ovoideum : 
stylus 1-5 mm. longus : stigmata brevia. Semina plurima bwert<a 
purpurascens, var., violaceo-cincta, Franchet in Bull. boc. tfot. 

France, xlvi, 1899, p. 34. 

China australis.-Iu provincia Yunnan ad oppidum Xunnan- 
fu, Ducloux, 318; ad Yuanchang, 7000 ped. alt., Henry, UZAO: 
ad pedes monti Maeulchan, Delavay, 4269. . . 

Typi in Herbariis Horti Botanici Parisiensis et Horti Botanici 

Regalis Kewensis conservati sunt. 

Inter Ophelias, maxime ad S. Chiratam, Ham., spectat. 

Swertia TONGLUENSis.-Hcrta habitu Swerti* Chairatae . pei- 
similis, ad 25 cm. alta vel forsan altior, omnmo glabra, hadix 
brevis, oblique terram penetrans. Gaulis singulus, erectus, in 
parte [superiori ramosus, rotundato-quadrangulans, anguste 

320 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906 

quadri-angulatus, alis per paria approximates . Folia infima in 
anthesin delapsa : folia media ovato-elliptiea, vix connata, sessilia, 
ad 5 cm. longa, ad 2 cm. lata, apice obtusa, intemodiis longiora,- 
5-7-nervia: folia superiora deltoideo-ovatn, quinque-nervia, in- 
temodiis breviora : folia suprema fere lanceolata, parva. Flares 
tetrameri in paniculam racemiformem ter et iterum ramosam 
dispositi, vix conspicui, pedicellis 5-10 mm. longis filiformibiis. 
Sepala oblanceolata, libera, ad 5 mm. longa, nee patentia. Corollw 
tubus 1-1*5 mm. longus : petala sepala paullulo excedentia, 
3-4 mm. longa, ovatu, subacute, bi-foveolata, ad medium lineolata: 
foveolse approximate, ovate, marginibus basali excepto membrana 
longe fimbriata cinctee. Stominum filamenta basin versus paullulo 
expansa, inter lobos corollas ad os tnbi annexa: antheree versa- 
tiles. Ovarium ovoideum, 3 mm. longum : stylus brevis : stigmata 
antheras attingentia. Capsnla matura plerumque nutans, dis- 
tincte ex calyci exserta, aliquomodo rostrata, ad 8 mm. longa, pur- 
pureo-nigra. Semina aurantiaca, subglob<-;i, testa minutis^ime 

Alpes HlMALAlCiE OR IE NT ALES. — In regione Sikkimen-i vel 
in district® Darjeeling sine loco indicate, K»rz, King; in district 
Darjeeling ad fines nepalenses in cacumine nmntis Tonglu ad 
10000 ped. alt., T. Thomson, C B. Clarke, Burkill ; in declivitate 
montis Tonglu versus orientem ad 9000 ped. alt., T. Thomson. 

Typi in Herbariis Hortorum Botanicorum Regalium adKew et 
ad Caleuttam conservati sunt. Floret tempore pluvio in mense 
Augusti vel Septembri. Flore et habitu Swertice Chiratse Ham., 
similis est: capsulis longioribus et caulibus alatifi differt. 

Inter Ophelias ex nffimtat* S. punieea*, Hems!., 

et S. longipedis F ranch. 

Swertfa HTHlTAKIHSig.— Planta erecta, ramosa, nmltitlora, ad 
J6 cm, alta, glabra. Gaulis Bubquadrangularis, straminens. Folia 

imeana, ad 25 mm. longa, 1-2 mm. lata, basi connate, subpetiolat:u 

apiee acuta, una minima ad anthesin decidua. Flores pallid 
lilacmi, sat conspicui, pedicellati pedicellis filifonnibns, Sepala 

qumque tiliformia, ad 7 mm. longa, patents. Petal a 8-9 mm. 
longa, lanceolato-ovata, acuta, bi-foveolat;. : foreola que |iie 
squama 3-4-dentata tecta. Stamina 3-4 mm. longa. Ovarium 
elongatum, staminibus paullo longins : stigmata in ovario sessilia. 

Chixa australis.— In pnmncia Yunnan ad oppidum Meng- 
tze m montibus herbosis ad 6000 ped. alt., Henri,, 9293 A, Hancock, 7. 

floret mense Novembri. Typi in Herbario Horti Botanici 
vegans Kewensis conservati sunt. 

Planta erecta, panci-ramosa, id 35 cm. 
la? ! I :• .7* M«adrai,-,il:nis. purpurascens. Folia Lancet 
lata subpetiolnt;,, ad 20 mm. longa. ad 6 mm. lata, tOtt*, uniner- 
™,",ad anthesin decidna. Flares ad 25, inter 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Gentian ace ar urn Species A <iaticse. 321 


Ophelias conspicua, pedicellati. Sepala quinque, lineari-lanceolata 
ad 6 mm. longa, 1-1*5 mm. lata. Petala lanceolata, acuta. <>-9- 

mm. longa, bifoveolata : foveohe fere ad potatorum ha set posit©, 

unguiculifo rmes, pilis 1-2*5 mm. longifl margin»t» pr -ipM ad 
marginem superiorem. Stamina 6 mm. longa. Ovarium <>voi- 
deum, staminibus ajquilongum : stigmata Bessilia. 

CHINA MEDIA — I n provincia Chekiang, HtcArtV*. 

Typus in herbai'io Horti Botanici Regal is Kewensis ooneer- 

vatus est . 

Inter Ophelias distinct issima. 

Swebtia HISP1MCALTX.— PUmta annua, hiapida prwripue in 

sepalis. Caules subquadranguhucs, 5-15 cm. alta, Bat folios*. 
Folia anguste ovata vel lanceolata, subamplexicaulia, sa?pe muv 
ginibus revoluta, 10 15 mm. longa, 2-4 mm. lata, ran ad 20 nun. 
longa et 8 mm. lata, uninervia, marginibus in angulas canto 
decurrentibus, apice acutissima. Fh.res in apieflras internodiorum 
ad 5 cm. longorum producti, pallide lilacini. Sepala libera, oval 
acuta, hispida, 4-7 mm. longa, 2-4 mm. lata. Corollse tul.u- 
perbrevis : lobi ovati, acuti, biglandulosi, 6-8 mm. loniri, 4-5 mm. 
lati, basin versus pili pauci gerentes. Stamina jequalia : filan.enta 
ad fauces inserta 5-6 mm. longa : ant h era- Versailles, evertee. 

Ovarium angustum : stylus longus : stigmata antl.eras paulIO 

superantia. . „, . ,, fiQ 

Thibet.— Sine loco indicato, meroenariu* Kinguinu*, «*♦/*? • 
1633 ; urbis Lhasa boream verus in fancibus Phemhu-la dictu 
Walton, 1608 ; et orientem versus in valle flumini< Ky.-clm. H all ,. 

Var. major.— Pkmta ad 18 cm. alta, glabrior. Flam ton 

albi. Ovarium ovoideum. 

Thibet.— Ad castrum Gyang-tse, Walton, 1609. 

Var. minima.— PUmta diffusa glabra, 4-6 cm. alta. St;^ 

ubnullus. -~ x , • 

Thibkt— Prope fines sikkimenses ad castrum Khaniba-jong 

dictum, Younghusband, 293. 

Inter Ophelias, ex affinitate S. angustifohV. Ham., 

et S. corynibosa*, Wight, 

Swektu WAG0ll>ES.-JHef*a robust a, erecta, plurrtora ut 
videtur ad 15 cm. alta, glabra. Oauh, 3-4 mm diametr* 
quadrangularis, viridis, angulis mmopere alatis. Foha ^ovate, • 
5 cm. longa. ad 25 mm. lata, basi libera sessiliu. api«- ob to*a vel 
acutiuscula. Flares in paniculam latam laxam dispos teste 
mercenario robri fut crederem lilacini), sat conspicui . pe he 11, t . 
pedicellis fere filiformibus. fifspofa quattuor, naviculan-lauceolata, 

322 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906 # 

ad 6 mm. longa, patentia. Petala 7-9 mm. louga, ovata, sub- 
acuta, unifoveolata, supra minutissime puberula ; foveola squama 
operculata, foveola? margine superiori densissime brevissime 
tentaculato etiam squama? margiue tentaculato. Stamina 3-4 mm. 
longa. Ovarium staminibus paullo longius : stigmata in ovario 
sessilia. 0<ip«ula matura 10 mm. longa : semina permulta, fere 
sphaerica, minutissime punctata. 

Burma orientalis — In montibus shanicis ad cast rum Fort 

Stedman, Abdul Huk, Kinaii mercenai ius . 

Typus in Herbario Horti Botanici Regalis Calcuttensis 
conservatus est. Floret mense Novembri. Maxime ad 8. 
anguitifoliam, varietatem pulche'lam accedit. 

SWEBTIA PAQPERA. — Hnba gracilis, erecta, nee ramosa, panci- 

flora, 10-15 cm. alta, glabra. Gauli* tenuis, subquadrangularis, 
stramineus. Folia ima anguste elliptica: alia Linearis ad 2 cm. 
longa, mteriiodiis dimidio breviora, 1 mm. lata, basi libera sessilia, 
apice acuta. Flares 4-12, laze eymosim dispoaiti, albidi, sat 
conspicm, pedicellati, pedicellis nliformibua. Sepala quattuor, 

naviculan-lanceolata, ad 4 mm. longa, patentia, Petala 7-8 mm. 
longa, ovata, subacuta, unifoveolata ■ foveola squama operculata, 

margine superiori et squama? margine iuconspicue minutie tenta- 
culatis. btamma 3-4 mm. Ion ga. Ovarium elongatum, Btaminibua 

sequilongum vel paullo longius : stigmata in ovario sessilia. 

Krp\r\ \ -n Aln4-»:~i.~ "\r_ i i 

Burma — In districtu Mandalay versus Maymyo in tern's 


Kinaii mercenartvs, 

Typus in Herbario Horti Botanici Regalia Calcuttensis 

conservatus est. Floret mense Novembri \dSwertiatn angusti- 
Joiiam. var, pu'cheUam accedit: distiuguitur jam prima scrutati- 

one hal)itu et folns. l 

Inter Pleurogynes distincta. 

nm^Tt * mKlM ™* w --Pla*ta snbewpitosa, ad 12 em. alta, 

omnino glabra, multiflora. Ban* sti minei. anicem versus sub- 

Folia anguste 

l<m,wOo + i ** ^. oc * pawn ioiioriun gerens. t'o'-ta anguste 
eS t ^ lmea, " ia ' BJCCO »»«giSbM rec.rvis. acuta. 

sessilia mternodiis aequalia vel paullo bngiora vol paullo breviora, 

uni™t *?' ad 5 mm - latil - at eni ™ Pleraqno 2-3 mm. lata, 
tene^I JTJ*^ coerulei inter Pteurogynee mediam 
Wat ^I ed r ellatl : P edicelli filiformes. CalyciT tubus 1 mm. 
10-12 mm i reS ' I mm - lon ^' acutissimi, uninervia. Corolla 

lobi ov«H ' Q 5 a J* f labastl '° et post anthesin anguste voluta : 


in Win r,ov,+ ^«"»/t«wi. stammibus a'qujloncruni : stigmam 

Suilonl P P/ SU P rema decurrentia Go f Lla matura petalis, 

A™T,n IT- 7 ''" 6 •f**'""* Burkill in Herb. Kew- 

*"»■■ HiMALAiCiE.-Regioins Sikkim in monta Kin.hinjhovv, 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Qentianacearum Species Asiatic;*'. 323 



ad Tangu in vsille fluminis Lachen, Hooker, Prain} ad Yeumtoi 


quem) in Sikkira superiore, Hooker; ad viculum Giagong, Prain 
ad Nyi prope Toku, Kingii mercenarius ; ad Joiigri 13500-15000 
ped. alt., T. ^wfZer.soM ; prope fines district us Darjeeling ad 

Phallut, Kurz. Regionis Bhutan ad viculum Kungniet, Dungboo, 
295. In region e Kunawar, Vicary. 

Inter Pleurogynes, ex affinitate S. brachyantherw, K nobhiurlt. ei 

S. Clarkei, Knoblauch. 
Swbrtia CH L MBICA,— PI ant a ad 10 cm. alta, omnino glabra, 

diffuse ramosa, ramis plerisque solitariis nee per paria producti e 
Gaules rigidi, tenuissimi. Folia obovata, petiolata vcl subsessiba. 

5-8 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, uninervia. Floret solitarii, ad apio 

i nternodiornm 2-5 cm. longorum producti. Calyx quinque-sectu>. 
3-3-5 mm. longus : sepala obovato-spathulata. CoroUm coeruleee 
tubus perbrevis, 1 mm. longus ; lobi lanceolato-ovati, 5 mm. lon.i, 
3 mm. lati, modo S. carinthiacae bicolores. Stamina ad basin 
potatorum affixa : filamenta 2 mm. longa: antherw versatile. 

Ovarium sessile, elongato-ovoideum, filamentis aequilongum : stig- 
mata ad ovarii mediam partem decurientia. Plewnogyne rhumb, >. 

Burkill in Herb. Kew. . 

AliPBS HLMALAiCJi ORIENTALES.— Ultra fines sikkimensi-t hi hr- 

tanos sine loco indicato, merceuarius Kinffiantu, 308 partim ; in 

valle urbis Chumbi ad Tali-loom, mercenarius Kiny W &»1. 
In regione Sikkim sine loco indicato, Gave, 2028, 4252 ; ad Hewla 
hangi, Prainii mercenarius, 200. In regione Nepal versufl tin 

sikkimenses ad paludem Moza pokhri prope fauces Kangia, 

Kinqii mercenarius. ,. _ D . 

'Floret mense August i. Typi in herba.hs Hortorun. Botani- 
coram Regaliiuu ad Kew et Calcuttam consei vati sunt. 

Inter Pleurogynes, ex affinitate S. carinthiacee, Griseh. 
SwERTlA LLOTDIOIDBS.— Planta ad 14 cm. alta, erecta, omnin- 

glabra. Caulis e radice singulus, parum ramosus, castaneus, mtens. 
Folia oblanceolata, sessilia 8-10 mm longa. 3 mm. lata, ™muarn*. 
Flares solitarii, ad apices internodiorum longorum producti. Valyx 
quinque-sepalus : sepala lineari-lanceolata, 5 mm. longa, ,i mm 
lata. CorSlx tubus perbrevis, 1 mm. longus: tobi 8-10 mm. 
lougi, modo S. carinthiaca bicolores. Stamina dimidio pet. - 
lorum Bquitonga. Ovarium staminibus multo longus. 8 mm 


sessile: stWiata fere ad basin decun-entia .Lav 

tnatnra petalis Bequilonga. Pkurogyne lloyduH&s, Burk.ll m He. b. 

G " Tin hkt.- Prope fines sikkimenses, ad castrum Khamb: ,-jong. 
Prain, 1637. 

324 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

Swertia carinthiaca, Griseb., var. AFGHANICA. — Plant a ad 

10 cm. alta, niulticaulis. Flores longissime pedicellati*. Swertia 
sp., Griffith, Posthumous papers, ii., 1848. p. 306, no. 1050. 

Afghanistan a. — Ad pedes montis Hajiguk, 11400 ped. alt., 
•Griffith, 1050. 

Tres varietates habet Pie rogi/ne carinthiaca : una typica 
europaea sic crescit ut folia omnia subradicalia sint, caulibus 
erectis : secunda, var., stelleriana, Griseb., plants diffusa est, et 
folia ejusdem partim subradicalia partim caulina sunt: tertia var. 
afyhanica, a varietati delleriana distinguiter pedicellis longis- 

simis. Varietas americana pusilla, A. Gray, nil nisi stdlerianse 

forma est. 


Swertia deltoidea.— Planta ad 25 cm. alta, erecta, omnino 
glabra. Gaulis subquadrangularis, purpureo-castaneus. foliorum 
pares 6-10 gerens et enim ramus fere tot qmot folia. Folia 
deltoideo-ovata, sessilia, basalia ad anthesin delapsa, media ad 
15 mm. longa ad 10 mm. lata, acuta, mucronulata, nervis 
3 ineonspicuis, internodiis 3-4-plo brevimu. Flores conspicui, 
numerosi, ad apices pedicellorum 1-1-5 cm. longormn positi. Sepala 
qumque, 8-10 mm. longa, lanceolata, acuta, fere apicem versus 

carmata. Corolla calyci duplo louirior: tubus perl)revis: lobi 
ovati, acuti, fere acuminati, modo S. carinthiacse bicolore>. FiU- 
menta 6-7 mm. longa. Ovarium antheras ©quans : stigmata ad 
ovarii mediam partem descendentia. Pleurogyne deltoidea, Bur- 
kill m Herb. Kew. ** 

China occidentals et Id n..olia.— In provincia Ohinense 

bzechuen, inter oppida Tacbienlu et Chentu, Hone ; et ad Tachi- 

enlu, targes, Mnssot In Mongolia prope Urga, Cam 


Inter Pleurogynes distinct a. 

Swertia «amosepau.-P/„>,/„ diffuse ramoea, ad 14 cm. alta, 
omnino glabra. Qaufo foliornm pares 4-6 gerens et ramofl tot 
quot lolia , purpureo-cnstanens: rami erecto-patentes. WoUa sa- 
pissime obovata, 12 mm. longa, 5 mm. lata, wasilia, apice 
obtusiusculavel mfima rotundata, uni-nervia, internodiis 3-8-plo 
brenora .Flore, longe pedicellati, sat conspicui. Oalyou tnbni 
^mm longus: lobi lanceolato-ovati vel ovati, obtusi vel apice 
lotnndati 3-4 mm. longi, nni-nervii nervis OOnspicnis. Petala 
cau « duplo longmra, ovata, acuta, bicolores : tubus perhrevis. 
Mamma 7-8 mm longa. Ovarium 4-7 mm. longum : sivlus 1-3 

ZL.W % V -^ ata T1 apicaIia ' nec decurrentia. Tien gyne 
gamosepala, Burkill in Herb. Kew 

Tach?^ 1 ^.? ^"?""^" 111 Provincia Szechuen, inter oppida 

m ^ 9 Tcha-to-Shan prope Tongolo, gjg 345. 

Botanic? PariS ^ ni8 H0rti B ° tanici Re ^ ali8 Kewensis et Horti 
notamci Pansiensis conservati sunt. Par videtur speciem hanc 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Genii n nacearum Specv - Asiaticm. .'{25 


Swertiam, sectionem Pleurogynen, nominare quod stigmatibn 
latcralibus exceptis cliarac teres generis habet. 

Inter Swertias distinct is* ima, et sectionem novam 

nomine Stapfianam ^roposui. 

Swertia. Stapfii. — Planta nana perennis, ad (! cm. alta, 
•omuino glabra. Rhizoma tenue, liorizontale, scariosum, radican- 
in eaulem floriferam (flore singulo) ascendentcin transcinis, et 

rhizoma novum ex axillo folii cujusquam inter inferiors gerena. 
Gavlis floriferus obcure quadranu'ularis, intern* >di is plerisque 
foliis subsequilongis. Folia 8-10, late spathulata, per paria vii 
vel brevissime vaginato-connata, ad 12 mm. longa et «'» mm. lata. 
Flares conspicui, ante antbesin nutantes, aperti 3 cm. diametro. 
Sepala 5, crassiuscula, inaequalia. lanceolata vel lanceolato-orata, 
apice rotundata, basi parum inter se conjuneta, 7-9 mm. longa. 
2-3 mm. lata. Gorollie tubus 1-2 mm. longus. Petala obovata. 
npice rotundata, 18-20 mm. longa, 8-9 mm. lata, 7-nervia. 
bifoveolata, foveolis sub-basalibus membrana parva pectinato- 

fimbriata pileatis. Stamina ad tubi marginem inter lobos 
inserta: filaraenta filiformia, 10-12 mm. longa : anther® versatile* 
3 mm. longa?. Ovarium elongatum, 12-15 mm. longum : stigmata 
apicalia vix decurrentia. Swertia n. »., Stapf MS. in Herb. Cal«-. 

Thibet australis. — Sine loco indicate, mercenaries Kinj&um 

332, 334. 


Inter Eu-swem'as disi icta. 

Swertia TouNOHUSBAKDn.— Planta erecta, unicAulis, 3-22 ran. 
alta, glabra. Oaulis stramineus. Folia plurima radicalia, 2-4 
caulina lanceolata, inferiora subsessilia vel petiolata, raulina 
sessilia, 1.5-3 cm. longa, 3-6 mm. lata, acuta. Flore* in apunlraa 

pedunculoram longorum producti. Sepal a lineari-lanceolaM. ncnt- 
issima, 10-14 mm. longa, 1.5-3 mm. lata. Corolla tabus lute* 
perbrevis, 1 5 mm. longis : lobi 15-18 mm. longi, anguste ovati, 
ad marginem exteriorem viridi-lutei, infra bi-glandulifen, longe 
fusco-barbati. Stamina ad corolla? tubi basin inserta : filament* 
8-10 mm longa: antheiw versatile?, lividae. Ovarium elongato- 

ovoideum, 5 mm. longum: stvlus nullus. 

Thibrt.— Ultra fines sikkimensi-thibetanos sine loco mdicat-. 

mtrcenarius Kingianus, 1632 ; ad castrum Khambajong. ad 150UO 
ped. alt., Prain 1622, Youughusband, 297. 

Inter Eu- swertias, ex affinitate Swertia? marginatae, Schrenk. 
Swertia Soplijei.— Planta erecta, ad 12 cm. alta, glabra. 

Mollis ob foliorum delapsorum basibus brunneus. Cauhs smgulus, 
stramineus. Folia quattuor basalia obovata, petiolata, recurva, 

326 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

longa, ad 1 cm. lata : petiolus ad 1 cm. longus • folia caulina duo, 
paria, elongato-ovata, acuta, sessilia, ad 2 cm. longa, ad 
8 mm. lata. F/ores, 5-7, pedicellata : braeteae imse foliis caulinis 
similes at paullo minores. Sepal a lanceolata, libera, acutissim;t. 
uni-nervia, ad I cm. longa. Petala lanceolata, 12-14 mm, longa, 
acutinscula, bi-foveolata : foveolse pilis 3 mm. longis cincta\ 
Stamina 6 mm. longa. Ovarium 4 mm. longum : stylus 1 mm. 
longus. S. margmata, Franchet in Bull. Soc. Bot. France xlvi, 

1899, p. 312. 

China occidentalis. — In provincia Szechuen ad oppiduni 

Tachien-Ju, Soiilie, 614. 

Typus in herbario Horti Botanici Parisiensis consei vatus est. 

Swertia SUBSPI I08A. — Phnita 12 ciii. alt a, glabra, erecta. 
Caulis singulua, apicem versus subquadningularis. Folia sub- 

radicalia quattuor, elliptico-ovata, longa per paria vaginato- 

connata, petiolata, basin versus angnstata, apice obtuse rotundata, 
7-nervia: lamina 4-5 cm. longa, L5-18 nun. lata: petiolus 2-4 

cm. longus. Folia canlina de int. Finns ad 10, aggregati. 
bracteeB mm magna*, deltoideo-ovatae, 1-nerviflB, 15 mm. longse, 

6 mm. late, acutiuscula) : pedicel!] ad 1 cm. lougi. Sepala angusre 
lanceolata, acuta. Petal" obovata. 15 mm. longa, 6 mm. lata, 

obtusa, bi-foveolata ; foveoke niarginateB pilis in margine superiori 

brevibus in marginibus aliis longiuscnli- : series pilomm etiam 

brevium supra filamentorum insertion'- videtur. Stamina ad 
petalorum bases inserta, 8 mm. longa, Ovarium ovoideum, 7 mm. 
longum : stigmata subsessilia. 

CmNA 0CCIDIHLALIS. — In provincia Szechuen inter oppida 
Batang et Tachien-lu, Hosie. 

Typi in herbio Horti Botanici Regain Cewensifi oonserrati 

^ mi t . 

Swebtia BPBCI08A, Wall., var. Lack i.— Planta erecta, nmlti 
flora, strictioi, habitu 8. punctate, Baumg., similis. Poi i caulin 

inferiora internodiis longiora, lam Jato-ovat;.. acuta. Ffores iifl 
8. speciosae typica- panllo minores. 

Alpes himalaj k occid fTALi .— In n gione Chamba ad f amces 

Sach dictos, 11000 necL alt., Lace, 1221 ; in redone Kashmir ad 



9000 ped. alt, Qatam L7336; in district™ Hazara valle Kliagb^i 


Postscript if ui. 

Xuper mihi repatriate ad valetudintm recuperandani circa 

(HutmmicKis pneeipue Gentianinas asiaticas investigare occasio 




] Oentianaeearum Species Asiatics. 327 

Parisiorum transivi, et permultas plantas Ghinenses aliasque 
inspexi. Postea in Indiam reditus collectiones amplas in hortia 
regalibus ad Shibpur, prope Calcuttam, et ad Saharanpar exami- 
uavi, et simulac collectionem Caroli A. Barber benigue oommiBsam 

ex India meridionali. 

Nunc ut mox dissertationem majorem de distributione geo^i-a- 
phica per terras asiaticas omnium Gentianinarum facilius 
proponere possim, discriptiones elaboratas novarum specierum 

praecedentes edidi. 

Restat ut illis amicis (D. Prain, W. B. Hemsley, J. F. Duthie. 
S. le M. Moore, E. G. Baker, A. Finet, A. T. Gage, C. A. Barber, 
H. Martin Leake) qui mihi in hoc opere auxilio fuerunt, gratias 
justas et maximas agam. 

" ■ 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Stverttam novum japonicam, etc. 329 


42. Swertiam novam japonicam ex affinitate Swertice tetrapterae, 
Maxim., descripserunt Spencer Le M. Moore et I. H. Burkill. 

Swertia Bisseti. Herba verisimiter annua, ultra- spithamea, 
glabra. Caulis erectus, rariramosus, paucifoliatus, obtuse quadri- 
angulatus : ramuli ascendentes. Folia sessilia, oblongo-lanceolata, 
obtusa, basi levissime cordata, ut videtur tri-uervia, crassiuscula, 
omnia speciminis unici solummodo obvii opposita, modice 1-2 cm. 
longa et 5-6 mm. lata, in sicco olivacea subtus pallidiora. Flores 
(? lutei) tetrameri, in corymbis brevibus sublaxis plurifloris 
ramulos coronantibus digesti, humectati circa 8 mm. diametro : 
pedicelli gracillimi, quam flores saepissime longiores, 5-10 mm. 
longi. Galycis lobi lanceolati, acuti, 4 mm. longi. Corollas tubus 
1 mm. longus : lobi oblanceolato-oblongi, obtusissimi, 6 mm. longi., 
medium paullulo infra uni-foveolati ; foveola glandulosa ovata, supra 
distincte marginata, infra evanescens, circa '75 mm. longa ! 
Filamenta omnino filiformia, apicem versus levissime attenuate, 
8 mm. longa: antherae ovato-oblonga?, 1*2 mm. longas, connectivo 
brevissime producto : loculi inter se paullulum inaequales. Ovarium 
oblanceolato-oblongum, 4 mm. longum : stylus nullus : stigmatis 
lobi lineares, 5 mm. longi. Capsula ignota. 

Japonia, in insula Yezo (V. E. Kinch ex J. Bisset ). Typus in 
Herbario Musei Britannici conservatus est. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Anthropological Supplement. 331 


43. Anthropological Supplement. 

1. An old Reference to the Bhotw*. 

Father Rodolfi Aquaviva, in a letter to the General of hi- 
Order, dated April 1582, states that he and his colleagues had dis- 
covered a new nation of Gentiles called Bottan, situated beyond 
Lahore and towards the river Indus. They were a nation very 
well inclined and given to good works. Moreover they were white 
men and there were no Mahommedans among them. It was fa 
be hoped therefore that if the Fathers of an apostolic fervour were 
sent among them, there would be a great harvest of Gentiles. The 
Italian of this letter is to be found in Bartoli, p. 48, ed. Piacenza, 
1819, and there is a translation by General Maclagan in his paper 
on Jesuit Missions, in our Journal for 1896, p. 55. General Mac- 
lagan apparently supposes that Bottan is the same as Pathan, and 
refers in a note to a description of a Cabul tribe by Father Mon- 
serrat in the Orienta Conquista. Apparently the passage he 
refers to is that which appears in the Bombay reprint of 1886 a- 
Conquista I, Division II , of the second volume Xo. 63 and p. 104. 
He also remarks that in the books of the period there seems to be 
some confusion between Pathans and Bhutanls. But Bottan can- 
not be Pathan, for the people were Hindus and not Mahomraedaii 
I submit, therefore, that the Bottanese of Aquaviva must be th. 
Bhotias of Almora and British Garhwal described in a recent 
Memoir of our Society by Mr. Sberring. It is true that the 
locality as described by Aquaviva does not agree, but he may have 
easily been mistaken on this point. Possibly too by M beyond 
Lahore " he meant further from Italy, **., to the north-east of 
Lahore, and by the Indus he may have meant one of its tribu- 
taries. If his Bottan is the same as Bhotia, his reference is inter- 
esting as perhaps the earliest European reference to the tribe. 
He may, however, simply have meant the Tibetans. 

H. Be ve ridge. 



2. Note on a Quatrain of 'Umar-l-Khayyam. 

The following quatrain is chanted by dervishes in Persia at 
the gates of great people as a warning against pride. A musician 
informs me that in accordance with the usual Oriental practice, 
the singer modifies the air reproduced below, by means ot an 
endless variety of " grace-notes," in a manner which it would be 
impossible to indicate on the written score without overloading 
the simple " motives M beyond recognition. 



Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906 



reads : 

l** • ——v 

W jjlfi j^j ; j, ... ^^fc IjU^o Ai^ili j.aj A u i|^ 

I saw a raven seated on the walls of Tfis, 

Before it lay the skull of Kaika'us; ' 

To the skull it kept saying, " Afsus ! AfsVs .' 

Where is Rustam, where Kaiqubad, where Kaika'us F " 

In Whinfield's 'Umar-i-Khayyam, this quatrain (No. 277) 

crV^ & M*i 

" I saw a bird perched on the walls of Tus, 
Before him lay the skull of Kai Kawus, 
And thus he made his moan, 'Alas, poor king ! 
Thy drums are hushed, thy 'kuums have rang truce. 

D. C. Phillott. 


3. A Persian Noniente Rhynu 

Persians delight in mimicry, and the following clever non- 
sense, impossible to translate satisfactorily, was composed by an 
Akhund, a friend of the present writer, in ridicule of the sermons 
oi certain learned divines. A Persian preacher, who has any claims 
to scholarship, first delivers a sentence in Arabic, and then translate 
it into Persian, mouthing the words and speaking with an exagger- 
ated accent : more attention is paid to rhyme and alliteration than 
to sense :— J 

i & M3 **> 


t»4** * 

u^r* (*!/ c^T cxja aiioi jjjj* 

y; o*-^ j^ j ^a o^ "uuji jjf,' 


r~' c;l> 

1 ^ i^^^ 


' 1 We failed to discover the meaning or allusion of Quli->n ran. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Anthropological Supph-m t. 333 


. Ujj. *•»! o** &*& lU. ;■> ; £b! Cm*! ^j* ij* *»"•« )* \ £»; 

cU C— \ 

**— c^' u » — 2 rtk ^te ^ y» i fc Ua CmJ **-* ' °^>> 

* Uy ^x *i c-»1 lAi iiUL ftMA. ^1 j L^U si d*«f 

D. C. Phillotj 


4. .4 Note on the Mercantile Sign Language of India. 

In the open-air markets of India, where idle spectators are by 
ancient custom entitled to increase the noise and confusion of bar- 
training, secrecy in dealing would be impossible were it not for some 
simple code of manual signs known to all Indian brokers and mei- 

, r , r™ • : i~ ~*a ^I'cfin^iVft and mistakes are naiil- 


ly possible. Suppose, for instance, it is a horse that is to be bar- 
gained for at a fair : the unit in this case would be a hundred 
rupees. The buyer and seller extend their right hands, over 
which one of them casts a concealing handkerchief or the end of 
his coat or pagri. The seller will, of course at first indicate an 
exhorbitant figure ; the buyer, one much lower than he intends to 
give If the difference between the two sums is very great, it is 


usually an hiuiu<*liuh m«« ^* v **w & m ^ flnc 

ft* Appose that the buyer wfche. t. ofl*£ gj. tag.-,. 

I™ ST;wr^so7ah;^a rupee. He next douh.e^,. 
the third toger to exprese half ta™^ rjpj- « J^* «. .1 
Rs. 250. 

KS. Z&W Tlie Value Oi til© am 6 ^« -~~ - , . rrrasm 

Rs. 10: he, therefore, to add ten % the 9 ^/J^Cger 
the forefinger and makes the price Rs. 260. The second nngei 

doubled ifp adds half, or Rs. 5, and makes ^?" t w™. 
The value of the fingers now drops from ten to one : he, therefore, 

asked T td%1?utTVa"e In active part ,^ S I 
champion the cause of the buyer-at least if the ^^~*^X 
" Ghar U dushman, enemy of your own house, they say to 

seller, " why don't you seU ? " m«*b«i • so when 

Mules are, in the Panjab, generally owned by K lia tr ^ , eownen 

it is a mule that is being bargained for, * pioc <*£W™ §T£ 

longed , and the excitement ™*™£%S^ 

seller is thumped violently OT * h ? ^a' Srcily brought back, 

rill he breaks away m a hnff. *\^ nSndhL hind and continu 

sulky and frowning, and made to ^tena 

the Negotiations. When the bargain „ .concMW he b » 

smiles. Apparently everybody has been acting j 


I ,*«,*, <W <m.a>. * flu/^ T. « stocking.." 

334 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

The code described above is known to horse-dealers through- 
out the Pan jab, and probably throughout India. 

Amongst jewellers, cloth merchants, and perhaps other trades, 
there are variations in the code. Amongst them also, a single 
finger signifies a unit of one, ten, a hundred, or a thousand rupees. 
If the unit be one rupee, the words " Yih rupiya hat " are said as 
the finger or fingers are grasped: if the unit be ten, u daha>i" l ; 
if a hundred, " sau " : if a thousand, u haz&r" Half a unit is 
expressed by extending a forefinger along the palm of the other 
person's hand : thus to indicate Rs. 15 the dealer would first 
express Rs. 10 by grasping one forefinger and exclaiming 
%i daha,i" and then would either extend his forefinger along the 
other's palm to indicate half or Rs. 5, or else grasp all five 
fingers of the others hand to express the same number. The 
lowest fraction is four annas, which is culled mBsha. To express 
Rs. 1-8 the dealer would grasp a forefinger saying, u Yih rupiya 
Iku" and then grasping the forefinger and second finger say, 
"Yih masha" Fractions of four annas each are also expressed by 
pressing between the forefinger and thumb the joints of the 
other bargainer's forefinger. Thus the first joint, when so 
pressed, indicates four annas, the second joint eight annas, and 
the base of the finger twelve annas. 

How far has this or a similar code spread f Is it known in 
Central Asia, or indeed anywhere beyond Indian limits ? It may 
be known in some of the parts of the Persian Gulf, but it is not 
known in the interior, neither to Arabs nor to Persians. Even the 
Arab horse-dealers who visit Bombay do not employ it. 

I). C. Phillott. 


Meaning and Origin of 

In my account of the religion of the people of the Patani 
States (Lower Siam) who call themselves indifferently " Malays' 
(Orana Halavu) or MnharmiiarluTia /n..~*,„ r-i~*\ t ™atla no at- 

tempt to explain a phrase 
ly gave its common use 

that 1 had heard among them, but mere- 
- ~ . - — and ostensible meaning in Malay, this 

meaning being the one attached to it by the peasants of the 
district. The phrase was Nuri Muhammad, which appears to 
signify " Muhammad's parrot " or " parrots," the word nuri 
or nori being a usual one and having given rise to the 
English " lory," though by no means confined to the section of the 
parrots so called by Europeans. (See Fasciculi Malayenses, Anthro- 
pology, II, p. 37.) As there is, properly speaking, no plural in Malay, 
arid as the possessive follows any other case without inflection 


torwavd Malay ; but the conception which the phrase expresses 

1 Vulgarly corrupted into dha,i (2/iJ 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Anthropological Supplement. 335 


in Patani is so alien to primitive Malay thought— and the Patani 
folk are among the most primitive of the Malays— thai ■ foreign 
origin would not be surprising To the Patani peasant liis N*ri 
Muhammad is very much what ■ his " conscience " is to an unedu- 
cated Christian, except perhaps that it is regarded from a slightly 
more concrete point of view. It is a being which was described 
to me as sitting in the heart of every Mussalman (one individual, 
that is to say, in the heart of each believer) and preventing him 
from becoming wicked, apparently by repeating the precepts of 

the Prophet as a parrot might do. It was farther identified with 

White Jinns " or " Muhammadan Jinns " {Jinn fxteh or 

Jinn Islam), which in British Malaya are generally regarded as 

independent spirits. But as most of man's dealings With 
his powerful inferiors the spirits are, according to the Malays, 
of a somewhat doubtful morality, implying theft, injury to enemies 
or at any rate to the souls of animals, unlawful excitation to 
love, and the like; and as the White .linns are incapable of sin, it 
follows that these particular spirits are of little account, seldom men- 
tioned and probably seldom remembered except in remorse. 1 he 
White Jinns are the only moral beings in the lesser mythology ot 
the Patani, Malays. Allah and the Angels (see Skeat, Malay Mag*, 
p. 98) are away in the heavens and trouble themselves little about 
mundane affairs, while man comes in contact at every tun 
with the minor ghosts, demons, imps and fairies win. h people 
the air, the earth and the waters and animate the whole ol nature 
dead (according to our ideas) or hying. Pa ,w c »> 

I have long suspected, therefore, that "Muhammad s Panote 
might be of the kin of Allah and the Angels, and I ■ "onld now * «K - 
gest that Nuri Muhammad, like so many phrases inMa ay is Persian 
or Arabic mispronounced and misunderstood; in short, that t 
is a corruption of the well-known theological expression A a*- - 

Muhammad. Hughes in his Dictionary o Mam expla dm . 
phrase (literally "the light of Muhammad'' as meaning the spint 
of Muhammad, which existed before the creation of the world. Wse- 
whBre (Notes m Mnhammadani0m)the same anther ««KJ2™ 

the -divine Word which was made flesh." ™ ££££**}£ 
me that though this is the correct theological »*2«g*"V£2 
expression, it is frequently misunderstood by ignorant Mn^nan* 
some of whom explain it as the physical light which ^*™™ m 
the countenance of the Prophet, Nnr, meaning light 11 1 « • 
literal or a metaphorical sense, occurs m Malay ,n V - 



i would certainly puzzle. 

N. Annandalf. 

Journ.Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 

Plate III 









S. C. Mondul litb 

Journ. Proc. Asiat. Soo. Bengal, 

Plate IV. 

t. C Mond 

Joura. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 

Plate V. 

S.C.Mondu] nth. 


Asiatic Researches, Vols. I— XX and Index, 1788—1839. 

Proceedings, 1865 — 1904 (now amalgamated with Journal) 

Memoirs, Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Journal, Vols. 1—73, 1832—1904. 

Journal and Proceedings [N. £.], Vol. 1, etc., 1905, etc. 

Centenary Review, 1784—1883. 

Bihliotheca Indica, 1848, etc. 

A complete list of publications sold by the Society can be 
obtained by application to the Honorary Secretary, 57, Park Street, 


(a) To be present and vote at all General Meetings, whicl 

are held on the first Wednesday in each month excep 
in September and October. 

(o) To propose and second candidates for Ordinary Member 


(c) To introduce visitors at he Ordinary General Meeting: 

and to the grounds and public rooms ot 
during the hour, they are open to member* 


rooms of the Society, and to examine its collections. 

(e) To take out book 

from t he 



and Memi * of the Societ; 

(g) To fill any office in the Society on being duly elected 



■ ■ « t 

eedings for July, 1906 

isites from the GJiarial (Gavialis ganyeticus, Geoflx. — By 
Dr. von Linstow, Geottingen. Translated by Path. 
Bruhl. Communicated by N. Anxandale (With I 
plate) ... ... ,,, ... ,, f 

x ome Freshwater Entomostra^a in the collection of th 
Indian Museum, Calcutta. — By Robert Gurney. Com- 


• tt 

collected in Persia. — By Lieut.-Col. D. C. 



t By N. Annan 

DALE, D.Sc., C.M.Z.S. 

« » • • • « *•• 

?s o» the freshwater Fauna of India. No. VI IT. — Some 
Himalayan Tadpoles.— By N. A \andale, D.Sc, 

* * 1 

• • I * • ■ • •• 

iculatum* Buna 


>f Elective Governmen 


"•* • • • •*» 

ianaceamm Species A.natie Vfsvm escrivsit I. H. 
ourkill, tequentes I 

*•• »•« ••• 


^onicam ex affinitate 8 Hm tetrapterae 

mrtmt Spincmb Li M. Moore <?/ I. H 

* • 

• •• ••• *** 

AnthropoLoyical *ppl mn t. 1. A* old Set nee to the 
lihot s.—By H. Beveridge. 2. Note on a I uitrain of 
Imar-i-K) m.—By Liedt.-Coloj.el D. C. Phillott. 

n n F £ man Nonsense Rhyme.— By Lieut.-Colonel 
U. t . Phillott. 4. A N on the M ran: ■ ign 

- f ' *S ln,h —Bybn t.-Colonel D. C Phillott. 

a.2A« M } and Origin of the Phrase "Nun 
» mmad" among the Malay* of the Patani StaU*.- 

By », Annan dale... 

• *>« • ♦ . • * • 








Preliminary note on the Chemical Examination of the Milk 

and Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo.— By E. R. Watson, 

M.A. {Cantab.), B.Sc. (Lond). f Officiating Professor of 
Chemistry, Engineering Colleg Sibpur ... ... 293 

I Parasite upon a Parasite— a Viscum apparently V. 

Quercus incana, Roxb.— By I. H. Burkill... ... 299 










Vol. II, No. 8. 

AUGUST, 1906. 



PE AND • M; 



Issued 15th September, 190*. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1906. 


President : 

His Honor Sir A. H. L. Eraser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.S.l. 

Vice-Presidents : 
The Hon ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Secretary : Lieut.-Col. D. C. Philiott, Sec- 

retary, Board of Examiners. 
Treasurer: J. A* Chapman, Esq. 

Additional Set 'to/ries : 

Philological Secretary : E. D. Ross, F Ph.D. 

Natural History 8 ■ -retary : I. H, Btirkill, ESs [., ML A, 
Anthropological Secretary: N. Annandale, Esq., D.bc. 

Medical Secretary: Major F. P. Waynard, I. M.S. 

Joint Philological S< retary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Sha ri, M.A. 
Numismatic Secretary: R. Barn, Esq.* I-O.S. 

Other Member* of Council : 


H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

Thorn n 

Ma' mahopadhyaya 3 is Cliand i Vuiy*nhu*anui, &.A. 

C. Little, Esq., M.A. 
Hari N'ath De, Esq., M A. 

J. A Cunning a, 1 B.A 

Major W. J. Buchanan, [.M.S 
J. Macfarlane, 1 q. 

AUGUST, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 1st Angnst, 1906, at 9-15 P.M. 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asdtosh Motehopawiyata, M.A., 

D.L., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : 

Dr. A. S. Allan, Dr. N. Annandale, Babu Sasi Bhnshan Host 
Mr. I. H. Burkill, Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Mr. L. L. Fermoi. Capt 
A. T. Gage, I.M.S., Babu Aniulya Charan Ghosh Vidyabhushan 
Mr. H. G. Graves, The Hon'ble Mr. K. G. Gupta. Dr. H. II. Mann, 
Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., Pandit Pandeya Umapati Datfa 
Sharma, Lieut.-Colonel D. C. Phillott, Pandit Yogesa Chandra 
Sastri-Sankhyaratna-Vedatirtha, Mr. G H. Tipper, Mahamaho- 
padhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushana, Mr. E. Vredcnburg, 
Rev. E. C. Woodley, Rev. A. W. Young. 

Visitors j— - Mr. H. Hughes, Mr. C. A. Paiva, Mr. W. D. K. 
Prentice, Mr. R. E. Whichello. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and oonfira I. 

Seventy-one presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced that Col. F. 1!. L01 

R.E., and Mr. S. 0. Hill have expressed a wish to withdraw bom 

the Society. 

The General Secretary also announced the death of Mi ■• M. U- 
Oung, and Mr. W. C Bonnerjee (ordinary member <nd M Ivie 
Abdul Hai (an Associate Member of the Society). 

Lieut. Arthur 0. Osburn, R.A.M.C MR .OS t^.P. 
(Loud.), proposed by Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phi lott seconded by 
Mr. H. 11. Hayden ; Mr. 0. Stanley Price, Victoria Boys hool, 
Kurseong, proposed by Mr. J. A. Chapman -ponded by Mr 
W. K. Bods ; Captain Q. B. Biddiek, R.A.M.C. P^P^^ 

Major L. Rogers, I. M.S., seconded by Captain .1 W . Kega w, 

I.M S. ; Dr. William W.Uougliby K ... //, M-A. (Gl, pw ■ . 
(Loud. , M.R.O.S., L,R.C.P,D.PHL 1<*^VW~?$ £$ 

L. Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Dr. I. 0. Garth ; In. ; ■ . U it* 

Chief" Medical Offic,r, Bengal %^J^ 
Lieut.-Col. G. F. A. Harris, I.M.S.. seconded by Mapi \, Bogei , 
I. M.S., were ballotted for as ordinary members. 

Dr. N. Annandale exhibited specimens of a b n-nacje - ( I Uu- 

mi maindrmi Grnvel) which is very comm mi on the -ills ot 
£££»& mouth of the Ganges. Specimens were t tod en 

liv Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906.] 

a considerable number of edible crabs (Seylla serrata) exposed for 
sale in Calcutta during July. It is probable that this barnacle is 
beneficial to its host, as the movements of its cirri must aid in 
the circulation of the water in the gill-cavity of the crabs and 
other Crustacea to which it attaches itself. Its presence certainly 
does not render the flesh of these Crustacea unfit for human con- 
sumption, as appears to have been thought by some persons in 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Bibliomancy, Divination, Superstitions , amongst the 
Persians. — By Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott. 

2. Gentiana Hugelii, Griseb., redescribed. — By Dr. Otto 
Stapf. Communicated by 1. H. Burkill. 

3. On Siuertia anguitifolia, Ham., and iU Allien— By I. H. 

4. Notes on Some Bare and Interesting Insect* added to the 
Indian Museum Collection during the year 1905-1906.—% C. A. 
Paiva. Communicated by Dr. N. Annandale. 

5. Hdgo and hi* Grand on <. (A leaf from tlie history of 
ancient Kamarupa.)— By Satyaranjan Ray. Communicated by 

the Philological Secretary. 







The following new books hare been added to the Library 
during July 1906 : 

Bengal District Gazetteer. Statistical Tables for Angul, Bala- 

sore, Bankura, Bhagalpur, Birbhum, Burd\ in, ' Calcutta. 
Champaran, Chota Nagpur Tributary, Cooch Bchar State, 
Cuttack, Darblianga, Darjeeling, Gaya. Ifazaribtgh, Hill 
Tippera State, Hoogbly, Howrah, Jessore, Kbulna, Man- 
bhum, Midnapore, Monghyr, Murshidabad, Muzaffarpur. 
Kadia, Orissa Tributary States, Palamau, Patna, Pun, 
Purnea, Ranchi, Saran, Shahabad, Sikkim State, Singhbhum, 
Sonthal Parganas, and 24-Parganas. Calcutta, 1905. 8°. 

Presd, by the Govt, of India, Home Depf. 

Bernard, Dr. Ch. Eene ziekte van de Cocospalm veroorzaakt 
door pestalozzia palmarum. [Batavia, 1906. J 8°. 

- Eene ziekte van Hevea, veroorzaakt door de Djamoer 

oepas. [Batavia, 1906 ] 8°. 

Pre-d. by the Botanic Institute of Bnitcnzorg 

Brailsford, H. N. Macedonia : its races and their future ..With 
photographs and. ..maps. London, [1906.] 8°. 

Breasted, James Henry. A History of Egypt from the earliest. 

times to tlie Persian Conquest,.. With... illustrations and ma] s 

London, 1906. 8°. 

Crawley, Ernest. The Tree of life : a studv of religion. 

London. 1905. 8°. 

The English Catalogue of Books. 1881-1900. 1902, etc. 

London, 1891, etc. 8°. 
Ganguli, G. D. The Art Industries of the United Provinces. 

[Allahabad, 1906.] 8°. 

rresd. by the Author : 

Hutchinson, Jonathan. On Leprosy and fish-eating, etc. 
London, 1906. 8°. 


The JagadM, a commentary on Anumana, Chintamani-Didhiti 
by Siromani. Edited by Bhattanatha Sw&my. 
Benares, 1906. 8°. 

Ohowkhamba Sanskrit Series No. 101. 

Jong, Dr. A. W. K. de. Extractie van Cocoblad. 

[Batavia, 1906.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzorg. 

Lippincott, J. B. A complete pronouncing Gazetteer or Geo- 
graphical Dictionary of the World... Edited by A. Heilprin 
and L. Heilprin. London, 1906. 8°. 

Mann, Harold H. The Ferment of the Tea leaf, and its relation 
to quality in tea. Parts I-III. Calcutta, 1901-1904. 8°. 

Indian Tea Association. 

-The Fermentation of Tea. Part I 

Calcutta, 1906. 8°. 

Indian Tea Association. 

—The " Mosquito -Blight " of Tea, etc. Parts I-III. 
Calcutta, 1902-1905. 8°. 

Indian Tea Association. 

Red Rust : a serious blight of the tea plant. 

Calcutta, 1901. 8°. 

Indian Tea Association. 

Tea Soils of Assam, and tea manuring. 

Calcutta, 1901. 8°. 

Indian Tea Association. 

Mann, Harold H., and Hunter, James. Sisal-Hemp culture in 
the Indian tea districts. Calcutta, 1904. 8°. 

Indian Tea Association. 

Mann, Harold H., and Hutchinson, C. M. Red Rust : a serious 
blight of the tea plant. Second edition. Calcutta, 1904. 8 . 

Indian Tea Association. 

PresJ. by the Author. 

Mitra Misra, Pandit. Viramitroday a..., Edited by Parvatiya 

Nity&nanda S'armA. Benares, 1906. 8°. 

Ohowkhamba Sanskrit Series, No. 103. 


Reinach, Solomon. Cnltes, Mythes efc religions. 2 vols 

Paris, 1905-1906. 8°. 

Royal Geographical Socket*— London. Supplementary Papers, 

Vol. i. etc. London, 1882, etc. 8°. 

StOW, George W. The Native Races of South Afri v.. ..With 
numerous illustrations.. ..Edited by G. M. Theal. 
London, 1905. 8°. 

Soevbt op India. Rainfall from 1868 to 1903, measured at the 

Trigonometrical Branch Office, Dehra-Dun. 
[Dehra-Dun, 1906.] Obi. 

Presd. by the Surveyor-G red of India. 

Thurston, Edgar. Ethnographic notes in Southern India. 

With... plates. Madras, 1906. 8°. 

Presd. by Qovt. of Madras. 

Voeltzkow, Dr. Alfred, Bericht iiber eine reise nach Ost- 
Afrika zur uutersucliung der bildang und des aufbaues der 
riffe und inseln des westlichen indischen ozeans. 

[Berlin, 1906.] 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

iy, Orafen Eugen. Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise. Bands 
L Herkunft der Magyarischen fischerei von Dr. J. Janko. 
II. Zoologische Ergebnisse...von Dr. G. Horrath. III-IV. 
Ai-chffiologische Studien auf Russischem Boden ron B. Posta. 

V. Sammlung ostjakischer volksdichtungen...von J. Papay. 

VI. Forscliungen im osten...von E. Zichy. 
Budapest, 1900-1905. 4°. 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Gentiana Hugelii, Qriseb., redescribed 



44. Gentiana Hugelii, Griseb., redescribed.— By Otto Staff, Ph.D. 

Communicated by I. H. BcJRKILL. 

Baron Karl von Hugel travelled in 

the North -Western 

Himalaya in 1835, journeying from Simla via Bilaspur, Juala- 
Mukhi, and Jama to Srinagar, thence returning to the plains via 
Mozufferabad and Hussein Abdal : he collected plants among other 
objects, and the collection which he made lies in the Hof-Museum 
at Vienna. Grisebach described and dedicated to him a species of 
Gentian which he had obtained in what he calls " High Tibet," 
probably meaning thereby the range to the south of the valley of 
Kashmir which he crossed by the Pir Panjal pass, 11,400 feet 
above the sea-level. But Grisebach did not describe the plant 
quite accurately ; and subsequent writers have been puzzled 
by what is stated, especially by the statement that the seeds 
are winged. The following is a re-description of the plant from 
the half-dozen preserved specimens, which were kindly lent to me 
at Kew for the purpose. The drawings have been made by 
Miss Smith of the Kew staff. 


. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 

Gentiana Hiigelii, Griseb. 

Annua 9-10 cm. alta, glaberrima Folia infitna (paria 2-4) 
rosulata, superiora internodiis 1 5—2 cm. longis separata, sessilia, 
elliptica vel elliptico-oblonga, obtusa, plerumque miuute apiculata. 
majora nd 2*5 cm. longa, ad 1*5 cm. lata, crassiuseula, margine 
cartilagineo. F I ores capitato-fasciculati, rarius in ramis accessoriis 
Tel caulibus depauperatis solitarii ; bractese exteriores capital* sub- 
rotund se, apiculate, foliossa, caeterae angnstiorea tenuiores, calycibus 
semper breviores Calyx subovoideo-oblongus ; tubus 1 cm. longus, 
tenuiter membranaceus ; lobi ovati vel ellipticoovati, acuti vel 
obtusi, ad 4 mm. longi, superne herbacei, oartilagineo-marginati, 
sinubus interjectis angustis. Corolla circiter 17 mm. longa; tubus 
obiongus, basin versus attenuatus, 14 mm, longis intus infra 
lobos fimbriates fimbriis 2 5-3 mm. longis ; lobi ovati obtusius^uli 
vel subacuti, 3-5 mm. longi, plicis interjectis in lobos ovatos 
laciniato dentatos 25 mm. longos prodnctis. Antherm lineares, 2*5 
lin. longa* ; filamenta 4-5 mm. longa. Ovarium obovoideu m, vertice 
2-cristatum, crista denticulata ; stylus nullus ; st i^mata linearia, 
superne dilatata, 2-5 mm longa, revoluta. Gap via obovoidea, 
clavata, 8 mm. longa, superne 4 mm lata, 2-cristata cristis mem- 

branaceis denticulatis ad 1*5 mm. bit is. S* mina : oblonga, 0*8 mm. 
longa, exalata, testa laevi. 

"Hoch Thibet" (Herb. Mus. Paint, Vindob). 

<A v n> 




Vol. II, No. 8.] Bibliomancy, etc., amongst the /V, una. 3> 


45. BibUomancy, Divination, Superstitions, among it the Per nans. 

By Lieut. Colonel D. C. Phillott, Secreta i to tl<> Bowl of 
Examiners) Calcutta* 

(a) Istikhara *jliiX*j ] signifies asking divine direction as to 

any course to be pursued about which the seeker i* doubtful, by 

opening the Qur'an and finding the answer on the right-hand page. 

The seeker first repeats the 8iiratu4-Fdti£ah or the "Opening 

chapter of the Quran," the SQratu~LIikl9f on the declaration of 

God's unity (chapter 112), and the 58th verse 2 of the SSratu-h 

An'am or " The Chapter of the Cattle " (6th chapter), three times, 

and then opens the Quran. Sometimes seven $alawBt are repeated 
in addition. Or else the seeker first 8% falawM ml-j'u isfarf, i.e M he 

says three times **^*> Jf J^ j *+*^> ^ ^U <*$* " Oh God. bl< S 

Muhammad, and the family of Muhammad. He then says one M- 
harad (i.e., the Fatih<< or opening chapter), and three (Jul huufi 'I ^ 

and lastly the Aya-yi Mafdtihu-l-Qhatb, which is the 58th verse 

of the sixth chapter, the "Chapter of the Cattle." Then saying 

Allaliumm* istakhir-ni* "Oh God, choose for me," the hook is 
opened at random by the forefinger of the right hand, and the top 
line of the right-hand page is selected. If no verse begins in this 
line, the seeker turns back and goes to the beginning of the verse 
Verses issuing commands or expressing piety, etc., are propitious. 

Another method is, after opening the book as above, to count 
the number of times the word Allah occurs on the ) ^e, and then 
to turn over (forward) the same number of paj - and a un count 

the same number of lines from the top; then if no ve e com- 
mences in that line to read forward and take the first verse that 

occurs after that line. . ,. . 

• The answer is of course often extremely vague. In addition 
to the above, the Persians, even the most meliaous. tremrally 
take an istikhara from the tatbih or "rosary. ' The Fdh^a is 
recited three times and any two beads are taken hold ot at 
random. As the first bead between these two points slips through 
the finger, the seeker savs Suhh«,i«-UalL " Glory to be bod. As 
the second is slipped, Al-hamd* Vlllah, " ?™* e be to God ; M the 

l km** lit. -asking favours." The istiMdra that tbe Prophet taught 

was a prayer asking for guidance. , f except 

The seeker for mi i*tik&ara goes to a mull*, who takes no fee except 

perhaps Mi offering of sweets of f J*. omen from tho firgt 
One form of bibliomancy in England i it j ^ 

word of the first person heard reading the Scriptures. * 5 

a Bible suspended by a key is still common. 

« Salat SjJU is properly any prayer, being the Arabic equivalent of 

nam? , by the Persia.., however, the word has generally a .peel ..gni- 

fication. tt _ *«■ —*- »» 

J Incorrect Arabie f-J^^ffiff *«*•. One way is merely 
4 There are several ways ot manm^ »« o — 

a game of w odds and evens." 

340 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 

the third is slipped, ft Wa Zfl, 1 = " don't do it," These expressions 
are repeated in this order till the last head is reached. According 
as the first, second, or third expression falls on the last bead, the 
reply is favourable, indifferent, or negative, i.e , khub, mi nana, yd, 


From laziness, the FStiha is in practice usually recited only 

once. This form of istikhara takes little time or trouble— for 

most Persians carry a rosary in their pockets as a kind of play-thing 

— and is resorted to on the most trivial as well as on the most 

serious occasions. 2 

(b) Tafdvd' 6 J$ l£> " auguring," is generally applied to seeking 
a fal or " omen " from Hdjiz. A volume of the DiwBn of the poet 
is held in the left hand and 'some such words as the following are 
Baid:— Yfl thwUja Hafiz-i Shirdzi! tu kashif-i har raz-l ; baray 
ma, biyd va yak fdl-i'mund^'h-i ha! biyanddzi,* M Oh Kjnyaja Hafiz 
of Slfiraz ! thou art the revealer of hidden things : come and give 

us a good omen " ; or Yd Kha-dja Hdjiz-i Shirdzi turd bi-$aqq-i Slakh-i 
Nabot qasam mi-diham ki hull-i ahvSl >d dar in kildb-i thud 
mu'ayyan kun, " Oli Khuaja Hafiz of Shiraz ! 1 adjure thee by 
gh5fcfa-i Nabat 6 to point out in fchia l>ook of thine all I have to 
do." The hook is then opened. The eyes are closed when doing 
so, and the volume is opened af hazard*; the i\r>i line of the right- 
hand page is taken, and the seeker then turns back to the beginning 



also read: this is called the Sh&kid-i ghazal-i avval "The con- 
firmer of the first ode," and if propitious, is acted on in preference 
to the first. 

The Persians also consult astronomers and geomancers 
before starting on a journey, closing a bargain, or even changing a 
sleeping-room in a house ; they believe, too, in lucky faces, fortunate 

numbers, and unlucky days. 

Geomaucy is supposed to have been discovered by Daniel. 

Geomancers, therefore, before casting snv, " Yd H<izr<it-f DSnyHL 

(c) The 13th of &afar, the second month in the Mudim 

calendar, and the 13th of the Nauru/, are specially ill-omened 

1 Wa hi, the first word 8 of the formula, Wa Id Zftffe* illa'lUh, 

2 'Shall I or shall I not take a purge?" out come the beads. Many 

a European doctor, anxious to perform a critical operation, lias fretted and 
fumed because day after day the heads declared the day to be unfavourable. 

3 Fal girt/tan, « to seek an omen"; tafd'ul zadan, "interpreting or acting 
on the omen." 

* There is no fixed formula. f 

& ShdkJi-i Nabdt, lit. "slip of sugar-candy " ; the name of the beloved ot 

yafiz : the word Bhakh gives the idea of something tall and willowy. 

8 By running the nail of the forefinger of the right hand through the 

top edges of the leaves, the book being held in the left hand by the back, 

front edges towards the sky. 

^ V Munajjim, ** astrologer," and 'ilm-i nuj«m t " astrology " ; f**<ty 

astronomer 11 ; and 'ilm-i hai'at, "astronomy." Rammal, " geomanccr J 
uw;* rami, " geomancy " ; and rami anda&tan f " to divine by geomancy I 

zich-i talv hashidnn, « to cast a horoscope." 1 fir is applied to any pro- 

tessional omen-taker. 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Bibliomancy, etc., amongst th Per r. 341 


days I ; the 5tli and 13th of every month less so. To avoid the 
evil that might overtake them were they to renin in indoors, all 
Persians, on the 13th of the Nanruz, leave their homes and -pond 
the day in the open air from-sun-up to Bun-down. Disaster follows 

a quarrel during these hours. On the last Wednesday of >Y ir 
boys and girls jump over a fire. 2 

Omens are also taken from birds, animals. 1 he number o 
times a person sneezes, the cros- in l^ of a threshold with the i jhl 

or left foot first, and many other ways. 

Persians have a firm belief in the evil eye, clmshm-i b<t<l <>r 
chaslim-zakhm? Anyone may be possessed of t lie evil eye without 
knowing it.* Some superstitious people even say, li MS shdfiA lldh " 
when admiring their own countenances in a mirror, thus v rding 
off the evil effects of their own admiring eyes. 

Blue wards off the evil eye, and for this reason valued animals 
are adorned with beads of this colour. Also the i&pand, wild rue 
seed, burnt in the fire has a like virtue. 

Pretty children are often purposely kept dirty and unkempt 
and are further guarded from malign influences by amulet>. t<rviz. b 

Carpets are generally woven by the tribes' people with ome 
small defect in the pattern, to avert the evil eye. 

Strange to say, a pig 6 in the stable will ward off the evil eye 

from the horses and mules. 

Certain cities, the houses of Mtdld$ f British Consulates, a 
stable, etc., all constitute sanctuary or bast. The writer once saw 
a soldier clinging to a big gun in the square of Kerman. declaring 
it was bast. However, in spite of his protestations he was forcibly 
removed by the Governors farra.<he<. 

The time of Nao Kiiz is a general holiday. People mab 
picnics for 13 days, and every ma er is supposed t o present his 

1 Manhus or bad. T 

2 The "Prophet, died in the month of Safar. It is supposed that the Last 
Day will fall on the last Wednesday of this month. 

5 The Shah has the right to see every woman in the kingdom unveiled, 
and the royal glance is fortunate. The mujtahids have the same right, being 

considered mahvam . _ , . . 

*/« mard bad-chashm ast, or ehashm-i *Mr (or %h*m) darad (m. c.) s 

" this man has the evil eye "j tw shaM? zahm-ath shfnn a*i (m. c) : this man 
alwavs prophesies unlucky things." , x » i- 

6 Bdzn-band, a charm made by writing a text, wrapping it in bulghar or 
scented leather, which is then bound on the child's arm. An amulet is > 

called tilism or "talisman." , . .. 

Dam-Tiki, more commonly sar-rdhl, is money expended in charity on the 

threshold by a departing traveller to insure a safe return. *«-»«„„ 

In India some Muslim women bind a coin on the arm of a deputing 
relative, to be expended in charity on his safely reaching the J;««J » ? ! ^; 

6 Tweedie mentions a wild boar being kept in the stables at%d(l 
Some say the breath of a V ^g is good for horses. In 'Arabian, p g s flesh 
said to be eaten under the name of fmrfand.i Farangi. Ham in Persia is 
sometimes called g**U4 bulbul, a name said to have been invented by a 

48,6 mS h MUl of Bampur in Persian Baluchistan, a -ry differ ent^ 00k tag 
race to the fine people near to the Dera Ghazi Man Frontier in India, eat 
wild pig and also foxes. 

342 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [August, 1906. 

servants with one month's pay. The chief of a Dervish sect will 
auction certain sights, such as the Governor's Palace, the British 
Consulate, etc., to his followers. The purchaser erects a tent and 
blows a horn and refuses to move on unless given a satisfactory 
sum over the sum he paid for the site. 

Persians attribute misfortunes to the revolution of the heavens, 
to the " evil eye " of time, to the world, etc. 1 

The influence of the heavens on the fortunes of man appears 
to be an ancient superstition dating back to a pre-Islamic period. 
It has been supposed that Persians attribute their ills to the 
heavens to avoid the appearance even of attributing misfortune to 
the Deity. This is not, I think, the case, for the Persians still 
believe that the revolution of the skies actually affects man's fate. 
Muslims who wish to avoid the appearance of ascribing ill to the 
Deity, attribute the occurrence to Fate, (Jazafi, Qadar or Taqdir. 
In the religious drama of Husain, the sky is accused of being the 
author of his misfortunes. 

The following poetical quotations exemplify this belief : 

Ay charkh-i falak kharcibl az kina-yi ttist. 0. K. 

"Ah ! wheel of heaven to tyranny inclined." 

( Whin. Trans. Bub. 25.) 

In charkh-i jafa-pisha-yi ' all bunyad 
Hargiz girih-i kar-i kas-i ra na-gushad 
% Harja hi dil-i did ki ddgh-i ddrad 

Ddgh-i dlgur-i bar sar-i an dagji nihdd. 0. K. 

11 The wheel on high, still busied with despite, 

Will ne'er unloose a wretch from his Bad plight ; 

But when it lights upon a smitten heart, 

Straightway essays another blow to smite." 

( Whin. Trans. Rub. 154.) 

Ay charkh chi karrfn am turfy rdsf tri-gQy, 

Paicada figanda-i mara dar tak u pUy ? 0. K. 

" Oh wheel of heaven, what have I done to you 
That vou should thus annoy me ? Tell me true. 

(Whin, Trans. Bub. 499.) 

Chun Idla tri'Nau-UitZ qadah glr bi-dast 

Ba Idla-rukh-l agar turd fur S> it hast 

Mai nush bi-khurrami ki in charkh-i knbud 

Ndgdh tura chu bad gardanad past. 0. K. 

Like tulips in the Bpting your caps lift up, 
And with a tulip-cheeked companion, sup 
With joy your wine, or e'er this azure wheel 

With SOinft linloi iVprl-fnr hi a at nncof. irnn 1* put 





r. Bub. 44.) 

I Falak, Dunya, Zamdn^ Dahr, Gardun, Charkh, Chashm-znkh'*-' 

mtlna, etc. 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Bulbophyllnm llurkilli. 34;i 


46* Bulbophyllum Burkilli, a hitherto undetcribed species from 

Burma. — By A. T. Gage. 

Amongst the plants collected by Mr. I. H. Burkill, Reporter 
on Economic Products to the Government of India, dining hi s 
tour in Burma in the early part of 1904, and presented by him 
to the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, was a small orchid found 
growing in an open forest of teak, bamboo and Strychnos, near 
the town of Mya-wadi in the Amherst district, between the 
Dawna hills and the Siamese frontier. Quite recently this orchid 
has flowered in the Calcutta Botanic Garden, and, as it has been 
found to be a hitherto unknown species, the following description 
of it is offered ; — 

Bulbophyllum Burkilli, Gage, sp. nov. — Typus et icon in 

herbario hoiti botanici regalis calcuttensis. Rhizoma tenue, circa 
1*5 mm. crassum ; radices filiformes, circa 1-3 mm. longse, pallide 
virides, glabrae, cgespitos^e. Pseudo-buJbi approximate ovoidei, 
circa 1 cm, longi, 9 mm. crassi, pallide virides, glabri, unifoliati. 
Folia subsessilia, elliptica yel elliptico-oblonga, apice acuta, basi 
obtusa, 3-4*3 cm. longa, circa 1 cm. lata, crassiuscula, glabra, 
integra. Pedicelli solitarii, uniflori, e basi ascendentes, 2-3 cm. 
longi, pallide-virides, rubro-punctati. Bracteolse 2-3, minutse, 
basilares. Sepala subsequalia, integra, triangularia, acuta, 
viridia, obscure 5-nervia, 1 cm. longa, 6 mm. lata, lateralia in 
columns? pede adnata. Petala minuta, 2-2*5 mm. longa, 5 mm. 
lata, oblonga, acuta, integra, alba, pnrpureo 3-nervia. 
Labellum sessile, trigonum, integrum, recurvatum, viride, 25 mm. 
longum, 1*8 mm. latum, basi incurviter bi-denticulatum, supra in 
medio depressum, infra canaliculum medium marginibus postice 
incurvatis exhibens. Columbia brevis, apice et antice bi-denticu- 
lata. Anthera oblonga ; pollinia 4, duo interiora minora. Coj. 
non visa. 

Burma Inferior. — In silvis prope oppidum Mya-wadi in 
pago Amherst et haud procul a finibus siamensibus, Burkill ! 

Adopting the divisions of the Eu-bulbophyllum section of 
the genus as given in the Flora of British India, this species would 
come into subsection A. " Flowers solitary " (F. B. I. v., 753), 
and the second division of that section. " Column with two long 
teeth or spines at the top " ( F. B. 1. v., 756). Under this. .five 
species are described, viz : — B. leopardinum, Lindl., B. Gnflithii, 
Reichb. f., B. Dayanum, Reichb. f., B. membranifoUum, Hook, f., 
B. moniliforme, Parish & Reichb. f. 

Of tjiese, the first two and the lust two have the lip stipitatc 
B. leopardinum and B. membranifolinm are remarkably like each 
other ; and it is difficult to get liold of distinguishing characters. 

344 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 

The following artificial key is an attempt to facilitate the recogni- 
tion of the species : 

Lip stipitate 

■ Leaves large, 7-20 cm. long 

Columnar spurs stout ... B. leopard inum. 

Columnar spurs long, 

falcate ... ... B. membranifoliiim. 

Leaves small, less than 7 cm. lon£ 

Pseudo-bulbs ovoid ; flow- 
ers 25 cm. in diam. ... B. Griffithii. 

Pseudo-bulbs pisiform ; 

flowers 8 mm. in diam. B. moniliforme. 

Lip sessile, trigonous 

Flowers ciliate ; petals 

red ... ... B. Dayanum. 

Flowers eciliate ; petals 

white ... ... II Burkilli. 

Of the Burmese species, />. Burkilli is nearest to B. Dayanum 
agreeing with it in the size of leaf, the absence of a scape, the 
sessile trigonous lip with incurved uncinate basal auricles and 
short columnar teeth. B. Burkilli is, however, a smaller plant 
than B. Dayanum, and has smaller flowers than the latter. Of 
the Siamese species so far described II. monanthos, Ridley, (Journ. 
Linn. Soc Bot. xxxii., p. 271) appears to be nearest to the species 

now described, from which it differs amongst other tilings in having 
a lanceolate flat lip, yellow with a purple spotted base. Although 

for Indian botanists who may confine themselves to the Flora ot 
British India the position assigned to B. Burkilli above has the 
advantage of convenience, it probably with more correctness 
should be placed in Ridley's Monanthaparva - section, which 

includes one-flowered Bidbophylla of small size. 

Vol. II, No. 8. J Notes on some Bare and Interest ina Insect* 345 

IN. 8.1 

47. Notes on Some Bare and Interesting Insects added to the Indian 

Museum Collection during the Year 1905-06 —By C. A. Paiva 
Entomological Assistant, Indian Museum. With a prefatory 

note by N. Annandale. 

^ So little is known regarding the distribution of the Insects of 
India that exact records of carefully identified and labelled speci- 
mens are still important. No apology, therefore, need be mad* 
for communicating the present paper to the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal. It is within my knowledge that all the identification- 
have been made with the greatest care and that the localities and 
dates attached to the specimens are authentic. I should like. 
however, to call the attention of the members of the Society to 
one aspect which the publication of such a paper bears. The 
records given are only those which add something new to what 
has been already published. With a few exceptions they depend 
on collections made hastily and at odd moments during the course 
of a month by two collectors who have a great deal of other work 
to do ; and these collections were not made in inaccessible part- 

of India, but in Calcutta and the Darjiling and Purneah districts. 
This paper may therefore be said to illustrate our ignorance of 
Indian Entomology. It contains no identifications of species 
hitherto unnamed, not because specimens of new species did not 
occur in the collections on which it is based, but because such 
specimens have been referred for determination and description, 
whenever possible, to specialists in Europe and America. I would 
enter a plea for the study of the distribution of the common 
Insects of India. The publication of those volumes of the 
" Fauna of India " series which have already appeared, bus made 
this study possible, as regards several interesting groups, for the 
naturalist who has no very great expert knowledge but is prepared 
to devote time and patience to the labelling and identification of 
his specimens. 

N. Annandale. 

The following notes contain records of some rare and interest- 
ing specimens lately added to the collection of the Indian 
Museum. The majority of them belong either to the Hymenoptera. 
or the Hemiptera. As regards the former group I have followed 
the nomenclature of Col. Bingham, and as regards the latter that 
of Mr. W. L. Distant, in the volumes of the M Fauna of British 


I am indebted to Dr. N. Annandale, Officiating Superin- 
tendent of the Indian Museum, who has read through the 
manuscript, for his numerous suggestions and corrections. 

346 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 



- - 


■ * 

Lepisma collaris, Fabricius, Entom. Syst. ii. (1793), p. 64: 
Lepisma collaris, Burmeister, Handb. d. Entom. v, 2 (1838), p. 457 : 
Lepisma niveofasciata, Templeton in Trans. Entom. Soc. v. 3 (1843), 
p. 302 : Lepisma collaris, Gervai*, Walk. Ms. Apt. v. 3 (1844), 

p. 453 : Lepisma cincta, Oudemans, Weber, Zoolog. Ergebnisse v. 1 

(1890), p. 80, t. 6, fig l:Acrotelsa collaris (Fabr.), K. Es-cherich, 
Bibliotheca Zoologica, xviii. (1905), p. 107, figs. 43a-fc, and pi. I. 

This large Fish Insect was obtained by Dr. N. Annandale in 
Calcutta. It may be quite common in houses among old books, 
etc., but very few specimens have been collected in Southern Asia 
In fact this is the first one recorded from India. It has a very 
wide distribution, having been recorded from the West Indies, La 
(xuayra, Curacao, Maracaibo, Dahoma,the Seychelles, Java, Ceylon 
and Madagascar. 


Periplaneta bioculata, De Sauss. MS. 

There is a specimen in the Indian Museum Collection, 
labelled by de Saussure as "P. bioculata, female larva," together 
with two others which were collected by Dr. N. Annandale at 
Chakradharpur, Chota Nagpur, under stones in March, and 
several from Java (Forbes). 

Some of these specimens are in all probability adult wingless 
females, as there can be seen in nearly every one at the sides of 
the mesonotum and metanotum, small pieces separated by distinct 
sutures, which are traces of rudimentary alar organs. The 
specimen sent to M. de Saussure was in a very bad condition and 
two of the spots were covered by the metanotum. 

As the species does not seem to be described in print, 
I append a diagnosis of it. 


Black, shining, wingless, elliptical, smooth, with six yellow- 
ish brown spots above. Head extending very slightly beyond 
the anterior margin of the pronotum ; black, narrowest between 
the antennae, and with two minute creamy spots near the 
inner margins of the antenna! cavities. 

Antennae black, becoming brownish towards apex, tiliform 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Notes on some Bare and Interesting Insects. 347 


and moderately pilose throughout their length ; about half the 
length of the body. Eyes small, black, with very minute grey 
spots, scarcely visible, being covered by the pronotum. Pronotum 
black, hood-shaped ; anterior margin slightly arched, lateral 
margins rounded, with a slight fold anteriorly, near the region of 
the eyes ; posterior margin nearly straight. Abdomen beneath 
black. Coxae smooth, fiat, black, with a few minute spines above 
and several larger ones below. Tibae very spinose, tarsi more or 
less setose, the last joint lighter in colour than the preceding 
joints, ending in a pair of simple claws. 

The six spots are arranged as follows, a pair on the disc of the 
mesonotum, a pair at the base of the abdomen, and a pair near the 
apex of the abdomen. 

The apex of the abdomen is furnished with a pair of 
44 torpedo*' shaped cerci, which are black, smooth on the inner 
surface, densely pilose outwardly. 

Total length, 17-20 mm. Maximum breadth of the pro- 
notum, 8*5 mm. 


Ohota Nagpur, Chakradharpur : (Anna?i<lale), Vizagapatam, 

and Java (Forbe<). 

A specimen from Vizagapatam, which has been named by de 
Saussure, is in every respect similar to those from Chakradharpur, 
except that the colour of the eyes is a little different and that 
they appear more conspicuous in the South Indian specimen. 
These differences cannot be of much importance, as in the Javan 
specimens the colour of the eyes is not constant, being nearly 
white in one specimen. The change may be due to preservation. 



Pompilus HECATE, Cam. 

Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Hymenoptera, i. 

p. 171. 

A specimen of this rare species was obtained by the Museum 
collector in Calcutta. It agrees with Col. Bingham's description 
in every respect and I have no doubt about its identity. 

The only other specimen hitherto recorded, is the one in 
Rothney's Indian collection. This specimen is not perfect, 

having, as Col. 


damaged." There are two others in the Dudgeon collection now 
in the Indian Museum. They are from the Kangra Valley. 

348 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 


Sphkx nivosus (Smith). 

Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Hymenoptera, i., 

p. 244. 

On examining the Hymenoptera which was received by the 
Indian Museum from the Seistan-Afghanistan Commission, 
I found a Sphegiid which looked interesting, being quite different 
to those which one is accustomed to see in the plains. On further 
examination and comparison, I identified it as Sphex nivosus. 
It is the only specimen now in the Indian Museum collection, and 
from Col. Bingham's note on it, there does not seem to be more 
than one specimen in the collection of the British Museum. The 
locality recorded by him is "Northern India," which is rather 
vague. Smith and Cameron give the same vague locality as 
Bingham. Rothney, during the many years he spent in the 
North- West Provinces (now the United Provinces), does not seem 
to have obtained even a single specimen. 

Ampulbx NOVARiE, Sauss. 

Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Hi/wnoptera, i., 

p. 256. 

Along with Pompilus hecate, Cam., the Museum collector 
obtained a single specimen of this specie- in Calcutta. There are 
two (a d and a 9 ) in the Dudgeon collection now in the Indian 
Museum, These are from the Kangra Valley, 4500 feet, and were 
taken in December, 1899. 

Colonel Bingham states that he had no specimens before him 
when compiling his monograph on the Indian Ilymenoptera for 
Blanford's » Fauna." 

The only localities hitherto recorded are Darjiling and 
Hongkong. Among the unidentified specimens of Ampnhx in the 
Indian Museum Collection, there is a series of specimens from 


Judging from the localities mentioned, this species appears to 
have a very wide range. 


Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Hym< -noptera, i- 

p. 320. 

A single specimen of this little Sphegiid was obtained by 
Messrs. Kichardson and O'Sullivan of the Indian Museum, durin 

a recent visit to Siliguti, N. Bengal 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Notes on some Rare and Interest my bisects. 349 


It is doubtless a rare species, and ray little is ;it present 
known about its distribution, Barrackpore, Dear Calcutta, having 

been the only locality recorded hitherto. 

EFMENIILE. - conic a (Fabr.), var. 

Binghum in Blanford's Fauna of British India, H>/me>ioptera. i 

p. 343. 

Two peculiar specimens (a 6* and a 9 ) of a Eumenid were 

recently obtained by the Museum collector in Calcutta. Tin 
agree with Col. Bingham's description of this specie* ae 
regards both size and form, but their coloration differs remarkably 
from that of the description, as well as from that of the specimen:- 

in the Indian Museum collection. 

In the female the head instead of being yellow is red. It I 
very nearly the same colour as the antennas. The posterior 
portion of the mesonotum is very much darker than the anterior, 
being very nearly brownish-black. 

The base of the petiole is black and it has also a snbapical 
well-defined black transverse band above. The transverse medial 
band on the second abdominal segment above is entire, not 

medially interrupted. 

The bases of segments 3-6 above are also black, but cannot 
be seen distinctly, owing to the overlapping of the anterior 
segments. The apical margins of segments 3-5 are very 

yellowish. , , 

In the male the head is the same colour as the female, w*., 
red. The posterior portion of the mesonotum is very much 
darker than the anterior, being nearly black. The second abdominal 
segment appears to have two transverse black bands above dut 
on closer examination the second band near the apical margin l is 
seen to be in reality the black transverse band on the » basal 
margin of the third segment seen through the W-twP^ 

dorsal plate of the second abdominal segment. J^H"**^ 
«*xi /-.._•_-! *- ■..«• of riiflir bases above, transverse 

at its 


fifth abdominal segments have at their bases above, tra 
blackish-brown bands. The sixth abdominal segmen has 

. j- n„ :_*^.,^TAfcr1 vfllowisn transfer* 

ans verse ba 

base, above, a medially interrupted 7*%*!" "77? anex verv 
followed by a dark brown transverse fascia, and ^ite »F»j£> 
narrowly reddish-yellow. The seventh abdominal segment above 
has at its base a transverse dirty yellow band with the smcal 

half brown enclosing a slightly reddish-yellow ipot. The ahd 

men beneath is much lighter in colour. 

350 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [August, 1906. 



Bingham, in Blanford's .Faima of British India, Hymenoptera, i., 

p. 397. 

Several specimens were obtained by Dr. N". Annandale at 
Kurseong, 5000 feet, E. Himalayas, where it is rather common, in 
May, along with a nest, which was found attached to a boulder 
on the side of a hill. 

There is a slight difference between these specimens and 

those described by Colonel Bingham. The post-seutellum, 

instead of having a square dark-red spot at each lateral angle is 

entirely red ; this difference being perhaps varietal. 

The nest resembles that of Polide* hebrseu* to a very 
marked degree. 

The following is a list of Hymenoptera obtained on or near 
the Perso-Baluch Frontier, by the collector attached to the 
Seistan Boundary Commission (1903-05) under Sir A. H 
McMahon. There are several other species which I have been 
unable to identify, some of which may be new. 

Sphegidse : 

Notogonia subtessellata (Smith), 

Sceliphron bilineatum ( Smith), 
Sphex nivosus ( Smith ) , 

Stizus rufescens (Smith), 

Bembex trepanda, Dalhb. 

Eumenidw: — 

Dumenes dimidiatipennis, Sauss. 

Vespidse : 

Polistes liebraeus (Fabr.), 
Vespa magnifica, Smith, ' 

» orientalis, Linn. 

Ayridse : 

Crocisa ramosa, Lepel, 
Anthophora quadrifasciata ( Tillers) 

Formicidm : 

Myrmecocystus setipes, Forel. 

Vol. IT, No. 8.] Notes on some Bare and Interesting Insects. 351 





Storthecoris nigriceps, Horv. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, i., 

p. 78. 

- ■ 

In the old Indian Museum collection there was only one 
very badly damaged specimen, which was from the Dhunsiri 
Valley and was obtained by Col. Godwin- Austen. It is 
labelled " Scotinophara tarsalis?" Its condition is too bad to 
allow of comparison with the specimen which is here noted and 
which was collected by me at Purneah, N. Bengal, in May last. 
A second specimen has been obtained by Dr. N. Annandale at 
light on the 16th July in Calcutta. The other Indian localities 
from which this species has been recorded are the Khasi Hills 
{Ghennell) ; and Sibsagar (Coll. Dist). It has also been reported 
from Java and Borneo, and may possibly be found to extend 
through Burma to the Malay Peninsula. 

In life it is so much like dry grass that it cannot be easily 
seen, and even when on the ground it escapes notice. Diligent 
search may prove a wider distribution of the species, 

Sciocoris indicus, Dall., and Sciocoris lewisi, Dist. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, i., 

p. 126. 

There were no specimens of the above two species in the 
Indian Museum collection, but I obtained several of the genus m 
the Purneah District in May last, and on comparison with the 
descriptions given by Distant, I have identified two as S.mdtCT 

and eight as S. lewisi. , 

H. indicus has rather a wide range in India, havi n g been 

recorded from North India (British Mus.), Malabar (toll. Uist, i, 
and Coonoor (Brit. Mus.). 

S. lewid seems to be -less widely distributed. The only 
localities mentioned by Distant being the Khasi Hills (GhenneU), 
and Ceylon (Lewi-,). 

- " 


Distant in Blanford's Fcvma of British India, Rhynchota, l t 


. 163. 

Among the many Insects I collected in the Purneah Pistil 
in May last, I was fortunate enough to get one specimen of tuts 

352 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906, 

species. It is the first that has been recorded from India proper, 
and is the only one now in the Indian Museum collection. The 
type specimen is in the British Museum and was collected by 
Mr. E. E. Green in Ceylon. There is no other locality on record. 
It is quite possible that the species may be found in any part of 

Megymendm severini, Berg. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, i., 

p. 287, 

A specimen was obtained at Kurseong by Dr. N, Annandale 
in May last. There were none in the Indian Museum Collection, 
although there were several of Af. inerme, M. brevtcorne, M. par- 
allelum, and M subpurpurescens. These five species are the only 
ones as yet recorded from India. 

Urolabida uniloba, Stal. 
Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, i., 

p. 306. 

New to the Indian Museum collection and obtained by 
Dr. N. Annandale at Kurseong in May. 


Stenocephalia lateralis, Sign. 

^Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, i., 

p. 406. 

Obtained by me in the Purneah District in May. It does 
not seem to be very common there. I obtained only one specimen. 
It has hitherto been recorded from Bombay and Madras (Coll. 
Dist), and Ceylon (Green). This species must also be rather 
widely distributed. 

Physomerus grossipes (Fabr.). 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, i. 

p. 383. 

May, at 

K" t? tt~ "-» wwvuiuou wy xjl\ u. annanaaiej in may, a^ 

ivurseong, h. Himalayas, and ten others by the Museum collector 

— i Hi -^r m 

firmi^'f ^ miandale ' 8 , S P eciraen a S rees exactly with Distant's 
£* ?! f u e , S rf C1 ? ; bu J t those from Calcutta differ from Distant's 
ceou, 1 n« fi t W o distinct longitudinal oblique pale ochra- 

ceous lines on ei ther side of the central longitudinal line on the 


] Notes on some Rare and Interesting Insects. 353 

pronotum, are very indistinct, so much so that in one or two 

specimens they are entirely obsolete. 

Distant, however, omits to mention the presence of these two 
outer lines in his description of the species, although they aw 
quite distinct in his figure. 

In the description Distant says that the posterior tibim are 
strongly incrassated. This appears to be a misprint. He must 
mean the posterior fe mora. 


Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, I, 

p. 385. 

Doubtless a very common and widely distributed species. 
There are several specimens in the Indian Museum collection from 
Sikkim, Margherita, Bangalore (Cameron), Sadeya, Mergm. 
Tenasserim, the Andaman Islands, and Japan (Pryer). The species 
has also been recorded by Distant from the Khasi Hills (Ghennell ) : 
Bombay (Leith) ; Ceylon (Parry; Brit. Mus.) ; Burma; Karenni 
{Fea). Also from many of the islands of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago. I obtained a specimen in Calcutta on June 28th in one 
of the verandahs of the Museum. 

Prostemmidea mimica, Reut. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii., 

p. 18. 

A few specimens of this little bug were obtained by me in 
the Purneah District. In life it is very much like a little Parasi- 
tic Hymenopteron, which I have also taken in Purneah. Ail tne 
specimens obtained were caught during the day, on the »Uing8OT 
a house in Katihar, Purneah District. These are the only speci- 
mens in the Indian Museum collection. The type was obtained 

at Bombay ( Wroughton). 

Peritrbchus .sruginosus , Rent. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii., 

p. 76. 

Obtained in the Purneah District in May. This is the fir, 
specimen from India proper. The only other one on recc *d wa* 
obtained by Fea at Palon. Mandalay. Burma Another ^ ' ^ 
was found sheltering itself in a cocoon oiAcUas »Un 1 h 
sent to the Indian Museum by Major A. Manners-Snath, from 

Katmandu, Nepal, in July. 


354 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 


Pyrrhopeplus pictus, Dist. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, ii., 

p. 116. 

Not previously represented in the Indian Museum collection. 
One specimen obtained at Kurseong in May by Dr. N. Annandale. 
Recorded hitherto from Sikkim(CWZ. Di<t.) ; Sylhet (Brit Mm.) ; 
Shillong, Naga Hills (Doherty) ; Burma, Karenni (Fea). 


Tribelocephala indica, Walk. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii., 

p. 220. 

The only species of the small genus Tribelocephala which is 

mown fri nnmtr* 1-n T-rxAl**. T «Li. _•_ _ i • • 1 1 t-» __T. 



gives the only definite locality in India proper, the specimen in 

Mu seum 

as its locality. It 

Pygolampis P(EDa, Stal. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of Brituh India, Bhynchota, ii., 

p. 223. 

r,r«r!?, n \T Cim Zt 0T ? Purneah (*«««) not recorded from India 
dlTl nf J he l0Calities mentioned by Distant are Pera- 

wonTr 7 ° n - (G ^l J Kar enni, Bhamo, Burma (Fea); Male- 
woon, lenasserim (Fea). 


Distant in Blanford's Fauna 

of 1 
p. 223. 


collect T? menS ^ fthi8bu ^ 1,avebee »« fl ded to the Museum 
(S? Allf^ Kurseon £ U»»««(fafo); and 2 from Pumeah 

m the Mu™' 86 S2 taken in Ma ^ There were no speci^ ens 
by DtantT'Vrth^^ and the °^ loCali * "^ 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Notes on some Bare and Interesting Insects. 355 


Reduvius transnomikalis, Dist. 

Bidant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii., 

p. 251. 


One specimen from Purneah (Pau-a). The only one now in 
the Indian Museum collection. The British Museum does not 
seem to possess any, as the only one mentioned by Distant is in 
the collection of the Vienna Museum. Its locality is riven as 
" North India. " 


Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii., 

p. 268. 

This species was described by Distant in 1904. There were no 
specimens of it in the Indian Museum collection. In the Atkin- 
son Collection of the British Museum there are specimens from 
Sikkim and Berhampur. 

I was able to obtain only one specimen in the Purneah 
District, although I saw several which sheltered themselves in 
crevices of old trees. These crevices were more or less closed up 
with mud which formed the nests of Ampidex compressa. Possibly 
the bug feeds on the young of this Sphegiid or on the food which 
is stored up by the adults for the young. I generally came n cross 
the bugs in couples. They are very active and difficult to catch. 


Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii., 

p. 295. 

A specimen of this species was obtained by Dr. N. Annandale 
in Calcutta at light on the evening of July 15th. It is the first 
that has been recorded from India proper. Distant mentions the 
following localities:- -Burma: Rangoon, Minhla (¥ea). Tenas- 
serim : Kawkareit (Fea). Siam (British Museum) ; several islands 
of the Malayan Archipelago ; Timor (Doherty). 

Dr. Annandale's specimen differs slightly from Distant s 
description ; the two linear fascia near the lateral margins of the 

corium being nearly obsolete. 

A feature which Distant has omitted in his description is the 
distinct patches of silvery pubescence on the meso and meta- 
sterna, near the region of the intermediate and posterior coxal 

356 journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 


Distant, in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii., 

p. 295. 

Of this apparently widely distributed species there was only 
one specimen in the Museum, until I obtained another at 
light in Calcutta, on the 18th July. The first was obtained by 
me in the Purneah District. The species has been recorded from 
North Bengal (Brit. Mus.) ; Sylhet (Stockholm Mw.) ; Bombay, 
Borghat (Dixon) ; Ceylon (Green); and the Persian Gulf (Brit. 
Mus. ) . 

Pirates flavipes (Walk.). 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii, 

p. 297. 

This species is also new to the Indian Museum collection. It 
was obtained in the Pnrneah District in May last. Little is 
known regarding its distribution. Mr. Distant mentions the 
following localities -.—"North India" (Brit. Mus.); Kangra Valley 
(Dudgeon); Bengal, Berhampur (Atkinwn). 

Pirates affinis (Serv.). 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, H, 

p. 299. 

This species has hitherto been recorded from Assam ; the 
Khasi Hills {Ghennell) ; Bombay (Leith) ; Burma: Rangoon, 
Temzo, Bhamo (Fea) ; also from the Malay Peninsula, Cochin 
Unna, Java and some other islands of the Mala van Archipelago, 
the only specimen which is now in the Indian Museum 
collection was obtained by me in the Purneah District in May. 

Sphedanolestes pubinotum, and S. Indicos, Reut. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, ii., 

pp. 339, 340. 

a i A ^ s P ecimen °* #• pubinotum was obtained by Dr. N. Annan- 
da e at Kurseong in May last. In April 1905, Colonel A. Alcock 
obtained a specimen of S. indicru at Sureil, Dftniling (5,000 feet). 
Ihey are both new to the Indian Museum collection. Sikkim, 

TWyvUt /o, iV * *«vvioin museum collection. w*^—*— j 

IfoZrl- { *$£*. 3ft **- > ; Assam ' Khasi Hills (Ohennell): 
Km ,,m, Karenm (Fea) are the localities mentioned by Distant for 

ScEMS^- indim < ha - s " india ° iientaiia (stockhohn 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Notes on some Bare and Interesting Insects. 357 

Probably there are no specimens of S. indicus in the British 
Museum Collection, as Mr. Distant states that he was able to 

examine and compare this species through the kindness of Dr. 

Epidaus atrispinus, Dist. 
Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, ii., 

p. 372. 

Previously recorded only from Mungpoo, Sikkim {Atkinson, 
Brit. Mus.). Two specimens were obtained by Dr. N. Annandale 
at Kurseong in May last. These are the only specimens in the 
Indian Museum collection. 



Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Rhynchota, ii. 

p. 463. 

Obtained by Dr. N. Annandale at Kurseong in May. Dr. 
Annandale states that in life it closely resembles, both a- 

regards form and colour and as regards movements, a species of 
Chrysomelid Beetle of the genus Nodostoma which was token 
with it. The only other locality on record is Mungpoo, Sikkim 
(Atkinson Goll., Brit, Mas.). 




'cors (Walk.), Green in S folia Ze 
Monogr. Gtdic. ii., p. 123: Mega 

fig. 28: Megarhinus gile ii (9), Theobald Monogr. Culic, 

i., p. 227, pi. ix., fig. 33. 

Several specimens of this large Mosquito were obtained by 
Mr. 0. L. Paiva in a garden in Calcutta. They were all found 
resting on the trunk of a large tree, on the afternoon of July loth. 
There was only one female among them, and apparently the 
females are more scarce than the males. There is also a male 
specimen in the Indian Museum collection from the Andaman 
Islands; it was obtained by Major A. R. S. Anderson in Juh 

or August, 1905. 




Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 

iridescent purple and blue tints, together with black and golden 
tufts at the apex of the abdomen. They vary very much in 
respect to size, and the males differ remarkably from the females 
in respect to coloration. 

Wherever these mosquitoes abound they will be found on the 
trunks of trees ; Dr. N. Annandale tells me that he found specimens 
in the Malay Peninsula in this position, while Mr. E. Green gives 
the same information as regards Ceylon. I have noticed that these 
Mosquitoes are rather common in Calcutta during July and August. 
They are reported to bite very viciously in Southern India, 
where the bite is considered poisonous. I am unable to state with 
certainty whether this is the case in Calcutta, but I have been 
told by a lad who accompanied Mr. 0. L. Paiva when the speci- 
mens referred to were captured, that he was bitten by one of them, 
and that the bite was painful. 

A short life history of this species will be found in Mr. 
Green's paper (op. tit.). The study of the larvee of this genus 
appears to be important, as they have been known to destroy the 
larvae of Culex. 

The localities from which this species has been recorded 

are :— Makessar in Celebes ; Weigiou ; Mysol and North Ceram ; 

Amboina; Ceylon; Travancore (James); Malay Peninsula; 

Nilghiri hills (Hampso?i); Upper Burma (Watson); Sikkim 
(Dudgeon). * 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Hdjo and his Grandsons. 



48. Hdjo and Ms Grandsons. {A leaf from the history of ancient 

Kamarupa).—By Satyaranjan Ray, M.A., Bangpur. Com- 
municated by the Philological Secretary. 

Several Bhuiyds or local rulers began to govern the country The rise of 
west of the river Brahmaputra after the extirpation of the Khen tl »e Koche 8 . 
dynasty by Hossein Shah. The Koches, who were by far the 
most powerful of them, played an important part during the split 
up of the Khen dominions. Hajo was their leader who came into 
marked prominence by subjugating the whole of the modern dis- 
tricts of Kangpur, Jalpaiguri, Goalpara and Gauhati. Ghora- 
ghat alone did not yield to their power. 

King Kajo had two daughters named Jira and Hira, both of Ha jo's grand- 
whom were married to a Mech chief called Hariya (or Haridas) 80n s- 
who lived in Mount Chikna. The sisters Jira and Hira had two 
sons each, — the former became the mother of Chandanand Madati, 
and the latter of Vishu Sinha and Sishu Sinha. 

But who was Hajo ? 

^y e Is Hajo an 

have already stated that he was a Koch chief and the maternal tP onJ ™ oul ! 

hero or the 

grandfather of Vishu and Sishu, the ancestors of the Cooch Behar ■ maternal 
and Baikunthapur Rajas respectively. Dr. Latham, in his grandfather 

Ethnology of 

an eponymous hero, repre- of Fishu and 

sentingthe Assam tribe of Hojai or Hajong. The Cooch Behar Siahu ? 

chronicles, however, do not make any mention of Hajo or Hariya, 
who evidently belonged to the impure tribe of Mech. The Assam 
Buranji, Dr. Buchanan Hamilton's MS. Accounts, and Captain 



Behar State as well as other works, tend to corroborate our opinion. 
Far from disbelieving the existence of Hajo, Captain Lewin clearly 
states that " Hajo himself, like many other popular persons, was 
afterwards deified, and is worshipped in several places in Assam. 
The great temple of Hajo on the north bank of the river 
Brahmaputra attracts yearly to its shrine thousands of wor- 
shippers from Bhutan and Thibet, and is also a place of pilgrimage 
of the Hindus." 

We find the following interesting account of the temple of 
Hajo in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal: "A 
large vaulted vestibule, measuring 40x20 feet, in front of 
the old temple of Hajo in Kamrdp, was built by Nar Narayan, 
Hajo's great-grandson, in 1550 a.d. He found the temple 
entirely deserted, and almost lost in impenetrable jungle. He not 
only repaired it, but endowed it with lands, priests, musicians, 
and dancing girls. The vaulted brick addition of Nar Narayan 
replaced a dismantled edifice of stone, which he had not the skill 
to restore. The temple is situated on a hill about 300 feet high 


1 Hwen Thsang, the celebrated Chinese traveller, calls it Kusha- 
Vih&ra. The modern word 'Coooh' is evidently a forced contraction of 
' Koch.' 

360 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal [August, 1906. 

whence, probably, it takes its name, as haju means ' hill ' in the 
Bodo and cognate languages. From the fragments of the old 
vestibule a rude flight of steps has been constructed, from the 
tank below to the ancient fane on the hill, in which the object 
of worship is, in fact, an image of Buddha." l 
Was Vishu So far about Hajo. But there is a gordian knot yet untied. 



? e .i7 0U !& r uterine brothers? Dr. Buchanan Hamilton says: " Whether 

shu ? Were ^^ was married or not is not known ; but she had a son named 
they uterine Sisu, while her sister (Hira, who was married to a certain Hariya) 
brothers ? had a son named Visu. Sisu is regarded as the ancestor of several 

younger branches of the family, who still possess zaminddris in 
British districts." The descendants of Sishu Sinha, however, 
declare that Sishu was the brother, and not the cousin, of Vishu. 
Besides, in no other account has the uterine relationship been 
questioned. It was but natural for the learned doctor to run into 
some errors, considering his race, religion, want of sufficient 
authentic materials and the wide difference in manners and 
: customs of the people whose history he was collecting. As 

regards the main point, I offer the following arguments for con- 
sidering Sishu Sinha as the younger of the two. There is no 
doubt that the kingdom to which Vishu succeeded was by far the 
largest, and that it was the only kingdom which Chandan left 
to his successor. If Sishu was the elder brother, how could the 
younger Vishu supersede his elder brother's claim ? Sishu was, 
undoubtedly, famous for his undaunted prowess and military 
skill. How then could Ids right have been set aside ? How 
could it be that the elder brother was dubbed a Raikut a by the 
younger ? How was it that the former held the royal umbrella 
over the latter's head at his coronation? The idea is quite 
repugnant from common sense and wholly irreconcilable. All the 
inconsistencies and incoherence of facts will be removed and a 
fair solution arrived at if we regard Sishu as the younger brother. 
In fact there are three traditions about this : viz., (1) That Hira 
had two sons, of whom Sishu was the elder. (2) That Vishu was 
the son of Hira (wife of Hariya), and Sishu, the son of Jira (her 
marriage being unknown). (3) That of the two sons of Hira, 
Vishu was the elder and Sishu the younger. Does not the last 
tradition cut the gordian knot ? 
Traditions It is said that Hira was eight years old when she was 

abont Hirf. married to Hariya. She was much fond of worshipping the 

supreme Godhead Mahadeva, and people invented a fiction that 
AJaliadeva used to visit her in the form of a Yogi as she was no 
other than the incarnation of the goddess Bhagavati, his divine 
consort, bhe is said to have been conceived by this divinity in 

logy y*^!™£.£** A ' S - B - 186B ' P- 9 ' Vid « a, *° D""»n'. Ethn °- 
tion M A to r X^mi W - i0 ? intor Pretations of thia word and oor angles- 


] Hctjo and his Grandsons. 36 1 

her fourteenth year and gave birth to two sons, Vishu Sinlia and 
Sishu Sinha mentioned above. 1 

., ••!!• i i " • -~ n * ■ £ xi_ Tii n tram and 

the curiosity oi our readers by giving a running summary oi the jpyufai p U rd- 

whole account as embodied in the aforesaid works. The myth mmt 

m a nutshell is this: Once upon a time the goddess Bhagavati 

asked Mahadeva, after bowing her head to him in due reverence, 

" O God of gods, I long to hear the origin of Hira Kochni and the 

Koches generally ; so, be gracious enough, Lord, to describe 

their full history and thereby satisfy my curiosity.'' Whereupon, 

Mahadeva, desirous of pleasing his divine spouse, began to tell 

her as follows : "O my dear Parvati, in Satya Yuga {i.e., the 

golden age), Parasurama, the son of Jamadagni, defeated the Koch 

kings seven times in fight. Virya, the redoubtable Koch Chief, 

and his discendants, were put to death by Parasurama. Many 

people of the Koch kingdom fled for their lives and began to settle 

at Kdrnapitha . They became narrow-minded and prone to low 

desires by a prolonged stay at that place. They called themselves 

' Sanhocha ' whenever inquired about their caste. From this 

word 'Sanhocha' originated the word 'Koch.' 2 These Koches, 

therefore, are not low born. Their ancestors were Ksha&riyas. 

Hira Kochni was in her purva-janma * a yogini named Madhavi. 

She was born of Koch parents through the curse of a Brahmin. 

Hira tried to secure me for her husband in her purva-jan,>« by 

propitiating me by hard asceticism and constant prayer. While 

she was thus rapt in her devotion, there came a Brahmin at her 

door who repeatedly begged unnoticed. Thereupon, the wrath 

of the Brahmin was kindled. He left the house in disgust, 

cursing her to be born of a Koch. Hira, now roused to her senses, 

fervently implored the Brahmin to have mercy upon her His 

wrath was m 
these words 

pacified by entreaty and he departed blessing her in 
-™ ,_Js, 'Thy desire shall be fulfilled.' Thus, my love, had 
Madhavi sprung from a Koch family through the curse ot a 

Brahmin." ,, 

It is hard to refrain from laughing as we come across the 

1 According to the author of the Rvjopakhyana and subsoc t uent his- 
torians, Vishu (or Viswa, Sinha was born on .the 10th Cha .tra 90 7 b.e , 
corresponding with a.d. J502. But the date of b.rth of S.shu s not »ell 
known If we are required to ascertain it, we can confide ntlj sa> that 
Sishu was not born earlier than 909 bx, *.*., a.d > 1504. But h s „ 

approximate conjecture. The dates given m the RaxM-lanm ami 

accounts are erroneous. 

2 " Parasurama bhaydt hshatrx 
Sawkochdt Koch a Uchyatey 


Yogini Tantrum 

» there is an endless series of heated ^^g^^& 
Srva-ianmo signifies a previous life existmg before the present eartniy 

Purva-janma signifies a previous 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August,. 1906. 

* - 

Chan dan and 

Vishu and 

queer legendary ratiocinations in connection with Hira and her 
sons. After the spread of the Tantrik system of worship, the 
celestial origin of the Koches was discovered and they were even 
said to be descended from K<hartiyas. Some slokas were invented 
as coming directly from the mouth of the god Siva, which gave a 
far-fetched construction to the meaning of the word " Kocha." 
But the real truth has remained unaltered. It is known that 
Vishu, the son of Hira, the first of the Koch Behar Rajas, was in 
fact, converted to Hinduism. 

The four sons of Hariya, Chandan, Madan, Vishu and Sishu, 
collected an army and defeated and killed the ruler of Chikna 
with his followers. Madan was killed in this conflict and Chandan 
was proclaimed king. Then the three brothers, who survived 
Madan, married the three daughters of the slain chief. The Raja 
Saka of the Cooch Behar family dates from his ascension to the 
throne, which took plaoe in the year 917 of the Beng